Skip to main content

Full text of "Juvenile delinquency (Philadelphia, Pa.) Hearings before the Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-third Congress, second session, pursuant to S. Res. 89, investigation of juvenile delinquency in the United States. April 14 and 15, 1954"

See other formats


> c e» / o , 



s-^/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



Jv 


E 


H"5 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

(PHILADELPHIA, PA.) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE JUVENILE 
DELINQUENCY 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

S. Res. 89 

INVESTIGATION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IX THE 
UNITED STATES 



APRIL 14 AND 15, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
469C6 WASHINGTON : 1954 



HMVAND COLLtQL ueK^.<i 

OfPOStTEt BY THC 
UNITEO STATES QOVEiWN»€Wi 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota, Chairman 



ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

ROBERT C. HENDRICKSON. New Jersey 

EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



PAT McCARRAN, Nevada 
HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi 
ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 
CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 
THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri 
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas 



Subcommittee To Investigate Juvenile Delinquency in the United States 

ROBERT C. HENDRICKSON, New Jersey, Chairman 
WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JB., Missouri 
Herbert J. Hannoch, Chief Counsel 






CONTENTS 



Statement of— Page 

Clark, Hon. Joseph, Jr., mayor of Phila,delphia 145 

Markey, Sydney B., director, Philadelphia District Health and Wel- 
fare Comicil, Philadelphia, Pa 154 

Testimony of — 

Aless^ndroni, Walter E., executive director, Philadelphia Housing 

Authority 133 

Aman, Ca.rl, executive secretary, United Tavern Owners Association 

of Philadelphia, Pa 184 

Baldwin, Mrs. Clara, Philadelphia, Pa 67 

Bernstein, Daniel P., staff member, Street Corner Operation, WTiarton 

Center, Philadelphia, Pa 48 

Bosworth, Francis, executive director, Friends Neighborhood Guild, 

Philadelphia, Pa 162 

Brown, Hazel H., president judge, Philadelphia municipal court 97 

Cahill, John J., president. United Tavern Owners Association of 

Philadelphia, Pa 187 

Callaghan, I cbert, chairman, Philadelphia District Committee of 
Health and Welfare Council, and chairman of the board, Philadel- 
phia Human F elections Commission 147 

Carson, Mrs. Norma B., former chief policewoman, Juvenile Aid 

t ureau, Police Department, Philadelphia, Pa 33 

Cavanaugh, Patrick, vice president, eastern region. National Licensed 
Beverage Association, and director, Philadelphia Retail Liquor 
Dealers Assoc'ation, Philadelphia, Pa 188 

Crawford, Lobert W., Deputy Commissioner of Recreation, Philadel- 
phia, Pa 200 

Dalgleish, T obert H., Jr., general superintendent of transportation, 

Philadelphia Transit Co 74 

Dilworth, J ichardson, district attorney, Philadelphia County 107 

Finnegan, J. Francis, executive director. Crime Prevention Association 

of Philadelphia 3 

Gelder, Frederick T., chairman, Pennsylvania State Liquor Control 

Board, Harrisburg, Pa 69 

Giordano, Mrs. Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa 94 

Gomberg, Stanley, assistant district attorney, Philadelphia County 107 

Green, John J., area director. Crime Prevention Association of Phil- 
adelphia, Pa 43 

Johnson, Mrs. Evelyn, Philadelphia, Pa 94 

Keller, James, Keller Foundation for Youth Protection, Philadelphia, 

Pa 204 

Lourie, Norman, executive director, Association for Jewish Children of 

Philadelphia, 1 193 

McCracken, Robert T., cochairman. Greater Philadelphia Movement, 

Philadelphia, Pa 140 

Millen, Herbert, associate judge, Philadelphia municipal court 97 

Mitchell, Capt. Theodore, commanding officer, Juvenile Aid Bureau, 

Police Department, Philadelphia, Pa 16 

O'Keefe, Drew J. T., counsel. United Tavern Owners Association of 

Philadelphia, Pa 184 

Radeloff, Sidney P., first vice president. United Tavern Owners Associ- 
ation of Philadelphia, Pa 188 

Reinmann, Dr. John O., director of probation, Philadelphia municipal 

court . 169 

Robinson, Charles, vice president, Pennsylvania State CIO, and busi- 
ness agent. Transport Workers, Local 24, Philadelphia, Pa 80 

in 



rV CONTENTS 

Testimony of — Continued Pase 

Rosenbaum, Robert, chairman of tlie board, Wliarton Center, Phila- 

delpliia, Pa 48 

Sharp, Dr. E. Preston, executive director. Youth Study Center, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa 189 

Shipherd, Henry F., chairman, social services committee, Greater 

Pliiladelphia Movement, Philadelphia, Pa 140 

Spieser, Raymond, chairman, children's division, Health and Welfare 

Council of Philadelphia 147 

Sullins, Gary W., investigator. Senate Subcommittee To Investigate 

Juvenile Delinquency 58 

Waters, Lt. Andrew J., morals squad, Juvenile Aid Bureau, Police 

Department, Philadelphia, Pa 29 

Wetter, Allen H., associate superintendent of schools, Philadelphia, 

Pa 90 

Williams, Peter, president. Health and Welfare Council of Philadel- 
phia 147 

Winnet, Judge Nochem S., chairman, Crime Prevention Association 

of Philadelphia, and former judge, Philadelphia municipal court 126 

Wise, Randolph English, Commissioner of Public Welfare, Phila- 
delphia, Pa 208 

EXHIBITS 

Number and summary of exhibits: 

1. Progress report, Operation Street Corner '56 

2. Statement of a Philadelphia transport worker '87 

3. Statement by Hazel H. Brown, presiding judge, Philadelphia 

municipal court ^98 

4. Statement by Richardson Dihvorth, district attorney of Phila- 

delphia and Stanley Gomb3rg, assistant district attorney 2 107 

5. Statement by Walt^^r E. Alessandroni, executive director, the 

Philadelphia Hon sin o; Authority ^133 

6. Copy of pamphlet. We Can Agree, of the Parents' Council of 

Secondary Schools of Gcrmanto.vn and Mount Airy, Phila- 
delphia ^164 

7. Statement by John Otto Rcinc'iiann, Ph. D., director of probation, 

municipal court of Philadelphia ^ 176 

> On file with the subcommittee. 
' Printed in the record. 



JUVENILE DELmaUENCY 
(Pliiladelpliia, Pa.) 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 14, 1954 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 

to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, 

Philadel'phia^ fa. 

The subcommittee met at 9 : 30 a. m., in court room No. 1, United 
States Courthouse, Philadelphia, Pa., Senator Robert C. Hendrickson 
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Present : Senators Hendrickson and Hennings. 

Also present: Herbert Wilson Beaser, associate chief counsel and 
James H. Bobo, assistant counsel. 

Louis M. Miniclier, consultant; Donald H. Goff, consultant, and 
Gary W. Sullins, investigator. 

The Chairman. The meeting of the subcommittee is scheduled for 
10 o'clock this morning. We will now be in order. 

I am going to start the meeting earlier because of the number of 
witnesses we have over the 2-day session. 

I would like to say before the witnesses are called, during the next 
2 days the Senate Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, 
which was created last August pursuant to Senate Resolution 89, will 
hear statements and testimony relating to the problems of youth in 
trouble in Philadelphia, and I would like to stress "youth trouble," 
instead of delinquency — youth in trouble. 

It is hoped that these hearings will bring out the extent and char- 
acter of juvenile delinquency in Philadelphia. Through the state- 
ments and testimony we are to hear, more light will be thrown on the 
causes and the ways and means of preventing juvenile delinquency. 

By the way, while I am in this city I almost feel I am a native 
because I was born and raised just 9 miles from here, over in New 
Jersey. This has virtually been the shopping center, the educational 
center of my life. 

In the time allotted we cannot do more than highlight a few of the 
pressing problems, such as vandalism, gangs, and perhaps alcohol. 

We shall also seek statements and testimony relating to the services 
available to youth, I mean your municipal, county, and State services, 
the private and public welfare recreation and housing agencies; the 
courts, and how you run your courts, particularly the juvenile courts, 
and all your institutions. That is, all the institutions which have a 
part in the youth program. 

There are many areas we are not touching. Some of them have 
been covered at our other hearings in Washington and elsewhere. 



2 JTJV'ENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. Taber of the Pliiladelphia schools presented excellent testi- 
mony in Washington only last week on this Avhole subject. I, per- 
sonally, wish that we could devote a whole day to discussing in detail 
the school situation here in this wonderful old historic city, as I 
believe that the schools can play a most important preventive role 
in finding and arranging for the treatment of the antisocial and dis- 
turbed child who may get into trouble. 

We of the subcommittee are fully cognizant of the fact that the 
basic responsibility for caring for youth is at the local or com- 
munity level. However, youths in trouble in Philadelphia are a mat- 
ter of concern across the river in New Jersey, as you can well imagine. 
The problem of delinquency in one State is a matter of concern to all 
the sister States in the Nation. 

It is a problem we must solve at the local level, but it is a problem 
that we must also solve at the national level. 

We believe that this subcommittee can help by considering wherein 
Federal legislation may alleviate certain situations such as those re- 
lated to runaway children and deserting fathers and parents who 
cross State lines. 

By focusing on the most acute community situations, as we hope 
to do in Pliiladelphia, we may succeed in stimulating community 
j.ctiou nnd see tlie beginnings of a national pattern of the causes. 
Preventive measures taken in Philadelphia may serve as inspiration 
to other communities and other cities. 

This subcommittee has held a series of hearings in Washington and 
national leaders in the youth field representing both private and 
Government endeavor have been heard. 

The Chair here notes the presence of the distinguished Senator from 
Missouri, Mr. Hennings. 

Senator Hennings. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am sorry to be 
late this morning. 

Tlie Chairman. This subcommittee, as I have said, held a series of 
hearings in Washington. National leaders in the youth field repre- 
senting botli private and Government endeavor have been heard. Last 
week represenatives of the National Parole and Probation Associa- 
tion and many similar organizations concerned with juvenile delin- 
quency testified. 

I might say liere that the message which these fine gentlemen from 
all over the Nation brought to this subcommittee and the statements 
and testimony which they furnished, was not only enlightening and 
ins])iring, but also encouraging. 

Community hearings, as I have said, have been held in Washing- 
ton, Denver, and Boston. Before the end of 1954 we hope to hold 
some additional hearings in some 14 or 15 more cities throughout the 
country. As set forth in our interim report, and I hope that the 
people of Philadelphia will read that interim report which was re- 
leased IVfarch 15, 1954, several specific recommendations of both local 
and national significance are growing out of these community hearings. 

We have learned that there is no simple set of causes and no simple 
set of answers — no panacea. 

Delinquent behavior is the result of what happens to a child and 
within a child, in the heart and mind of the child. I am in complete 
agreement with your eminent Judne Curtis Bok that we must begin 
looking seriously for the causes. There has not been enough thinking 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 3 

or enough study. There lias not been enough attention on the part 
of adults of our communities. 

Certainly, part of the answer may be found in the words of Arch- 
bishop O'Hara, who calls for strong, stable family life. That is one 
of the big answers to the problem. 

Our field staff has spent the last 3 weeks in Philadelphia preparing 
for this hearing today. On behalf of the other Senators and myself, 
and on behalf of our staff, I want to take this opportunity to express 
our deep and sincere appreciation for the kind of cooperation which 
Philadelphia has extended to this subcommittee. It speaks for itself. 
It is evidence that the citizens of this great city are deeply concerned 
with the problems of their young people and want to take a positive 
stand and want to take a positive action to correct any evils which may 
exist. 

It is a great privilege for me to be here, your neighbor from just 
across' the river. 

I am also glad that the distinguished Senator from Missouri is here 
this morning, because I know he spent some time in Philadelphia 
watching Penn-CorneU games when he was a student at the great 
University of Cornell. 

Now, Mr. Counsel, will you call your first witness ? 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Francis Finnegan. 

The Chairman. I think we had better s'wear all of the witnesses this 
morning, because we may have some witnesses who will discuss 
specifics. 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you are about to give to this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Finnegan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF J. PEANCIS FINNEGAN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, 
CRIME PREVENTION ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Finnegan, I would like to ask you to identify your- 
self and your position, for the benefit of the record. 

Mr. Finnegan. I am the executive director of the Crime Prevention 
Association of Philadelphia, which is a Red Feather service of the 
Community Chest. The address is room 801, Administration Build- 
ing, 21st and Parkway. 

Mr. BoBO. The Crime Prevention Association has been very inter- 
ested in the problem of juvenile delinquency. Will you set out for 
us the scope of your agency? 

Mr. Finnegan. It was founded 21 years ago by the late Charles 
"W. Fox and Samuel Fels. 

One of the first problems to which it directed its attention was the 
need for a crime-prevention program within the department of police. 
It asked the city fathers if they would not establish such a bureau 
and with some reluctance I might say, they did establish a small bureau 
21 years ago, to which they assigned a lieutenant and two police 
oflScers. 

I am not going to take time to trace the growth and development 
of the bureau, other than to say that today instead of the three men 



4 JUVENILE DELINQUENCT 

assigned to it, we have 89 policemen and 25 policewomen; Captain 
Mitchell, the commander of the bureau, is here, and Mrs. Carson, the 
former commander of the women's branch is here. 

I would like to add, Mr. Chairman, that the association and the 
division have worked together for 21 years. We have shared both 
autonomous in every sense of the word, but we do pool our resources 
to meet the many problems which are referred to us in our everyday 
job. 

Mr. BoBO. Within your Crime Prevention Association, you have 
established the rates of delinquency and have followed it very closely. 
Would you go into that problem for us? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, sir. I have prepared some charts which I 
would like to explain to you. We have prepared these charts to 
show trends in delinquency from 1940 to 1953. 

I would like to state the reason we selected the year 1940 was due 
to the fact that the juvenile law in the State of Pennsylvania was 
amended in September 1939 to include children 16 and 17 years of 
age. 

Now, 1940, as you well know, was the year prior to World War II. 
Here we will note that the number of children referred to the court 
was the lowest in this 13-year period. 

For example, in that particular year we had 14 per thousand 
population. Now, following our entrance into the war, the rate 
increased until it reached an alltime high of 22 per thousand in 1945. 

Then following the cessation of the war, we had a downward trend 
up until the fall of 1950, shortly after our entrance into the Korean 
war. Then there was a reversal of the trend until last year 

The Chairman. Mr. Finnegan, you seem to connect these figures 
with the wars. 

Mr. Finnegan. Very definitely, sir. I think it is common agree- 
ment that war does a lot in the way of disrupting the home life, the 
family life, because of tne absence of the father. 

The Chairman. You mean it takes people up by their roots from 
their own communities? 

ISIr. Finnegan. A number of the fathers were taken out of the 
home. 

Another important factor that we cant forget, especially in the 
low-income areas, is the absence of the older boy who in a good many 
cases is far better educated than his parents and usually has stabilized 
and influenced the home. 

So we have reached the rate of 21 per thousand in 1953, but we 
are still under the alltime high in 1945, when the rate was 22. 

I think an interesting fact in connection with these statistics re- 
lates to girls. Here you will note that the ratio of boys and girls 
was about 7 to 1 in 1940, and it showed a continual increase until 
it reached an alltime high in 1952 of 7.4, more than double the rate, 
and it is still double the rate today despite the fact that the boys' 
rate increased about one and a half times during that period. 

The Chairman. Senator Hennings, do you have any questions? 

Senator Hennings. I want to ask Mr. Finnegan one question, which 
I may not have understood in terms of his reference to the juvenile 
law being amended to include the 17- and 18-year-olds. 

Mr. Finnegan. Sixteen- and seventeen-year-olds, sir. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 5 

Senator Hennings. Thank you, Mr. Finnegan. Now, before that 
what was the law ? 

Mr. Finnegan. It inchided children up to 15 years of age. 

The Chairman. That is the State law you are referring to, of 
course ? 

Mr. Finnegan. The State law. That is right. 

I would like to refer to something very interesting. We certainly 
are not willing to admit it now that there is a complete reversal of 
this trend, but toward the middle of NoA^ember and December and 
January and February, we did note that the trend started to show 
a downward movement. We are certainly hoping that will continue. 
We are not willing to say at this time it will. 

Mr. BoBO. These figures represent the cases handled by the juvenile 
court and not all cases ? 

Mr. Finnegan. These are actual children. They include not only 
cases referred by the police department, which as a rule represents 
83 percent of the total, but also cases referred by the board of edu- 
cation, by the parents, and by private police, and so forth. 

Senator Hennings. May I ask one question of Mr. Finnegan, since 
he is so intimately connected with this work, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Senator Hennings. 

Senator Hennings, Statistics on this whole problem are, of course, 
always to be taken with many reservations and much awareness of the 
fact that figures do not really reflect all that is happening. 

Mr. Finnegan. I agree without reservation. The only thing they 
do is they indicate trends to us and here, again, we have to hope that 
factor of efficiency remains constant among the people who enforce 
the laws. 

Mr. Hennings. Would you care to say anything about the cases 
that are not referred, possibly in terms of what some of the social 
agencies are doing to avoid the necessity of referral, or do you intend 
to come to that later ? 

Mr. Finnegan. I will dwell on that later. 

Senator Hennings. Please go ahead, then, sir. 

Mr. Finnegan. I will say at this time if I may make an observation, 
that I think a national organization would make a fine contribution 
if they could develop some uniform reporting procedures which, in 
my opinion, are badly needed, somewhat similar to the index used by 
the FBI. 

The Chairman. I am glad to hear you say that. You also agree, 
do you not, it would be helpful to have uniform juvenile laws? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, I do think that would make a definite contribu- 
tion. 

Now, here, sir, is a chart showing children committed to institutions 
during this same period. Here again it follows the general pattern, 
the number. In the year 1953 we did commit to institutions the high- 
est number in the history of the court, a total of 1,130. 

In passing, I would like to make reference to the fact that one of 
the problems we face is this question of correctional institutions 
throughout the State. I think the State of Pennsylvania can be com- 
pared with most States throughout the Union. You do not have any 
coordinated program. Here in Pennsylvania we have some 24 dif- 
ferent institutions, 4 subsidized fully by the State; 3 partially sub- 



6 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

sidized by the State, and the balance private institutions. All of these 
institutions determine their own intake policy. 

I don't want this to be taken as an indictment against the institu- 
tions, but we must remember this, that we are not going to have a good 
effective correctional program in institutions until we bring these 
institutions together with the juvenile courts throughout the State 
where we can consider programs in relation to the needs of the courts 
also, which is something to which the Government's Committee on 
Children and Youth is directing its attention at the present time. 

Here, sir, is a chart showing the probation cases during this same 
period. Here the trend follows the trend, the same trend as the 
number of cases. 

The Chairman. Seven to seventeen years, Mr. Finnegan, what 
happens to the children above 17 years ? 

Mr. Finnegan. They are considered as adults and their cases are 
heard in the regular courts, sir. 

Mr. Bono. Could we go back to this chart one moment, Mr. Finne- 
gan? Does the fact that in 1953 more children were sent to institu- 
tions indicate that they are committing more serious offenses now, 
and it is the reason for more being sent to institutions ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, with some on the basis of increased probation 
and commitments that in tlie opinion of the court unless there has 
been change in policy that the offense would be more serious. 

The Chairman. Mr. Finnegan, we found in other communities, this 
community has been shocked as a matter of fact, because in other 
communities the more serious crimes were going down into the lower 
age groups all the time. Do you find that so in this area? 

Mr. FiNNFXJAN. No. I think we have a tendency to highlight the 
exceptional, but by and far, as you look at statistics, our principal 
problem involves children 14 to 17. A good example of that is that 
they represent about one-third of the juvenile population, 7 to 17, 
and are responsible for about 67 percent of all of the offenses. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Finnegan. Now, I would like to show you the trends in popu- 
lation for Philadelphia from 1940 to 1953. Here you find in 1940 
that we had 331,000 children in this age bracket. 

Tlien the number declined until it reached a low of 293,000 in 
1948. 

Now, we are starting to show a reversal of that trend. 

In the year 1953 we had 310,000. On the basis of estimates made 
by the Board of Education we think that our population of children 
will increase 20 percent between now and 1960, which means that if 
the present rate of delinquency should continue, we are going to be 
faced with the problem of need for additional services and facilities. 

Of course, if we can reverse the rate that we had in 1940, we will 
not be faced with tlie problem. 

The Chairman. Is my good friend Walter Biddle Saltz still presi- 
dent of your board of education ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, he is, sir. 

I thought you would like to take a look at the concentration problem. 
While we talk about the problem as one involving 2 percent of the 
juvenile population, of course, the rates are not uniformly distributed 
throughout the city. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 7 

Here, for example, among boys, we have in some districts where 10 
percent of boys become involved in this particular section right here, 
which is the highest rate in the city, which is south of Chester Street, 
South, and from river to river. The rates are outlined here. 

What I would like to say, sir, is this : In this area from South Street 
to Lehigh Avenue and from Fifth Street to Fairmount Street and 
including the 16th district in western Philadelphia we have 21 percent 
of our juvenile population. 

And that particular area is responsible for 45 percent of all the 
offenses. It shows the concentration right in here sir. That is a 
picture for girls also, and the area is the same. 

The Chairman. I am a little amazed, Mr. Finnegan, by the pro- 
portion of girls and boys. I always assumed that the boys were 
always bad fellows, but you have had trouble with the girls here. 

Mr. Finnegan. Well, they are catching up, sir, but the ratio is 
still 5 to 1. 

Senator Hennings. Is it not true, too, Mr. Finnegan, that the girls 
are given certain considerations and protection benefits, as a result 
of other protective efforts which the boys may not be given. 

Mr. Finnegan. I think that is true generally. 

Senator Hennings. To use the courtroom parlance, we give the girls 
a little better break, the first offenders. 

Mr. Finnegan. You can also say that physically they are not 
equipped to participate in some types of offenses. 

Senator Hennings. Crimes of violence '^ 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bobo. 

Mr. Bobo. From your map there, Mr. Finnegan, it would indicate 
that delinquency not only occurs down in 19, but it occurs generally 
all over the city, the best areas of the city. 

Would you say that is true ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes. Of course, I think the child has a much better 
chance of surviving if he lives in the 2d and 27th districts than if you 
put him down in the 19th or 23d. 

Senator Hennings. What is that ? 

Mr. Finnegan. That is what we call northeast. This is what we 
call the new section in Philadelphia. This has been more developed 
in the last 10 or 15 years. 

Here is Germantown and Chestnut Hill in this city. 

The Chairman. Is that situation in 19 due to slum areas to any 
extent ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, that is a slum area and it borders on the com- 
mercial area. Of course, that is a factor involved because the tempta- 
tion is greater here because of the opportunities. 

The Chairman. Do you plan to discuss the slum areas at all ? 

Mr. Finnegan. No ; I thought, Mr. Chairman, that I would leave 
that to the authorities in the field of housing and so forth. It cer- 
tainly makes a contribution. 

The Chairman. You think it is a great factor ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes; it makes a very definite contribution to our 
problem. 

The Chairman. You may proceed. 

Mr. BoBO. The Work of Your Crime Prevention Association, would 
you give us an idea of what you are doing on this problem? 



8 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes ; I would like to say, as I indicated before, that 
we work together with the juvenile aid bureau, the department of 
police. We are both autonomous, but we do both work together very 
closely. Captain Mitchell is here and he wjll tell about the work of 
the bureau. 

I would like to say to you that certainly in our approach to the 
problem we realize that there is no panacea. I think one of the 
most encouraging things I can refer to is the fact that slowly but 
surely we are overcoming the tendency on the part of certain people 
and organizations to identify the problem with the particular cause 
or its solution with a particular type of service. 

I think that is true here in Philadelphia. As to our work, sir, very 
briefly, from the standpoint of control, we do extensive work in the 
field of research. 

As you have indicated here, we compile statistics on a day-to-day 
basis Avhich enables us to determine where we are going to concentrate 
our resources and energy. 

For example, you should know that day in and day out we spot 
every one of these arrests according to the street where the boy or 
girl lives, which means we are always able to tell you the size and 
extent of the problem on any given street within 130 square miles 
of Philadelphia. 

Just having this information is not going to do the job. Of course, 
we have the problem of interpretation. We do this through the publi- 
cation of periodical reports which we sent to 3,500 organizations and 
individuals. 

For example, every church in the city — and there are 1,200 — receives 
these reports. Every home and school council, every school, every 
social agency, every police unit, and every health and welfare agency 
receives this information. 

The pui'pose is to keep them informed as to trends in the community. 
If you examine the statistics of the court and the cases of the court, 
you will find an average of two-thirds are discharged without 
supervision. 

Over a period of years as we looked at this problem and examined 
the high rate of recidivism in the cases handled by the court, which 
varies from 40 to 45 percent, we become convinced that some job had 
to be clone in the way of utilizing the resources in the community, 
so we inaugurated what we call a referral program. 

This program by and far is made up of representatives of private 
and public agencies and laymen who meet once a month to consider 
the cases of children referred to them by our referral division, which 
is a coordinated program between the juvenile aid bureau and the 
association. 

We have 19 such area committees throughout the city, as I indi- 
cated before, made up of both public and private people, both the 
professional and lay person. And we refer these cases to them once 
a month. 

The cases of children who have been referred to us either as a result 
of arrest or complaint, last year we referred over 5,000 cases to the 
19 communities throughout the city. 

The Chairman. Are these cases from the two-thirds group ? 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 9 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. These are the cases, sir, which involve complaints 
where there has been no official arrest and also where there has been 
an arrest and a discharge without any type of supervision. 

What it aims to do is try to reach the child far enough upstream 
where the treatment is most likely to be effective. 

In this w^e have over 275 organizations cooperating. We have the 
Philadelphia Council of Churches, the St. Vincent DePaul Society, 
and all the health and welfare agencies in these 19 areas. 

We think this is a program which could make a very fine contri- 
bution toward reducing the incidence of delinquency and crime. 

Not only does it provide opportunity to bring help to the child, 
but these people sitting around a table have an opportunity to become 
familiar with the factors which are contributing to the problem and 
also the needs of the community. 

Now, we over a period of years have been directing a number of 
leisure programs and 30 full- and part-time programs in areas where 
we felt a need for the services. Here again nothing is left to chance. 

I might say to you every progi^am we direct, the person who directs 
such a program is made familiar with the children in the different 
communities who need help. We do not depend on the open-door pol- 
icy to reach the children. 

There is a staff member responsible for going out and bringing 
the boy in, interpreting the problem of the child to other members 
of the staff. 

It is a program which we think will be effective in utilizing recre- 
ation in this particular problem. 

I would like to say to you that we hear an awful lot of talk about 
gangs today. We have what we call five area programs in the city of 
Philadelphia. In these different areas we have assigned men whose 
job it is to work with the street-corner groups. These men are pro- 
vided complete information about the conditions and individuals in 
the community who are causing problems to society. They work in 
a very informal way. 

We have one of the area workers here, so I am not going to go 
into detail as to how they work, but at the present time we liave 92 
different groups of boys and 11 groups of girls identified with these 
area programs. 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Finnegan, on that theory of area workers, and street- 
corner workers, they also have a similar program m New York. 
Would you compare yours with theirs ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes; I Avas in New York when the program started 
some years ago and we both have the same purpose and objectives in 
mind. 

The Chairman. The same pattern ? 

Mr. Finnegan. The same pattern. 

I would like to say, however, sir, that we find as a result that gangs 
are problems unto themselves. But I think they are given credit to a 
far greater extent than their participation in the whole problem of 
delinquency and crime. 

Over a period of 10 years we have been working with these gangs ; 
we have kept careful information as to their record with the police 
before and after their identification with the program. We are now 
inclined to believe 



10 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. Pardon me. You say you have been working with 
these gangs. How do you work with them ? Wliat is your procedure ? 

Mr. Finnegan. We have one of the area workers here. He is going 
to follow me. 

The Chairman. All right, you go ahead. 

Mr. Finnegan. We are inclined to believe now, as a result of a 
careful study of the records that the young people who cause the most 
trouble from the standpoint of major offenses are not too likely to 
become identified with gangs. There are exceptions, but we have 
found they travel more in twos and threes than with gangs and our 
records substantiate that. 

Certainly gangs are problems and we think they have to be con- 
sidered as part of the total program, but we want to try to offset the 
fact that most people believe all the problems center around the gangs, 
which is not true. 

I have here before me, sir, a program of the Philadelphia Confer- 
ence for the Prevention and Control of Delinquency. This conference 
was patterned after the national conference held in Washington in 
1945. It is made up of 451 different individuals who worked in this 
conference 

The Chairman. That is the President's conference, is it not ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, in 1945. It was the Attorney General, but I 
guess the President had something to do with it. 

Senator Hennings, That is not the so-called White House Con- 
ference ? 

Mr. Finnegan. No, that was in 1950. 

Here we have a 2-part program, one which directed its attention 
over a period of 2 years to problems and possible solutions in what we 
consider the most important areas contributing to the growth and 
development of children. 

The first part of the conference came up with 237 different recom- 
mendations involving church and school and services generally. 

The second part of the program involves the implementation of 
these recommendations with a committee which has this responsibility, 
which is chairmaned by Judge Winnett, from whom you will hear, I 
understand, tomorrow afternoonu. I won't go into the work. 

I would like to say we direct the work of the Crime Commission 
of Philadelphia, which is a 21-man commission and which concerns 
itself with development of effective law enforcement. 

The Chairman. How is that organized ? 

Mr. Finnegan. It is made up of 11 members of the board of di- 
rectors of the Crime Prevention Association and 10 members selected 
at large. 

The Chairman. Is that county or State or city ? 

Mr. Finnegan. City, sir. We have city and county now. It was 
organized a little over 2 years ago. During that time it has directed 
its attention to such problems as the recruitment and upgrading of 
police, the training of police, the question of proper deployment of 
police, the question of guns, gun permits, and it also has made spot 
studies of organized crime in the community and at the present time 
it is just completing a study on gambling in Philadelphia, which 
has extended over a period of 6 months. 

Finally, I think one of the most interesting projects it has under- 
taken got underway a few weeks ago. It involved the 31 districts in 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 11 

north Philadelpliia. That district was not selected because of any 
unusually high rate. We just felt it represented a good cross-section 
of the citizens. 

Here the purpose of the program which is being projected at the 
present time is to try to develop ways and means of educating the 
citizen to his role in development of effective law enforcement, and 
also educating the policeman as to how he can work with the citizen. 

We are convinced, sir, that one of the big problems in developing 
effective law enforcement is the fact that the people do not have confi- 
dence in the persons who are charged with the enforcement of laws. 

But it is a 2-way street. On the other hand, we are convinced that 
the people charged with the responsibility of enforcing the laws do 
not have too much confidence in the citizen for whom they provide 
protection. 

The Chairman. Would you recommend from your experience in this 
field of juvenile delinquency especially trained police squads to treat 
with the children ? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, without reservation, sir, all the men identified 
with the Juvenile Aid Bureau are carefully selected, and the women, 
and they are trained year in and year out. 

An intensive in-service training program is carried on for them. 
I think the role should be limited to the approach by the policeman. 
I don't believe they should become involved in social casework. 

The Chairman. I do not mean that. 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, I do think they have to be trained to do effec- 
tive work. Here again, I think there is a very good liaison between 
the police and the social agencies in the city because they both recog- 
nize their individual responsibilities. 

The Chairman. Do you have that sort of arrangement here in 
Philadelphia ? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You do? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, we do. 

The Chairman. Are you familiar with the practice out in Cali- 
fornia where they have a special course at one of the universities 
there? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, the University of Southern California. 

The Chairman. They teach these policemen this special problem? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Would it not be helpful to have your two great 
universities here in the city of Philadelphia, University of Pennsyl- 
vania and Temple University conduct such courses? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, I think they would make a very definite con- 
tribution if they did. 

The Chairman. I hope my University of Temple will get busy. 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bono. Other than the crime prevention association which you 
have dwelt on, you have also been interested in other committees and 
groups that also dwell on problems of juvenile delinquency, have you 
not? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. We work very closely with both the public and pri- 
vate agencies. I would like to say I think there is a very fine spirit 
of cooperation among the agencies, both public and private, in the 



12 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

city. I tliink is is evidenced by the fact, sir, that the headquarters 
of the juvenile aid bureau, department of police, are in the board of 
education building which will help to explain how close this coopera- 
tion is 

Mr. Bono. I think that is a point that is good to bring out, that 
the juvenile aid bureau is situated in the same building with the 
board of education, so there is close harmony working between those 
two people. 

Mr. P'iNNEGAN. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Finnegan, I am sure that the subcommittee 
is always interested in why it is that men like you are compelled to 
get into this sort of work and what your background has been here- 
tofore, and in your own way of putting it, if you will, why have you 
dedicated your abilities, time, and perhaps the duration of your days, 
your active days, to this sort of effort ? 

Mr. Finnegan. AVell, Mr. Chairman, I have been identified with 
the work for 23 years. I have to tell you I aspired to be a banker. 
I trained for that position in school. 

The Chairman. You are a banker. You are banking one of the 
greatest resources we have, the youth of America. 

Mr. Finnegan. I might say I am thoroughly satisfied with the 
amount of time I have spent there. 

Senator Hennings. How many field agencies do you have? 

Mr. Finnegan. Certainly we don't have enough. 

Senator Hennings. You have a fund agency ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. Your budget I believe is $131,000 ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, sir. 

As you probably know, the history of the Community Chest, over the 
past 5 years we just about have been standing still. The possibilities 
of expansion have been very limited. 

Of course, I would say that the public agencies now are given far 
more people than they have done in the past. 

Senator Hennings. How about your police Juvenile Aid Bureau? 
I suppose in common with the police forces of virtually all the other 
cities in the country, your police department here is understaffed? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, they are understaffed. 

Senator Hennings. I don't know any place they are not. I just 
assumed that it would be true here. 

Mr. Finnegan. They are running now about 400 under quota, the 
whole department. 

The Chairman. What is your total department here? 

Mr. Finnegan. Forty-seven hundred, sir. It compares favorably 
when you consider the number now. But the problem of the recruit- 
ment, now they recently gave an examination where they had over 
5,000 applicants and within a short period of time they should be able 
to bring the quota up to full strength. 

Senator Hennings. Do you know what the complement of the 
Juvenile Air Bureau is ? 

Mr. Finnegan. It is 89 policemen, and 25 policewomen and there 
will be an increase in quota to 40 policewomen this year. 

Senator Hennings. Are they assigned by police districts, or are 
they all out of headquarters ? 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 13 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. They are assigned to police districts. Since we 
have the captain of the bureau, I don't want to infringe on his ter- 
ritory. 

Senator Hennings. I just thought you might know. 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, gentlemen, they are assigned to districts. 

Senator Hennings. The reason I asked the question was to deter- 
mine whether you in the work which you are doing find there is a 
dearth of police officers, policemen and policewomen in your common 
effort of cooperation with the police and they with you. 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. We have the finest in the way of cooperation, sir. 

Senator Hennings. I do not mean the dearth of cooperation; I 
mean the dearth of personnel. 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. I think the personnel of the bureau should be 
increased, sir. 

Senator Hennings. And that, of course, applies to the Juvenile 
Aid Bureau ? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, sir. That is understaffed, I think, by 23 men 
at the present time. 

Senator Hennings. That is what I was trying to get at. Thank 
you, Mr. Finnegan. 

The Chairman. Mr. Finnegan, the National Parole Association 
testified at great length before this subcommittee last week in Wash- 
ington. They complained about the fact that there were not adequate 
parole officers. Is that true here in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Finnegan. I think that is true with both parole and proba- 
tion. That we have not used it as effectively as it could be. 

I think the probation department of the juvenile court is under- 
staffed. A good many agencies in the city 

The Chairman. I think they testified there were 7,000 in the coun- 
try at large, and we needed 40,000. 

Mr. Finnegan. That is right. We have counties in the State of 
Pennsylvania that have no probation officers at all. I think if I 
remember correctly, sir, about 11 counties of the 67 have no probation 
officers. 

Senator Hennings. Before Mr. Finnegan leaves, have you com- 
pleted your statement, sir? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. I did not want to infringe upon the continuity 
of your fine statement and testimony here this morning, but as one 
who has been steeped in this sort of work as you have been for a 
immber of years in your life, what, in your judgment is the thing 
that should be concentrated u])on among other things, that go into 
this mosaic of the factors which cumulatively make up this great 
problem of what we are pleased to call juvenile delinquency, or young 
people in trouble ? For lack of a better term, so that people under- 
stand it, we call it juvenile delinquency. Being aware as we are of 
the nuances and refinements which might well be accomplished — you 
know they talk about these committees going around the country and 
studying things and congressional committees that are investigating 
and oftentimes these investigations are had and they march up the 
hill and they march down again, and they file a report and that is 
the end of it — we have felt under the chairmanship of our fine Sen- 
ator from New Jersey that we would not be j^utting our time on this 

46960—54 2 



14 JUVENILE DELESTQUENCY 

subcommittee unless we felt and hoped to achieve something sub- 
stantial. 

Our idea is not to justify a voluminous report, go around the coun- 
try wringing our hands and hearing from people who know about this 
work, but to present to the country and insofar as it may seem neces- 
sary, later to the Congress, certain very definite things which we 
think should be done by way of suggestion to the communities at the 
community level, and thereafter by way of legislation to the Congress, 
where the national aspect may properly be within the jurisdiction of 
the Congress. 

Now, what are the things that appeal to you as being something 
which should be gone after more intensively than it is and the focal 
points of that great problem ? 

The Chairman. The Senator is referring, I am sure, to the things 
that this subcommittee should do. 

Is that right? 

Senator Hennings. That, and what Mr. Finnegan may consider, 
not only what this subcommittee may do, Mr. Chairman, if I may 
suggest, but what he believes this community, for example, should do, 
and could do. 

Mr. Finnegan. Senator, first I would like to direct my attention 
to what the Nation might do. I think there is need for a national 
program. I don't know where the jurisdiction should lie, whether it 
is in tlie Children's Bureau, but I think that program should concern 
itself. No. 1, with developing uniform reporting procedures that would 
enable us to determine the size and extent of the problem. 

I referred to it before, I think that such an organization could do 
a good job in the way of evaluating the programiS which have as their 
objective the prevention of delinquency because we have to admit that 
evaluation of existing programs has been something that has not been 
done too effectively. 

We talk continually about services, about probation, parole, insti- 
tutions, but when you analyze them very carefully you do not feel 
too sure as to how effective they have become. 

So a national organization could make a fine contribution doing 
intensive research and evaluating existing programs. 

The Chairman. Evaluate and coordinate ? 

Mr. Finnegan. That is right. 

Then I think a national committee could do a fine job in the way 
of collecting information about programs and so forth that will be 
helpful to existing communities. 

I do not think it should go too far afield, but I think if it should 
attempt to do those two basic things, it would be helpful. 

Now, coming back to the community, we know there is no panacea 
for this problem. I mean, as we build the total community, our ef- 
fectiveness in building the total community will be determined by 
the number who succeed and the number who fail. 

Now, one of the things that causes me concern is that by and far we 
have a lot of fine agencies dedicated to helping children. When you 
consider the percentage, they do a pretty effective job. 

But the thing that concerns me is that we have no hesitation about 
spending hundreds of thousands of dollars for the physical planning 
of our community, we can always appropriate money for that, but 
not a cent for the planning of our human and spiritual resources. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 15 

1 think in every commnnity there should be a committee, and I 
•guess it has to be a high-powered committee, that would evaluate 
periodically the effectiveness of our human and spiritual resources. 

I am not saying the kind of community, now, that would dole out 
funds, but staffed with good, qualified people, who examine our pro- 
gram of education, who would examine the effectiveness of our re- 
ligious program ; who would examine our health and welfare services, 
and who would be in a position to say, well, this should receive a 
priority, or that should receive a priority. 

The Chairman. About a week ago in the Senate of the United 
States we passed a bill to further subsidize our highway programs in 
the various States by many millions of dollars. I think we could 
afford to subsidize some of our State programs in respect to our 
youth. Do you not think so ? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. Yes, without reservation. 

Mr. BoBO. I notice you have a number of papers on the desk. Are 
those papers you want to include in the record? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. I am referring, sir, to proofs of our annual report. 
I informed Mr. Miniclier and Mr. Goff that I would send you these 
reports in the next few days. 

The Chairman. Mr. Finnegan, you mentioned the sort of organi- 
zation which has been referred to by various witnesses before this 
subcommittee as a national institute. I do not care what you call 
it. I do not like the word "institute." I think that is a bad term, 
but I think we have to establish — this is the opinion of the Chair as 
an individual Senator — I think we have to establish greater strength 
and greater centralization in some organization like the Children's 
Bureau. 

Do you not feel that way ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, I think it should be the responsibility of the 
Children's Bureau. I don't see the need for the establishment of a 
new agency. I think this job should be done at the national level. 

The Chairman. You could give the Children's Bureau a new name, 
if you wanted to, but it is in that area that we must operate at the 
national level. 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you agree with that? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You agree we must strengthen them by substantial 
appropriation? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, I would not be able to attempt to estimate the 
amount, but I think it should be done. 

The Chairman. You feel they do not have enough? 

Mr. Finnegan. Very definitely. I think it is unfortunate that 
they have to run outside to try to get money to do this job. 

Senator Hennings. Do you feel in common with so many of the 
other witnesses in other cities, and who have come to Washinirton, Mr. 
Finnegan, that one of the great difficulties of this problem generally 
speaking is that we just scratch the surface through the various 
agencies and that the boys and girls who need help the most and guid- 
ance the most, the most protection, if you please, do not and would not 
come to the agencies, we must go to them ? 

Mr. Finnegan. Yes, sir; I do. 



16 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Senator Hennings. We must somehow or other reach out and get 
to these people who need this the most. 

As fine as the Boy Scouts are, and I have been a director of the Big 
Brother organization for years, and working brother for 30 years, and 
president of it in my city, and we are proud of Charles Berwin in 
I*hiladelphia, wdio has given practically all of his time to it, but I have 
been conscious over the years in just that organization, and I have been 
associated wath the Boy Scouts and the YMCA's and such organiza- 
tions, which although they do a lot of good — it is incalculable; they 
do an enormous amount of good — somehow, no agency seems to really 
get down to the grassroots of this problem ; they do not get down on 
the ]oavement with these kids who really need it. 

It is not their fault. It is just the way things are. 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. I would like to go back about 10 years ago when we 
started to look at the number of boys' clubs. We started to examine 
them in relation to the children who were getting into trouble in the 
community. We found out that the open-door policy did not work 
as far as reaching those children, with the result that we had to in- 
augurate a policy where some staff member furnished with the proper 
information would move out to the community and work. 

The Chairman. You had to go through the open door and out in 
the field? 

Mr. FiNNEGAN. That is right. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Finnegan. You have 
been very helpful and you have made a great contribution to the effort 
we are putting forth in this field to w^hich you have given so much of 
your life. 

Mr. Finnegan. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. BoBO. Capt. Theodore Mitchell. 

The Chairman. Captain Mitchell, do you solemnly swear that the 
testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee oil the Judicary of the United States, will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Captain Mitchell. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CAPT. THEODORE MITCHELL, COMMANDING 
OFFICER, JUVENILE AID BUREAU, POLICE DEPARTMENT, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Captain Mitchell, have you a prepared statement^ 
or do you want to testify off the cuff? 

Captain Mitchell. Off the cuff, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. All right, you proceed in your ow^n manner. 

Mr. Boijo. Captain Mitchell, before you proceed, would you identify 
yourself for the record? 

Captain Mitchell. Capt. Theodore Mitchell, commanding officer 
of the juvenile aid bureau, department of police, Philadelphia, Pa. 

If it please the committee, I would like to speak shortly about the 
organization of the juvenile aid bureau. It has been touched on some- 
what by Mr. Finnegan. 

Of course, we have subdivided the organization of the juvenile aid 
bureau into component parts dealing with the various responsibilities 
as regards the juvenile problem, or the youth-in-trouble problem. 

We have the parent organization, the juvenile aid bureau, which 
deals with every problem and every phase of juvenile delinquency or 
juvenile activity in this city of Philadelphia. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 17 

The scope has been increased, the scope of responsibility which was 
increased to the entire field in February of 1952 by the commissioner 
of police. 

We also have associated in this bureau various subdivisions within 
itself. That subdivision dealing with gang control, human relations, 
liquor, and arson squad, the police women's unit, and the morals squad. 

Very recently one of the most prominently spoken factors in the 
youth life was the matter and the mention of the gang circumstances. 

We undertake to maintain a constant survey of the changing condi- 
tions in regard to these so-called gang areas and gangs themselves. 

In our latest compilation of this matter we find from a statistical 
viewpoint that we have probably 8 gangs, or 8 organizations or clubs, 
operating prominently, or being organized prominently in the city 
of Philadelphia with the possibility of 4 additional ones in 1 status or 
another. 

Mr. Bono. That is an organized, named gang, that you know about ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How many members would one of those gangs 
have? Would they all be about uniform? How many members would 
a gang have in it ? 

Captain MItchell. They vai*y anywhere from 15 to 20 to a strength 
of approximately 75 to 100. They are geographically located in the 
most part between the north side of Poplar Street to approximately 
Lehigh Avenue, northbound. 

The Chairman. Would that be in that dark section on the map 
there ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, and above that, including the 6th district, 
the 23d district, portions of the 26th and the 31st. 

Mr. BoBO. In those gangs, Captain, you say they run from 15 to 20 
to 75 or 100. Are these organized gangs with rules and regulations? 
Do you know anything about the organization of some of these gangs? 

Captain IVIitchell. We find as a result of our investigation of these 
matters that actually they began in the original as either social clubs 
organized among the youth themselves, athletic clubs, and once in a 
while we found that on the flimsiest of bases they only wanted to get 
a jacket that was the same or a hat that was the same. 

Senator Hennings. Captain, when you say gang, how do you dis- 
tinguish a gang from a club or organization or another gi'oup ? You 
assume, I take it, that implicit in the word "gang" is a certain tendency 
to law violation. 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. To vandalism, stealing, depredation of one kind 
•or another, as an organized movement of the so-called gang as distin- 
guished from a social club or group which presumably has as its 
general objective those purposes which are lawful and beneficial to 
the membership of the community. 

Would that be about the distinction ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, nuances of the original classification would 
make the distinction between organizations and gangs, sir. 

Although we find normally a degree of delinquency might permeate 
a gang on a wider basis, it is usually a small segment of a particular 
gang that actually becomes involved or spills over into a serious 
matter. 



18 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Now, if the committee please, I can take one very recent occasion' 
with whicli I am somewhat familiar. It has happened as late as- 
March of this year, in which a homicide was resultant. 

I think that also points up the most drastic, or most severe outcrop- 
ping or manifestation, let us say, of this particular activity of these 
two gangs. In this case it involved tlie homicide of one Robert Blocker, , 
who resided at 1206 West Master Street, and was shot and killed on the 
southwest corner of 13th and Master Street on March 29 of this year. 

This involved conflict between two of the gangs in the area which 
I have just mentioned known as the Pandoras and the Exiles. It 
resulted in the arrest of 11 persons, 11 young persons between the- 
ages of 15 and 17. 

Senator Hendrickson. Wlio was this victim, Captain? 

Captain Mitchell. Robert Blocker. 

Senator Hendrickson. How old was he? 

Captain Mitchell. Fifteen years old. 

Senator Hendrickson, He was a young boy? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. Actually, the whole problem began 
on a social event over the matter of a slight insult to a young girl 
companion wlio was going to be slapped and was prevented from 
being slapped by various members there. It continued to build up into 
this actual conflict where they began marauding in the neighborhoods 
in which they were located. The Exiles proceeded north in the Pan- 
dora's territory and the Pandora's proceeded south in the Exile's 
territory. 

It resulted in their shooting on March 29 by driving through the 
area in a car with a squad of shotguns. 

I see here, if the committee please, a display from our unit of va- 
rious homemade weapons, homemade w^eapons and contrivances that 
have been confiscated from juveniles by the juvenile aid bureau per- 
sonnel. 

The thing that I am mostly concerned about pointing out is that 
in the event of these zip guns we have no record at all of any one 
being shot by one of them. It is also a conventional weapon that 
has been modified such as a sawed-off shotgun. 

Mr. BoBO. Does this display represent all the weapons you have 
picked up, or just a fraction ? 

Captain Mitchell. This is a representative portion, sir. 

Disposition of evidence confiscated by our personnel is governed 
by directives and they are all turned over to the courts for dispo- 
sition. 

The Chairman. It would appear from that exhibit that all those 
weapons had been used in some serious offense. Is that so? 

Captain Mitchell. Actually, I don't know of one of them that is 
associated with homicide, but its potential, of course, cannot be 
ignored. 

The Chairman. But they were taken from boys. 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. I am dwelling right now on cer- 
tainly the darkest side of the picture and our attitude in regard to 
these gangs is to attempt to divert their attention to a more con- 
structive and certainly more peaceful endeavor so that more ultimate 
good can be obtained from individuals on a collective basis. 

Mr. BoBO. You said most of the weapons that were used in homi- 
cides were the conventional weapons. Are they pretty easily ob- 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 19 

tainable in the Philadelphia area? Where do the boys say they 
usually get the weapons that they use, such as the sawed-off shotgun 
you referred to ? 

Captain Mitchell. We had two specific cases of burglaries of 
stores in which a quantity of armament was taken and additional 
weapons were procured from various looting of private dwellings, all 
illicit sources. 

The purchase of weapons, of course, is governed very adequately I 
believe through licensed establishments and they could not possibly 
procure one on a legitimate basis. 

Senator Hennings. They can get them through the mail, can't 
they ; through mail-order houses ? 

Captain Mitchell. Under certain conditions, weapons as souvenirs 
are obtainable from sources outside the Commonwealth through the 
mail, sir. 

Mr. BoBO, Well, they may be sold as souvenirs and advertised as 
souvenirs, but nonetheless they are as effective weapons as if sold 
for other purposes, are they not ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. BoBO. It makes no difference for what they are ostensibly being 
sold. I notice the throwing knives used by boys at play were pur- 
chased through magazine ads. You have a starter's pistol bought by 
an 11-year-old boy. That does not look like any starter's pistol I 
have ever seen. Does that mean that is advertised as a starter's pistol, 
that is the reason it is so-called ? 

Captain Mitchell. I do not think it is advertised — or it probably 
is advertised — as a starter's pistol, but I haven't any knowledge of one 
being done in that manner, none at all. 

Mr. BoBO. I wondered why it was called a starter's pistol bought 
by an 11-year-old boy. 

Captain Mitchell. That is the label on there that I am referring to, 
not public advertisement. 

Mr. BoBo. How long have you been in police work, Captain? 

Captain Mitchell. Fourteen years, sir. 

Mr. BoBO. You started, I expect, as a probationary; is that what 
you call them in Philadelphia, a probationary patrolman ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. BoBO. Then you became a plainclothesman later? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir ; I had a varied assortment of assign- 
ments dealing with almost every phase of police work. 

Mr. BoBO. So that your background and experience quickly brought 
you up to a conclusion that the youngsters are in great numbers getting 
into very serious difficulties and the children in difficulty today popu- 
late our penitentiaries tomorrow by and large. Is that not true ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. I think we must deal with a statistical 
percentage there, sir. About one and nine-tenths percent, or approxi- 
mately 2 percent, of your youth population is the figure arrived at as 
a result of our statistics. 

Mr. BoBO. Can you tell us a little more about the genesis of some of 
these gangs ? Do you know of any cases where, for example, a group 
started for a lawful or worthy purpose, such as recreation, social 
club, or something of that character, and later through a period of 
transition and after some period of time deteriorated into being a 
predatory gang ? 



20 JTJVENILE DELINQUENCY 

For example, you have the Pandora gang, so to speak. That is a 
rather high-sounding name. 

The Chairman. That was the gang responsible for this homicide. 

Captain Mitchell. One of the members of the Pandora gang was 
slain by a member of the Exile gang. In both instances they began 
as social organizations. 

Senator Hennings. We would assume that from the name. Wliat 
was the nature of their activities in the beginning and are you able 
to tell us something about that transition from lawful activity into 
the realm and beyond the borderline of what we consider proper and 
constructive social organizations of young people? 

Captain Mitchell. In this particular case, sir, I think our investi- 
gations certainly disclosed that they had too little an interest in their 
home. There wasn't anything in their home particularly to keep 
them interested or occupied. 

As a result, they sought some outside outlet. Some outside method 
of diversity, and proceeded on a social plane; they had duly elected 
officers, they appointed a president, a secretary and treasurer. They 
had a system for collecting dues to help defray the expenses of their 
social activities. 

They certainly weren't cognizant of any infraction insofar as regu- 
lations in their organizations were concerned with small 10 or 15 cent 
fines if they insulted anyone or did something contrary to the organi- 
zation. 

However, as an entire group, or an entire organization being in- 
volved, I can mention only one instance where that seemed to have a 
prime purpose in the field of crime and it was organized probably on 
that specific basis, or with that intent. 

That, of course, is with the Green Street Counts, which is no longer 
existing. 

In this particular case the Pandoras and Exiles represented only the 
small fraction of membersliip of their personnel. We know that we 
liave them as members in social organizations and boys' clubs, at least 
a segment of that particular group. 

Senator Hennings. A substantial segment, would you say. Cap- 
tain? 

Captain IMitchell, Yes. 

Senator Heknings. Have you any idea of the numbers? What I 
am trying to get at is : We hear so much about these gangs and we say 
only certain members of the Pandora and the Exile gangs in this case 
were engajred in this law violation, and in this specific case this mur- 
der, this killing. 

Did this sort of activity have the approval of the rest of the mem- 
bership ? 

Captain Mitchell. No, sir. 

Senator Hennings. Either takes it, or did they condone it in any 
way? 

Captain Mitchell. Not at all. Tliere is not one vestige of it. 

Senator Hennixgs. So I gather from what you say. Captain, in 
this specific case you told us about, the killing of this young boy, that 
really was not a gang activity. It was an activity of certain members 
of a gang? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 21 

Senator Hennings. Just as you might have certain members of a 
church, or of a political party, or any other group who violates the 
law, but that does not involve the others of the membership. 

What I am trying to get at is : Are we overemphasizing the fact that 
these gangs are organized for the purpose of predatory activities and 
lawlessness, or does it just so happen that their neighborhoods and 
conditions are such that a portion of their membership does violate 
the law for reasons apart from the fact that they belong to a gang 
and that in some cases the so-called gangs or groups or organizations 
may even keep some of the boys or girls out of trouble ? 

Could that be true? 

Captain Mitchell. I agree with that, that we have overemphasized 
the fact that it is a gang situation. It is a segment within a gang 
on occasion. 

Senator Hennings. And it is a minority, in other words ? 

Captain Mitchell. It is a minority of the people in that organiza- 
tion. Actually, we have a small amount, as I say, 8 of them probably, 
that are on the active basis with 12 of them in 1 stage of either they 
are stationary, there isn't any activity with them ; they have not met, 
no meetings ; they don't congregate on a stipulated basis, and we can't 
say that they are actually inactive because there is still evidence about 
that, but they have not become active at all in the sense that the other 
8 have. 

Now, they have maintained their meetings and I think, if I have 
given the impression that in any of these cases this was the result of 
a common agreement as a policy, something that might be indicative 
of the intent of the entire organization, I have given you an erroneous 
impression. 

Senator Hennings. No, you did not give that impression and I 
did not mean to suggest that you have, but I think the impression 
generally has been given through lurid accounts in the press. It 
makes very good reading to talk about a young gang of teen-agers, 
it is good reading, it is exciting, it is arresting. 

The Chairman. It is dramatic. 

Senator Hennings. Yes, certainly, Mr. Chairman. 

Captain, you are the first witness we have had who has suggested 
that these so-called gangs are not conspiratorial organizations de- 
voted to lawlessness per se and having lawlessness as their primary 
objective. 

You have suggested that some of these gangs under certain con- 
ditions can even be stabilizing factors and influences for good just as 
the boys of a basketball team, where only some of the membership, or 
of the Chicago Black Sox might sell out and throw a game. That 
does not mean that the entire team, the entire city, or the entire school 
is composed of people who can be fixed and bought. 

Would that be an analogy in your mind. Captain ? 

Captain Mitchell. It would indeed. 

Senator Hennings. That is very interesting because it seems to me, 
Mr. Chairman, that the most we have heard about gangs, at least 
in the hearings that I can recall, there has been every indication 
that these gangs in other places are bent upon mischief, and that 
is the idea, the objective and the sole reason for their existence. 

But you present a very interesting sidelight or qualification. 



22 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. The Chair is of the same impression as the Sen- 
ator from Missouri, and this is very enlightening and it leads me to 
make this observation : 

I once belonged, as a very young boy, to a chib. It was called 
the Paiute Club, an Indian name, of course. We were organized 
for athletic purposes. We were very young boys. We became mis- 
chievous. Finally so much so that one of the fathers decided to go 
into this situation a little bit and he organized a scout troop. He 
made out of that Paiute Club a scout troop. It became one of the 
most constructive organizations in our community. 

I look back today, after all these 3'ears, with a great deal of pride 
on that scout troop because there was not one member there, unless 
it was the junior Senator from New Jersey, who did not succeed in 
life. I am very proud of that membership and the rolls, as I remem- 
ber the boys. 

Now, that mischievous age might have gone on for a long time if 
some father had not just taken hold at the right time. Which leads 
me to this question : 

Why can we not take these 8 gangs in Philadelphia, or 10 gangs in 
New York, or 2 gangs in Camden, and invade them and convert 
them ? As the Senator from Missouri said, put them through a period 
of transition toward the right side of life? 

Captain Mitchell. That is exactly our objective, sir, and in our 
field work with the knowledge and the investigations that we con- 
duct in regard to these organizations, that is exactly our attempt. 

We have succeeded to a degree in taking various members in any 
of the organizations mentioned and directed them to organized boys' 
clubs that are under good supervision, that are maintained with fa- 
cilities that are adequate, far above anything they could possibly 
attain on their own, and they are members of boys' clubs in the 
various areas there. 

I think specifically, in this area of Pandoras and Exiles, of the 
R. W. Brown Club, and we work in very close conjunction with 
agencies and groups that are interested in behavior of youth. 

Our referral program which, of course, is about the process: We 
proceed from direct police action on a white card status, in which 
we process these youths where we have four representatives from JAB 
working in close conjunction and meeting very periodically, making 
referrals to them and following it up from a statistical viewpoint as 
far as their disposition is concerned, and the consideration for the 
entire welfare. 

In this way we do circumvent the intent and purpose even of the 
members themselves if they should become concerned only with the 
lawlessness of their organization. I say that is an erroneous 
impression. 

If I have given that impression I have failed completely in this 
presentation. 

Senator Hennings. You have not given it. I think it is most 
gratifying to see a man of your evident caliber and interest and high 
mindedness. Captain, in charge of the Juvenile Aid Bureau of the 
Police Department of Philadelphia. 

You have been up against the rough end of law violation, have 
you not ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 23 

Senator Hennings. So have I. I have been district attorney in a 
big city. Are you not convinced very much that a very high per- 
centage of these youngsters get into trouble because they are not just 
directed — not that you want to make robots of them; not that you 
want to take them out into an enclosure and tell them they should be 
happy playing bean bag or peas-porridge hot or make sissies out of 
them. They just want somebody to take some interest in them, make 
them feel a little important and to treat them as individuals and 
human beings. 

So many people in communities think the people of lower economic 
groups, lower only in terms of their income, are not the same kind 
of people. There is really nothing wrong with the high percentage 
of these youngsters. They are not pathological liars or criminals or 
thieves. 

Captain Mitchell. No, sir; they are not. 

Senator Hennings. You are no sob sister in this line of work; 
you cannot be, and your training bespeaks that you have not been 
or you would not be where you are. 

Do you not find that too many people must be disabused of the 
idea that there is a so-called criminal class? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. That there is a large group of younger people 
now and older people tomorrow who will be in penitentiaries and in- 
stitutions who are inherently vicious. A lot of them can be saved 
from being pretty vicious if you get them in time, can they not? 

Captain Mitchell. I certainly subscribe to the latter policy. 

The only other thing I had in mind, sir, is in the matter of dispensa- 
tion of liquor or the procurement of liquor. 

Senator Hennings. Would you touch on marihuana and dope, too, 
while you are in that field ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir; I will. We have only had about 11 
cases in the higher age group of juveniles. I think that would cover 
14 to 17 years as Mr. Finnegan stated, and about 6 of them were 
actually in the marihuana category, the other 5 heroin. 

Mr. BoBo. Over what period of time was that that you had the 11? 

Captain Mitchell. Within the last 2 years, 1952 and 1953. We find 
that in all sincerity again, this is not a problem that is acute in Phila- 
delphia by any means. 

Actually, it is on such a small scale that we think it is negligible. 
It is impossible for an adolescent to be addicted to or to be a user and 
for someone not to know it. 

Now, it is different when you get into an adult stage where they 
may get away with it for a considerable length of time, but in a youth 
stage, I can't perceive the circumstances which would indicate they 
would become users and addicted to it on a long-term basis without 
someone knowing it. 

Procurement of liquor other than legitimate means represents a 
problem. We find that frequently the percentage is very high where 
a youth actually gets into serious trouble, is somewhere in the back- 
ground liquor, wine, or some brew had been produced in the picture. 

We are concerned with it and the manner in which we proceed in 
trying to abate the instances of occurrences is through complete in- 
vestigation and we adopt a policy of taking statements and present- 



24 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

ing tliem for prosecution regardless of the circumstances under which 
this youth obtained the liquor. 

Senator Hennings. Captain, some of us at any rate, were startled 
during the District of Columbia portion of these hearings to learn 
that there they have a provision which allows beer and wine to be 
sold to children between 18 and 21 and hard liquor to people over 21 
and the proprietors, bartenders, and others, waiters, and so on, are 
put to the responsibility of determining the age of the various 
customers. 

In other words, they are supposed to know precisely and with 
nicety whether the customer who asks for a drink of whisky is 20 
years and 11 months, 29 days, or whether he is just over the line. 

Do you have any such regulation here? That was one problem in 
enforcement down there. Am I right in my memory of that? 

The Chairman. The Senator from Missouri is entirely correct. We 
did find that some of these folks who were responsible did not accept 
their responsibilities with any degree of conscience. 

Senator Hennings. They were not really working at it. They were 
not preempting the function of the police in undertaking to enforce 
the law, but on the other hand, the law seems to be so difficult in- 
herently of enforcement. 

Where you can sell beer, you can sell something with a certain 
amount of alcohol as well as sell something with a lower alcoholic con- 
tent. Wliat is the age below which they cannot buy alcoholic 
beverages ? 

Captain Mitchell. Here, minors cannot buy it. 

Senator Hennings. What are your problems in the field of liquor? 

Captain Mitchell. I could cite 1 or 2 statistics here. It shows a 
sliglit trend in regard to 1953 position in liquor. Last year in 1953 
we had typical breakdowns of the manner in which this liquor was 
procured. And self-purchased under 16 years of age, we had 4 cases. 
Self-purchased between the years of 16 and 18, we had 32 cases. Be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 20, there were 19. 

Tlie Chairman. Would you describe what you mean by self- 
purchase ? 

Captain Mitchell. They represent instances of where the indi- 
vidual himself in this age category went right into the taproom and 
made the purchase directly and was served. 

From State stores between the ages of 16 and 18, we had 6 cases 
that we could establish, and in clubs between the 

The Chairman. In State stores? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes. 

The Chairman. How could that happen in a State store? Do not 
they require identification of some kind? 

Captain Mitchell. If there is any doubt in their mind they may 
ask for some sort of identification. However, we find they can be 
procured at almost any source. A brother's card, as far as naval serv- 
ices or armed services in many instances, suffices. 

Just a driver's license in some cases has been used. We believe there 
is some degree of age judgment that might be in error there. 

Senator Hennings. Do you have the State system of dispensing 
package liquors in Philadelphia ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 25 

Senator Hennings. And all over Pennsylvania? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir; we find that the clubs serve and that 
these youths between 16 and 18 are being served personally to the ex- 
tent of 6 cases. 

Tlie Chairman. That is in a period of 1 year ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir; in 1953. 

Mr. BoBO. Do these represent the juveniles that were arrested for 
drunkenness and you checked back on where they procured it? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. BoBO. This is juveniles ? 

Captain Mitchell. Purchases through adults in taprooms under 
16 years of age, we had 10 cases. 

Between the years of 16 and 18, we had 33 cases, and between the ages 
of 19 and 20, we had 8 in which adults actually procured the beverages 
for them. 

In the State stores we had 31 cases of where an adult purchased it 
for a youth under 16, and 40 cases for youths between the years of 16 
and 18 and 3 in the case of youths between the ages of 17 and 20. 

Mr. BoBO. Where you say these adults purchased it, is that usually 
people that hang around the store, that they give a quarter to? I 
have heard a lot about that since I have been here, of a wino that some 
kid would walk up to and give him a quarter to go in and buy for them. 

Captain Mitchell. That is, often times they solicit someone away 
from the area of the store themselves and they proceed there to make 
the purchase. They make the purchase either for some financial con- 
sideration, or for a quantity of the purchase itself. 

Private parties have contributed 10 cases under 16, and 34 cases 
between the years of sixteen and eighteen, and two cases between 
the years nineteen and twenty. 

We had a total of 229 cases that were investigated and processed 
by JAB throughout the year 1953, among white juveniles, and we 
had 82 Negro cases. 

We find that 266 complete investigations were conducted and 131 
were directed by complaint received by the bureau. 

The Chairman. What happens as a result of these investigations? 
What happened to the licenses? 

Captain Mitchell. They are fined. I don't have the statistical 
breakdown of the disposition. We proceed against them criminally 
and then we refer the matter to the liquor control board for their 
consideration. 

In every investigation we make we cooperate to the extent that the 
complete record of our investigation and statements are forwarded 
to the local liquor control board. 

The Chairman. Were the licenses revoked in any of these cases 
that you recall ? 

Captain Mitchell. Not to my knowledge. 

The Chairman. We found in the city of Boston a very loose situa- 
tion. They have not had a revocation of a license despite all these 
complaints made by the police. The licensing board never even took 
sworn testimony. They issued licenses without hearing witnesses un- 
der oath and all that sort of thing. 

I think with a little enforcement here, you might relieve the police 
of this rather difficult burden. 



26 JTTVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Captain Mitchell. I agree that we are susceptible to any aid we 
can get in the matter, because we have always thought it was a prob- 
lem for everyone. 

The Chairman. Here we have some 200 cases in the course of the 
year where you have made complete inquiry and made a record and 
as far as you know not one revocation of a license ? 

Captain Mitchell. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Of course, under your State law it is illegal to sell 
to a minor ? 

Captain Mitchell, Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You see, there is your adult delinquency. That 
is one phase of your adult delinquency which is contributing to juve- 
nile delinquency, 

I am not criticizing any individual. I am just pointing up the fact 
that we have to learn to behave ourselves as grownups before we 
can speak too much of the children. 

Captain Mitchell. It is imperative, I think, 

Mr. BoBO. On these matters of alcohol, these 228 cases, these indi- 
viduals would have to be in a pretty inebriated condition before they 
came to your attention ? 

Captain Mitchell. In only a few instances. Directly it arises 
from within a home itself where the parents observe the condition, they 
know there has been drinking to some degree. Not necessarily to 
the degree of intoxication. I don't mean in each case this was a case 
of stupefying intoxication at all. 

If the result of our investigation and interrogation, of course, re- 
veals the source, and we proceed to go there with the youth to com- 
plete identification and process the case criminally and make a 
complete referral of this matter to the liquor control board • 

Senator Hennings. The liquor control board is appointed by the 
Governor, Captain? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. How many members does it have ? 

Captain Mitchell. I frankly don't know the strength of the mem- 
bership locally or on the Commonwealth basis. I believe from my 
conversations with representatives that they are operating with a 
deficit in personnel. 

Senatoj- Hennings. But there is a board consisting of some three 
or four, liowever many individuals? 

Captain Mitchell. On a State level. 

Senator Hennings, Then they have deputies, do they not? How is 
Pliiladelphia organized ? 

Captain Mttcheli,. Tliey have a field director in the city of Phila- 
delphia which handles complaints not only in the city of Philadelphia, 
but an area adjacent to it. 

Senator Hennings. Now, if you make a complaint, Captain, you 
would make it to the director here in Philadelphia, would you not? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes. 

Senator Hennings, Would he have a hearing here in Philadelphia 
about it? What would be the procedure? 

Captain Mitchell, We send it to them for their evaluation and 
whatever action they deem necessary under the circumstances and on 
the basis of our investiirations. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 27 

Of course, there have been instances, sir, I would hesitate to say 
the degree or percentage of instances insofar as the cases involved 
are concerned because I frankly do not know and I might do someone 
else an injustice, but if there is grounds and they seem to deem it neces- 
sary, there are hearings before a liquor board and actually sworn tes- 
timony is taken there. 

Senator Hennixgs. That board determines then whether a license 
shall or shall not be revoked? 

Captain JNIitciiell. Their recommendations, of course, are for- 
warded to their government body. 

Senator Hennings. To Harrisburg? 

Captain Mitch icll.. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, do they conduct public hearings ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Where do they hold the hearings? In the city? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes. 

The Chairman. Are you familiar with any revocations in the past 
year, of licenses for violations of the law ? 

Captain Mitchell. No, sir; I can't think of one I participated in. 

Senator Hennings. You say there has been no revocation in the 
past year ? 

Captain Mitchell, Not to my knowledge resulting from investiga- 
tion of juvenile actions. 

Senator Hennings. And you would know? That is part of your 
job? 

Captain Mitchell. It is. 

Senator Hennings. You keep records of cases you refer and, quite 
naturally, being an efficient, Avell-trained, responsible officer, you would 
keep a record of the disposition of those cases. 

Captain Mitchell. Let me say this emphatically, since I have as- 
sumed command there has not been one. 

Senator Hennings. How long has that been ? 

Captain Mitchell. March 8 of this year, and I don't know of any 
in the prior year. I have looked at the record. 

Senator Hennings. You have checked the back records, too ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. x\s your memory serves, and you think it does^ 
there have been none for at least a year? 

Captain Mitchell. None to my knowledge. 

The Chairman. I wonder if you could get for the subcommittee's 
record, through some appropriate agency, a list of the number of 
licensees who operate taverns or saloons in the city of Philadelphia? 
Could you get that figure for us ? 

Captain SIitcuell. Yes, I can. 

The Chairman. I do not want to charge you with any responsibility 
that is not yours, but if you could get in touch with the appropriate 
authority and furnish it for the record, it will be appreciated. 

Captain Mitchell. I will be happy to do so. 

Senator Hennings. Also, the number of cases in connection with 
the captain and his bureau under his direction and for the year pre- 
ceding the captain's tenure of office which have been referred to the 
director. 



28 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir ; I will do that. 

Mr. BoBO. I think we have that. 

Senator Hennings. If you have that, we will not impose on you, 
Captain. 

The Chairman. Captain, I find that our able staff has already 
promulgated part of this record. You can collaborate with them and 
furnish the rest of the figures. 

Senator Hennings. However, in glancing over this, I think we 
must certainly be fair, Mr. Chairman. It appears, does it not, Mr. 
Counsel, that while there have been no revocations as a result of the 
city of Philadelphia board action, there have been on the basis of 
sales to minors 17 citations and 14 suspensions as a result of that? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes. 

The. Chairman. Temporary suspensions ? 

Captain Mitchell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. So that on the basis of sales to minors and 
other violations, there have been 14 suspensions. 

Total involving sales to minors, out of 32 citations, there have been 
28 suspensions. 

So that while there have not been revocations, there has been dis- 
ciplinary action. 

Captain Mitchell. There has indeed, sir. 

The Chairman. Suspension might be for a very short period. 

Senator Hennings. I tliink that sliould appear in the record, as a 
mattei' of fairness to the otlier officials. 

Tlie Chairman. Wliat shocks the Cliair as an individual member 
of this subcommittee is tliat you had over 200 serious cases of drinking 
among juveniles and no revocations. That is a little hard to 
comprolieud. 

Mr. Bono. I have no further questions. 

Senator Hennings. Are we, Mr. Chairman, going to have anybody 
from this liquor control agency? 

INIr. BoBo. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. I think, then, we might reserve further ques- 
tions. I realize it is rather difficult sometimes to ask a man in the 
captain's position to comment on the work of other people. 

Captain Mitchell. I appreciate that consideration. 

The Chairman. I do not think the captain has been critical of 
anybody. He has furnished a fine statement of facts. 

We are indeed grateful to you for your appearance here this 
morning. 

Captain Mttcheix. Thank you. 

Mr. BoBo. Lt. Andrew Waters. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
will give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
of the ITnited States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Lieutenant Waters. I do. 

Mr. BoBO. Please state your name and address. 

Lieutenant Waters. Lt. Andrew J. Waters, Philadelphia Police 
Department, assigned to juvenile aid bureau. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 29 

TESTIMONY OF IT. ANDKEW J. WATERS, MORALS SQUAD, 
JUVENILE AID BUREAU, POLICE DEPARTMENT, PHILADEL- 
PHIA, PA. 

Mr. BoBO. I think, Lieutenant, that now you are an administrative 
assistant to the commanding officer, but prior to that time you were 
connected with the morals squad of the juvenile aid bureau. 

Lieutenant Waters. Correct. 

Mr. BoBO. Would you give us a background of some of your police 
experience ? 

Lieutenant Waters. I have been in the police department for 12 
years. I was assigned to district work up until 1950, at which time I 
was transferred to juvenile aid bureau in plainclothes and assigned to 
the morals squad. 

The morals squad was formulated on December 4, 1919, as a result 
of an order from the director of public safety at that time. 

Wlien it started off its personnel consisted of 5 patrolmen and 2 
policewomen. 

The purpose of the squad was to specialize in the apprehension and 
prosecution of sex offenders, using a technique which offered a mini- 
mum of embarrassment to the individual and with a sympathetic 
approach to the problem of the offender. 

The work in the morals squad may be divided into two categories. 

No. 1. The cases resulting from the complaints of citizens involving 
offenses against women and children. 

No. 2. Those cases resulting from the officers seeking out the type of 
obnoxious sex offenders committing acts of public indecency and 
homosexuality in public places. 

Mr. BoBO. That is the operation of the plainclothes man ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes. 

Mr. BoBO. Can you give us any idea as to the current situation 
regarding juvenile sex offenses as your morals squad has found them? 

Lieutenant Waters. I would say it is about normal from 1950 up to 
the present time. It may fluctuate 2 points here or there. 

In 1950 arrests under 18 years of age of juveniles was 98. 

The Chairman. That is for the whole city ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes ; the total arrests were 445. 

Now, these arrests were strictly morals squad arrests which repre- 
sented 25 percent of juveniles. 

In 1951 there was a total of 363 arrests made, of which 53 were 
juveniles, which represented a figure of 15 percent. 

In 1952 the morals squad had 584 arrests, in which 155 were 
juveniles, which was 30 percent. 

In 1953 the morals squad had 820 arrests, 272 juveniles, which 
represented about 25 percent. 

Now, the victims of these particular sex offenses, I only have the 
figures, I am sorry to say, for 1952 and 1953. 

In 1952 there were 495 children under the age of 18 years that were 
victims of sex offenders, wliieh represented a figure of 80 percent of 
our victims in sex offenses. 

In 1953 we had a total of 618 juvenile victims of sex offenders, which 
lepresented a figure of 75 percent. 

4f;9«C— 54— — 3 



30 JUVENILE DELENQUENCY 

Mr. BoBO. You are comparing your arrests there, you are saying 
that 25 percent of those that commit sex offenses are juveniles? 

Lieutenant Waters. Right. 

Mr. BoBO. But that tlie victims of the adults and also the juveniles, 
the greatest proportion of them are juveniles against whom these 
offenses are committed ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Correct, about 80 percent. 

The Chairman. In other words, these juveniles are victims of 
aduhs? 

Lieutenant Waters. That is right. 

IVIr. BoBO. Within the city of Philadelphia is there any extent of 
juvenile homosexuality, as you know, which is one of the areas of 
our exploration ? 

Lieutenant Waters. In 1950 we had a total of four juveniles arrested 
for the act of sodomy, which is the charge here in Pennsylvania. 

In 1952 we arrested 32 juveniles for sodomy, and in 1953 we ar- 
rested 42 ; 32 in 1952, and 42 in 1953. 

Since the formulation of the morals squad and the arrest of all 
these juveniles, I would like to add we did not have a recidivist among 
them. 

Mr. BoBO. "^^liat is the usual disposition of a case of that type? 

Lieutenant Waters. "Wlien a juvenile is arrested he is sent to youth 
study center where previous to his hearing he is completely examined. 
He i-eceives a complete medical examination and he also is examined 
by a psychiatrist and a psychologist. 

Then their recommendations are forwarded to the juA^enile court 
judge for disposition. 

There are numerous cases where they are put on probation, and 
that also applies to the adult who is arrested. We work very closely 
with the quarter sessions court. Dr. Stewart is the physician with the 
quarter sessions court. 

The Chairman. The court of sessions is part of your common pleas 
court here ? 

Lieutenant Waters. That is correct. 

Mr. BoBO. In your investigation of the particular type of offenses, 
have you ever run across any pornographic literature, any books or 
magazines that might incite these youngsters to the type of offenses 
which they commit ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes. All told, since the formulation of the 
morals sr|uad, we have had seven cases involving juveniles and porno- 
graphic literature. We have arrested numerous adults in possession 
of it, but where it involved juveniles it was just seven cases. One was 
a 70-year-old man taking several photos of children, the oldest who 
happened to be 13, and the youngest 7. 

The Chairman. You could tie these offenses right into this litera- 
ture, could you ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Not that particular one. 

The Chairman. Coidd you say clearly that the literature was re- 
sponsible for the offense? 

Lieutenant Waters. The only case that I recall or could cite is the 
case of two boys in a certain section of the city here who stated they 
were walking along the highway and they found a couple photos of 
obscene literature. They took them home and at Christmastime their 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 31 

father G;ave them a development set and he developed several pictures 
from these two they found. They were showing these to a 17-year-old 
boy. 

As a result this 17-year-old boy became aroused. A 6-year-old fe- 
male child had passed at the time and she was immediately seized by 
this 17-year-old boy and as a result assaulted. 

That is the only case that I know of that would be directly con- 
nected with the literature. 

Senator Hennings. That is, they said that was the reason ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. I think, Mr. Chairman, we get back down to 
that old legal principle of proximate cause. 

The Chairman. That is correct. 

Senator Hennings. As to whether that alone, or that in combina- 
tion with many other factors may have resulted in the offense. 

The Chairman. In this particular case the literature seems to have 
been the proximate cause without question. How well we can tie 
much of this literature in, I don't know. We are going to try to find 
that out in the hearings in New York. 

Mr. BoBO. I am speaking mainly now, Lieutenant, about the obscene 
pornographic, little picture-book magazines. 

Lieutenant Waters. I have some here. We call them "two-by- 
fours." 

Mr. BoBO. Is there any wide distribution of that among adults 
and children in Philadelphia ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Very small. I would say very small. A total 
of 14 cases in a period of 4 years. 

Mr. BoBO. "\^lien it is sold it is sold by a man on the street or in 
a low-type bookshop, or where have you found it being sold ? 

Lieutenant Waters. In one particular case outside of one of our 
high schools a boy was apprehended by one of the juvenile aid officers 
with a pornographic book. He led us to another high school where 
we questioned two boys and confiscated four more books. 

LTpon questioning this boy he led us to a 17-year-old boy in the cen- 
ter of the city. LTpon questioning this 17-year-old boy, they re- 
ceived information they were were coming from a certain section of 
New Jersey, South Camden. 

As a result we got in touch with the Camden authorities and raided 
the place over there and that was the source that was coming into 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. BoBO. Have you ever run into any instances of white-slave 
traffic in Philadelphia involving juveniles? 

Lieutenant Waters. None whatsoever. 

Mr. BoBO. There is no organized effort here ? 

Mr. Waters. No. 

Senator Hennings. "V\Tiy do you call them two-by-fours ? 

Lieutenant Waters. The size of them. Some are five by eight. 

The Chairman. As a citizen of New Jersey I am shocked to find 
that some of your trouble in Philadelphia co'mes from New Jersey, 
As to this place that was raided, was there thorough prosecution ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes. 

The Chairman. And conviction ? 

liieuten ant Waters. Yes. 



32 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. So that our law-enforcement authorities in New 
Jersey did operate ? 

Lieutenant Waters. They did a wonderful job. 

Senator Hennings. You are vindicated, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions ? 

Senator Hennings. How about these comic books that we are hear- 
ing so much about ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Those are the two-by-fours. 

Senator Hennings. Those are two-by-f ours, too ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. I mean the larger format. 

Lieutenant Waters. No complaints whatsoever. 

Senator Hennings. You look those over pretty carefully ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes, we do. 

Senator Hennings. You don't see anything in your judgment 

Lieutenant Waters. Nothing that would violate the laws of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Senator Hennings. Pennsylvania laws are reasonably strict in that 
regard, are they not? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes, they are. 

Senator Hennings. So that is an excellent record in a city of this 
size. 

Lieutenant Waters. Thank you. 

Senator Hennings. You have done a good job of cleaning this 
character of law violation up. What are your problems in connec- 
tion with it, particularly, Lieutenant? 

Lieutenant Waters. I would say prosecution, having the victim 
come forward to prosecute in open court. 

Senator Hennings. That is, testify as to the particulars neces- 
sary to sustain a conviction ? 

Lieutenant Waters. That is right. We have to really talk, es- 
pecially to a female, to come into court. 

Senator Hennings. You can subpena them, can you not? 

Lieutenant Waters. That is right. 

Senator Hennings. If you brought a prosecution you can bring 
them in as witnesses so that they are in tliat respect compelled to 
testify unless they avail themselves of the fifth amendment? 

Lieutenant Waters. Our whole difficulty in the beginning is get- 
ting the story of exactly what happened. They don't want to talk. 

Senator Hennings. During the period of investigation ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes. 

The Chairman. Lieutenant, you testified to these sex offenses. 
Where do they occur ? Where do these things happen ? 

Lieutenant Waters. In subways, around our school buildings, parks, 
on the highwa3^s. Numerous times in the homes. 

The Chairman. But mostly in these public areas ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is there any way you can better police these areas ? 

Lieutenant Waters. Of course, at the present time the moral squad 
is under their quota, but with their full quota I believe they could 
police them very well. 

The Chairman. I think one witness testified you had 89 policemen 
assigned to the juvenile squad. 

Lieutenant Waters. That is correct. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 33 

The Chairman". And 25 policewomen ; is that right ? 

Lieutenant Waters. That is right. 

The Chairman. That is not a very great number for a city of 
this size ; is it ? 

Lieutenant Waters. No, at the present time the moral squad is 
9 patrolmen and 2 policewomen, who have the duties of investi- 
gating all sex offenders in the city of Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. You have no further questions ? 

Mr. BoBO. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Lieutenant. You have been very help- 
ful to us and made a real contribution. 

Lieutenant Waters. Thank you. 

Mr. BoBO. Mrs. Norma B. Carson. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judi- 
ciary of the United States Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Carson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. NORMA B. CARSON, FORMER CHIEF POLICE- 
WOMAN, JUVENILE AID BUREAU, POLICE DEPARTMENT, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. We are glad to have you 
with us this morning. 

Will you, for the record, state your full name, address, and your 
association ? 

Mrs. Carson. Norma B. Carson, 44 Spruce Street. I have been a 
policewoman of Philadelphia for over 18 years and have retired as of 
January 9, this year. 

The Chairman. I am sure the city of Philadelphia is losing a great 
lady. 

Mrs. Carson. Thank you. 

Mr. BoBO. Mrs. Carson, you have a statement which you would like 
to allude to ? 

Mrs. Carson. I would like very much to give a bit of background 
of the policewomen in Philadelphia. I think we might reach very 
wrong conclusions from certain things that have been said. 

First of all, in the juvenile aid bureau, men can be recruited from 
the regular police force, but there are no women from whom you can 
get recruits for the women's unit. 

We have just 34 policewomen in the city of Philadelphia. The 2 
women in the morals squad are 2 of those 34. 

We have one women in the detective division and continuously there 
are demands on the policewomen's unit for a certain special detail, 
homicide squad and detective division, which, of course, is now known 
as the criminal investigation division. 

But I thought I ought to make that clear because the understaffing 
in the policewomen's unit is, at the present time, a really crucial 
matter. 

Eighteen years ago I was asked to create a policewomen's unit in 
Philadelphia. I have been a magistrate appointed by the Governor 
of tlie Coniirionwealth. That was called the crime prevention divi- 
sion of the bureau of police and we had five policewomen. 



34 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. You are a member of the bar? 

^Irs. Carson. I am not. Our magistrates do not have to be members 
of the bar. 

Now, when we went into this work the Crime Prevention Associa- 
tion was just 6 years old and was working principally with boys be- 
tween 16 and 2i. Policewomen were charged with the handling of 
boys and girls under 16 to which we added the girls 16 to 21 because 
she seemed to be in a sort of no man's land. 

Now, that was pioneer work in crime prevention. I think, Chicago, 
for instance, did not institute its crime-prevention work until just a 
few years ago. I think it has now been about 4 years. 

New York had a crime-prevention division which did become a 
juvenile aid bureau. 

Our crime prevention division in the police department, of which 
the policewoman is a part, did not become the juvenile division until 
1950 and did not become the juvenile aid bureau until 1952. 

Now prevention is the technique that I think we are needing most 
in Philadelphia at the present time. 

One thing that I would like to suggest, and I think it was mentioned 
here earlier in the meeting, there should be some uniformity in the 
juvenile age throughout the Nation. 

The Chairman. I am glad to hear you say that because I feel very 
strongly on that point. 

Mrs. Carson. Well, I do, too, because it is impossible for us to evalu- 
ate juvenile delinquency even in adequate terms in which we can 
evaluate it at the present time unless we do have a greater uniformity 
in the juvenile age. 

Now, I would like to go one step further and, of course, many people 
will think this is a backward step rather than a forward one. 

You have heard that in 1939 we raised the juvenile age in Pennsyl- 
vania to 18 ; in other words, everybody 17 or under is a juvenile. Now, 
we are having these more serious 

The Chairman. That is for purposes of prosecution? 

Mrs. Carson. That is for our juvenile court. But we have a juve- 
nile court act in the State of Pennsylvania that states very definitely 
that you may not charge a juvenile with any crime. We are doing it 
every day in the week. We are arresting children for larceny, for 
arson, for any of the many things with which they can be charged. 

Of course, in preventive work where arrests are necessary we very 
often use the term "investigation and medical examination," or merely 
"investigation." 

Now, it seems to me that boys and girls over 16 years of age, this 
group in the 17-year-old group, are old enough to be held responsible 
for crimes they commit, and, therefore, it would seem to me a far 
more logical thing that we have the 16-year-old limit rather than the 
18-year, and then we do not have our youth study center, which is our 
house of detention for juveniles, cluttered up with these older boys 
and girls, particularly boys, who are still heard in the juvenile court. 

But they would be henrd in the court of sessions court for the actual 
crimes they commit. Now, that seems to me to be rather one of our 
problems at the present time. 

The Chairman. Do you have a system of waivers from a juvenile 
court to the court of sessions court ? 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 35 

Mrs. Carson. Very, very few. As a matter of fact, onr juvenile 
court records are not open to the court of sessions court. A boy may 
be 17 today and commit a crime — I am not speaking now of murder, 
because murder, of course, goes into the court of sessions court auto- 
matically — but a boy may commit a burglary today and he is 17 years 
of age. His case will be heard in the juvenile court. 

Now a boy may have a long record in the juvenile court, but he may 
not commit a burglary or larceny until three or 4 days after he has 
become 18. Therefore, the judge in the courts treats that as a first 
offense because he does not have access to the records of the juvenile 
court. 

That seems to me to be one of the reasons why we have more 
obstacles than are quite necessary in our combating of juvenile 
delinquency. 

Now, I am going to state very clearly that I am now talking of 
policewomen's work. I believe that we should have one policewoman 
in every police setup throughout the United States. 

Now, we do have large numbers of policewomen in certain cities, 
as probably you already know. Of course, in the European countries 
they liave very adequate police setups. London has 359 policewomen 
in its metropolitan area. 

Now, the first and foremost function of a policewoman is the pro- 
tection of women and children. We have believed here in Philadel- 
phia that policewomen should handle all girls. Now, during the 
years 1936 to 1941, we handled on an average of 2,000 cases a year of 
both boys and girls. In 1941 the boys were given over to the juris- 
diction of the men in the crime-prevention division. Since that time 
the policewomen's unit has handled on an average of 2,500 girls a 
year who have not been arrested save in a minimum of cases. 

For example, in 1952, out of 3,077 girls there were only 151 who 
had to be arrested because they failed of adjustment. 

In 1953 the policewomen's unit handled 2,075 cases and of those only 
36 were arrested. 

Now, of the remainder, adjustments were made in more than 80 
percent of the cases. Of course, there were some cases that had to be 
closed because girls weren't found and things of that kind. And the 
point I am making, if we are asking for suggestions as to what should 
be done with regard to the handling of girls, it seems to me that we 
should consider the two schools of thought that exist, one of which is 
that a policewoman's role is purely enforcement. 

The other is that a policewoman's role is rather bigger than that, 
that she is charged with the protection of women and children, and 
during the war it was proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that the 
work the policewomen did with girls, particularly in the investigation 
of venereal-disease cases and in the handling of the co-called victory 
girl, it was very necessary for policewomen to do more than law- 
enforcement work. She had to make personal contacts with these 
girls. 

As a matter of fact, in the city of Philadelphia when the police- 
women had been doing what you might call almost maximum patrol 
work, we were able to control certain situations. 

For instance, for three Sundays past one of our popular commenta- 
tors has drawn attention to the section on Market Street west of the 
courtyard of city hall. Now, in that section during the time that the 



36 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

policewomen were doing full patrol work those conditions were un- 
controlled and I can testify to that because of having been there many 
Limes and having known what conditions exist. 

The Chairman. What were those conditions'? 

Mrs. Carson. You see, there are penny arcades, all night movies, 
cheap eating places, and some taprooms, and I believe the charge 
is being made now, and this has come not only from the person I 
mentioned, but from a number of people who happened to be around 
there at certain times — there is a tendency for minors to be in several 
of the taprooms. 

Girls and boys make their dates in some of these luncheonettes. 
There is one particular one where the girl who wants to make a date 
with a sailor boy makes it in that place. 

Now, that leads to a great many kinds of delinquency. We have 
talked to as high as 50 girls in a night in that area. 

The Chairman. In a night, you say ? 

Mrs. Carson. In a night. We have taken into the district or city 
hall, the nearest district of city hall, possibly 8 or 9 girls whose parents 
have been sent for. 

The Chairivian. How old would these girls be ? 

Mrs. Carson. Those girls range from 13 years to about 18. 

Now, also, in that area arrests that have been made have produced 
venereal disease cases, so that if we want to make a plan as to what 
can be done in Philadelphia, it seems to me that the understaffing of 
the policewomen's unit is a very vital matter. 

Now, there are 15 more policewomen in the budget this year. 

The Chairman. What does that make the total ? 

Mrs. Carson. That would make the total 40. If there were 40, of 
course, this preventive work could be mucli more adequately done. 
Policewomen can prove themselves to be the friends of girls. Per- 
sonally, I think we arrest too many juveniles. I think that where 
you can avoid an arrest and where you can make an adjustment 
through a home visit or through contact with the mother of the girl, 
or the father and mother, if there happens to be both, that is much 
more worthwhile than taking the girl in a police district and sending 
her into our house of detention and possibly having her held even 
on a charge of incorrigibility or for investigation, for a court hearing, 
is unnecessary. 

It is also costly. And if the right kind of preventive work is done, 
that girl can many times be taken from where she has gone just off 
the reservation back to a place where she can become a perfectly good 
citizen. 

I could point to many, many cases that we have in our files where 
that teclmique has brought about an adjustment. 

The Chairman. From your rich experience in this field, could you 
give this committee a percentagewise figure as to how many cases 
could be adjusted? 

Mrs. Carson. I have here some figures for those last — 

The Chairman. It is an unfair question, I know, but I thought it 
would be helpful. 

Mrs. Carson. No, I think it is a perfectly fair question. Adjust- 
ments were made in 1953 on 2,102 cases. Now, that was the year when 
2,506 girls were handled and only 36 were arrested. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 37 

Now, in the preceding year when tliere were 3,000 girls, 77 girls 
were handled as what we call nonarrest cases and I'ol were arrested, 
there were adjustments made on 1,100 — I am sorry, what I have here 
is that in that year the policewomen actually supervised 1,175 girls. 

The Chairman. Twenty-five policewomen? 

Mrs. Carson. Twenty-five policewomen and they were not all work- 
ing on this work. But that supervision was actually done and in all 
but the cases that have been mentioned there were adjustments made. 

Now, I would like to say another thing. Wliile I do not have the 
exact figures on this, we have not had repeaters among the girls that 
the policewomen supervised. There have been many more repeaters 
among the girls who have been arrested and sent in to the court. That 
is why I wish to make the point that w^e have here in Philadelphia a 
condition, it has nothing to do with gangs because to my knowledge 
we have not had more than about four girl gangs in all the years that 
I have been in the police department. 

The Chairman. Do those gangs follow pretty much the same 
pattern which was described so well by the captain ? 

Mrs. Carson. No, I would say this, the girl gangs are usually tied 
up with boy gangs. For instance, this gang that they call the Exiles, 
we had 2 years ago a gang of girls known as Exilerrittes. They were 
very troublesome in school ; they were in a certain high school and a 
few of them were in a junior high school that is adjacent. 

Tliose girls more or less terrorized certain other girls in their schools 
and other schools that they didn't like. The gang was broken up 
completely, but we found one time last year that in a certain lunch- 
eonette there were activities on the part of a certain group of girls who 
turned out to be, some of them the same girls who were in the Exiler- 
ritte gang, who were now the Exhilerritte girls and they were the 
female portion of the Exiles. 

Now, the girl part of that was pretty well broken up, too, although 
I cannot speak specifically about the episode of the homicide case, I 
think the captain mentioned something about a girl in that and I do 
not Iniow anything about that. But I do know that a crowd of girls 
who hung out in this luncheonette and who were suspected of not 
living up to very good moral standards, that crowd was broken up as 
such. 

Now, when we are talking about the handling of girls, we have a 
great many girls at the present time who need a considerable amount 
of what you might call moral guidance. And that is something that 
policewomen can do. 

It was mentioned here a few minutes ago that people do not like to 
go to agencies. That is very true, but a policewoman can go into a 
home and become very much the sympathetic investigator in that 
home, and many times when you take a girl under your supervision 
you have to take her mother under supervision, too, because in a good 
many cases these particular situations arise from misunderstanding 
that girls had in their homes. 

You may say why do people come to the police department for help 
and advice of that kind when we have so many social agencies. Well, 
tliey do not come necessarily, but the policewoman has the entree to 
that home and just the little authority she has, because she does not 
pretend to exercise her full authority, makes it possible for her to be 
of help and use in that home. 



38 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Now, we do work witli all agencies, of course, but I still believe that 
we need to clarify for the benefit of everybody the matter of whether 
policewomen shall do any supervisory and guidance work, or whether 
they shall be confined absolutely to law-enforcement work, and have 
everything of the other type turned over to agencies who do not have 
any definite authority back of them, but have to approach the whole 
subject from an entirely different angle. 

Of course, you know we are very much handicapped at the present 
time by all the theories we have about many of these things. We are 
handicapped a good deal by an oversupply of psychiatric advice and 
that sort of thing. 

Many of our children who are regarded as possible psychopathies 
are not such at all. They are only children who have not been taught 
to obey in their homes, who have been permitted to get away with 
all sorts of disobedience and disorder in their schools and therefore 
there is not very much that the community can do until the homes 
and the schools get together. 

Senator Hennings. We have been hearing testimony from a good 
many people and many who have had experience such as you have had 
in practical work in this field. I was interested to know what more 
specifically you mean by being handicapped by some of these psy- 
chiatric efforts or efforts to blame certain deviations from good con- 
duct, without getting into the specific terminology of the psychiatric 
field, blame these things on departures from what might be considered 
the normal. 

The Chairman. The Chair would not want to try to read Mrs. 
Carson's mind, but I think what she was referring to is that we are 
living in an era or period where we are inclined to overemphasize 
many things. 

Is that what you were trying to say ? 

Mrs. Carson. What I meant particularly in speaking of psychiatry 
was that I have handled so many girls and have seen their reactions 
to certain things that are published along the line of psychiatry, and 
I have also had many mothers say to me, "Well, don't you think 
my child is really mentally ill ? Don't you think I should see a 
psychiatrist?" 

Now, that is what I meant. Because I think there is too much of 
a tendency to overemphasize the possibility of mental illness when it 
may not be mental illness at all, but may be simply lack of parental 
control. 

Senator Hennings. I do not mean to quarrel and argue about that, 
Mrs. Carson, but you have opened up a subject which is of great 
interest to this subcommittee because we have had some psychiatrists 
before us; we have had some judges and others who deplore the 
modern emphasis upon psychiatry and its techniques. 

Now, do you have any faith in psychiatry at all as a profession? 

Mrs. Carson. Yes, I would not want to say that I have no belief in 
the efficacy of psychiatry; no, because where there is a psychopathic 
element that is an entirely different matter. I am talking about the 
cases that might be handled without an attempt to bring psychiatry in 
and I am also talking about some of the misleading things. 

Now, to be perfectly frank, I have had girls, who have committed 
moral violations, bring up certain things in the Kinsey Report. Now, 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 39 

they have not read the Kiiisey Report, but they have read the con- 
densation and the interpretations of the Kinsey Report that have been 
presented in so many of our magazines, and they have been misled by 
that sort of thing, and that is the kind of psychiatry that I do deplore. 
And also this tendency to 

Senator Hennings. That is really pseudopsychiatry. 

Mrs. Carson. That is partly so. 

Senator Hennings. That is to say, the presentation by a popular 
magazine of the Kinsey reports. I assume that some fellow who 
wants to write a magazine article would read them or not read them, 
depending on his degree of conscientiousness, or his need of material, 
and he would sell a lurid condensation of what he conceives to be an 
arresting presentation of what is contained in these widely publicized 
reports and says, "This is it, you don't have to read the book. This 
is a condensation of it." 

Mrs. Carson. This is very accessible to ovir youngsters. There was 
a time when you would ask a girl what she read in the way of maga- 
zines and, of course, she would tell you True Romance, True Confes- 
sions, and that sort of thing. I would say, "Let me give you some 
really good magazines to read." I would bring out the women's 
magazines, but today you cannot do that because our women's maga- 
zines skate very much over thin ice. 

Senator Hennings. Including the Ladies Home Journal in 
Philadelphia ? 

Mrs. Carson. The Ladies Home Journal, the "Woman's Home Com- 
panion, and even Good Housekeeping, which you would think would 
seem to be beyond that. 

Senator Hennings. Without resorting to competent psychiatry, 
how are we to determine whether some of these cases are properly 
within the purview of psychiatric treatment or not? 

Mrs. Carson. Of course, I think that where there is a real suspicion 
of a mental illness that case should be referred to the court so that 
the court through its preliminary examination, and so forth, may be 
able to decide whether it shall be taken further. 

We do need in Pennsylvania more psychiatric clinics and we do, 
as everyone knows, need more mental hospitals. But the thing I am 
objecting to is referring to every child who deviates from right con- 
duct as a mentally ill child. 

We can excuse a great many things on the basis of this. 

Senator Hennings. A great deal of it has gone to such extreme in 
some quarters younger people are encouraged to deny or not to accept 
responsibility for their open acts for the reason that everything that 
they do is the result of some mistreatment that they had as youngsters, 
or perhaps overprotection ; in other words, to blame it on ma and pa. 

Mrs. Carson. Or maybe they were not disciplined sufficiently in 
their early years. 

Senator Hennings. Yes. Whatever it may have been it is a very 
easy way to transfer our own obligations and responsibilities back 
to the preceding generation, to say that they were failures and that we 
might be somewhat failures ourselves. 

But it is because they were failures. So then we go on back genera- 
tion after generation, do we not? It is a pretty old story, this business 
of the younger generation. 



40 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

I was reading an old edition of London Punch of 100 years ago just 
the other day. There was much in there about the younger genera- 
tion, two men walking across London Bridge and the other said the 
younger generation is certainly going fast and the other man in the 
London fog said, "Yes, going fast in the wrong direction." 

But it has always been that way, has it not ? 

Mrs. Carson. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. We find things out of the excavations of the 
archeologists which would indicate the younger generation was a 
problem then. Of course, the younger generation then became the 
older generation of tomorrow. 

Mrs. Carson. That is quite true, but in the city of Philadelphia we 
are suffering very greatly from an experiment that was made in 
progressive education some years ago. We have brought up two 
generations of children in our schools who have not had proper disci- 
pline. That has been reflected to a large extent in homes because now 
we are getting juvenile delinquency from homes of average income 
and better-than-average income. 

In other words, we are having among our delinquents a great many 
spoiled children. That all emanates from the fact that some of t\\& 
fathers and mothers of today were children who were not taught to 
have any control over themselves. 

Senator Hennings. It all goes down to respect for others and their 
rights and their property, does it not, Mrs. Carson ? 

Mrs. Carson. It does. 

Senator Hennings. Would you lay part of that to the door of tend- 
ency in some schools — I do not know about the Philadelphia school 
system in that regard — but the tendency in some schools to so-call 
progressive education, the laissez faire, let them do as they please, 
if they don't want to work on mathematics, let them go over and finger 
paint, let them do as they please ? . 

Mrs. Carson. Of course, I will say this, in Philadelphia we are now 
returning to discipline. About 4 years ago if you mentioned disci- 
pline in connection with a school, well, you were very old-fashioned, 
but today they are very glad to bring the word discipline back because 
of the difficulties they have suffered with children. 

Senator Hennings. That is very interesting. 

Thank you, Mrs. Carson. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Carson, to what extent have the two wars 
contributed to this lack of discipline which you speak of? 

Mrs. Carson. Of course there is no question about it. You cannot 
live through a war or in the threat of war without having many 
dislocations. 

The Chairman. It uproots the home. 

Mrs. Carson. Absolutely. 

Now, for instance, during the last war, and I am referring now to 
World War II, of course we had so many mothers in defense plants. 
We had children totally unsupervised. That is when we talked about 
the latchkey child and that sort of thing. 

We had the girl wlio was very much on the loose, first of all, because 
she was not having the normal contact with boys that she w^ould have 
had in ordinary times. 

So we are having a lot of marriages made very much in haste, and 
those marriages did not last, and as a result many disrupted homes. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 41 

Boys went away. When they came back, they found that their girl 
had found another boy. Probably she was ah-eady his wife. 

It was a time when there was a tendency to have a good many illegi- 
timate children. 

So I think that we can attribute a certain amount of our deviation 
from right conduct as far as the children are concerned to those i>ar- 
ticular dislocations. The unsupervised home produces a great deal 
of delinquency. Children need their mothers to be there when they 
come home from school and to be there with them in the evening. 

Now that is what we have suffered from, from the period of the 
Second World War, and it has continued on. 

Of course conditions after the Korean war started were very similar 
in many places to what they were during World War II. As Mr. 
Finnegan pointed out on the chart, we had decreases, if you can count 
arrests, after the war ended. And we are now having decreases with 
a war presumably ended. But I do think we have to admit war condi- 
tions are not conducive to that security that children need. 

Senator Hennings. The cold war, Mrs. Carson, is not conducive 
to very much security, is it ? 

Mrs. Carson. I don't think it is. 

Senator Hennings. Wars and rumors of war, whether we are actu- 
ally engaged in combat or not, the fact that there is constantly not 
only an impending crisis, there is a series of crises and potential 
eruptions all over the world, the children are bothered about that. 
The boys don't know whether they are going to be able to finish their 
schooling. The young husbands don't know whether they are going 
to be able to support their families or stay with them. The young 
girl does not know whether she will be able to marry the young man 
before he is called off to duty. 

All of these things create frustrations, anxiety, tensions, and many, 
many imponderables, things that do not show up on charts because 
they are cumulative ; they have effects that are incalculable. 

Mrs. Carson. Ancl I think the spread of violence which we seem 
to have so much of at the present time has been brought about a good 
deal by the way men have been taught to kill. We send them out and 
tell them to kill. Then when they come home we say don't kill. So 
after all it is no wonder that as young people they are confused. 

The Chairman. We haVe to find a way to spend less money on 
armament and more on the youth of the w^orld. 

Mrs. Cakson. The one way we don't spend at all is money for our 
children. They are the greatest responsibility we have, as we all 
know. 

Senator Hennings. Wliat w^as that figure we had the other day in 
Washington? This will be of interest to Mrs. Carson. What was 
that figure on liquor and cigarettes ? 

The Chairman. $14 billion. 

Mrs. Carson. On liquor and cigarettes? 

Senator Hennings. And tobacco. 

Mrs. Carson. Of course our children would very likely get the idea 
when they look at television programs that the only things there are in 
the world are the best kind of beers and the best kind of cigarettes. 
We certainly are getting a tremendous dose of that sort of thing. 

Senator Hennings. More than that, we spend a lot on those lux- 
uries, without going into the right or w^-ong of drinking and smoking. 



42 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

But we Spend a lot for that. And when we go to the legislators for 
appropriations of Congress or for appropriation of children's bureaus 
or for an adequate number of people in agencies, staffs, and facilities 
and institutions of the right kind, then there is a great howl and cry 
about extravagance, "We can't afford that." That applies to the 
schools, does it not ? 

Mrs. Carson. Absolutely. 

Senator Hennings. Teachers' salaries, school plants, and facilities. 

Mrs. Carson. Don't you think we emphasize teachers' salaries a 
little too much. After all, a teacher should have a calling to be a 
teacher. 

Senator Hennings. They are not in it to get rich, are they ? 

Mrs. Carson. Absolutely not. But, of course, I did hear our com- 
missioner of education make a speecli not long ago in which he never 
talked of children at all; he only talked of the school buildings we 
were going to build. I think there we lay too much emphasis upon 
the physical environment. 

The Chairman. Are you talking of the State commissioner ? 

Mrs. Carson. I am referring to the Federal Commissioner. 

Senator Hennings. As in many universities, they talk more about 
stadiums and seating capacity than they do about the people who do 
the teaching. 

Mrs. Carson. The saving of one child from the effects of delin- 
quency is certainly too important a matter for us to let so many of 
these children go wrong the way they do. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Carson, we had Judge Laws before our sub- 
committee last Friday and he testified that there were I think 7,000 
probation officers in the country and they needed 40,000 actually. 
Would you care to make any comment on that statement? 

Mrs. Carson. Well, now, probation is not in my field. I do know 
that here, locally, we have always been understaffed in our municipal 
court and also understaffed in our quarter sessions court. But where 
the understaffing is most apparent is in the handling of the juvenile 
child, in other words', the youngster. Our juvenile court here could 
certainly stand another 25 probation officers and not be overstaffed. 

Tlie C^iAiRMAN. Actually according to your testimony your police- 
women have been doing a lot of the probation work. I mean they 
have been working in that field. 

Mrs. Carson. Yes and no. We liave done the work before the court. 
You must be arrested to get a probation officer assigned to you. Of 
course I am talking about policewomen doing the prevention work 
that will cut down tlie arrests. 

We have a new youth study center here. I don't Imow whether any 
of you have seen it or not. It is a magnificent building. We have 
been fighting over the past week over the statuary that is to be before 
it. But Dr. Preston Sliarp maintains that he has 19 to 22 children 
sleeping on the floor there at night because they do not have space 
enough. 

Now those children come before a referee for the boys and a woman 
])robation officer for the girls eveiy morning. Many of them have 
been arrested, but they are sent right back to their homes, to the very 
place from which all their troubles emanate. And then maybe 3 
months, 6 months from now that case will come up in the court. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 43 

The Chairman. That seems to be universal. Wherever we go we 
find that condition. It is a sad commentary. 

Mrs. Carson. Yes. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Carson, you have been a great help to the 
subcommittee. You have made a real contribution. We are indeed 
grateful for your presence here this morning. 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. John Green. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
will give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
of the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Green. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN J. GREEN, AREA DIRECTOR, CRIME 
PREVENTION ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA 

The Chairman. Mr. Green, will you give your full name and ad- 
dress and your association for the record, please ? 

Mr. Green. I am John J. Green, area director for Crime Preven- 
tion Association, 801 Board of Education Building, Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. Do you have a prepared statement ? 

Mr. Green. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Green. As you have heard before earlier this morning, Mr. 
Finnegan mentioned about an area program which primarily works 
with gangs and gang projects. 

The area program was begun in 1945 in West Philadelphia. I 
believe it would be about the 16th district on that map. 

The purpose of the program was to determine whether some pro- 
gram or technique could be developed that would be successful in 
redirecting the energies of boys into useful channels. 

The idea hit upon was to organize natural groups of boys into 
clubs, get them interested in some sport and work with them from 
there. The response was favorable as the boys readily took to sports. 

As the groups began to organize another idea was added. A fed- 
eration council was established whereupon representatives of the clubs 
could meet and discuss problems, interests, and ideas. This too was 
successful and the boys began to plan their own programs. 

The program itself was called the West Philadelphia Federation. 
Today the federation idea has spread to 4 sections of the city and the 
program consists of 4 federations for boys and 1 for girls. The girls 
program is located in West Philadelphia. 

The underlying philosophy of the program was to meet the needs and 
interest of the boys and to develop their own ideas. 

In 1947 the North Philadelphia Federation was begun under the 
direction of Mr. Hare. I have been director since September 1950. I 
now have an assistant and work with 33 groups. 

Through the years, I have worked with approximately 50 groups and 
have serviced about 400 boys a year in one way or another. These 
services include recreational, social, educational, and athletic activities 
and, where possible, opportunities are provided for counseling and 
guidance in employment and in education. 

Where we feel that specialized help is needed we refer cases to other 
agencies. I should say here that one of our first jobs is to make a sur- 



44 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

vey of the area to determine what facilities can be used by our boys. 
We use schools, churches, clubs, social afjencies, and recreational setups. 

We have lots of problems — lack of facilities, equipment, statf, and 
so fortli — just like many other ao;encies. 

But we recognize another problem, too. Although we in the field, 
working with so many boys, do not have the opportunity to develop 
or read case histories, as the regular caseworkers do, they are available 
for us if you want to look them over. We recognize a certain need 
peculiar to boys in the area in which we work. By "we" I mean the 
federation directors and myself. We get together once a month to 
discuss needs, interests, problems, and so forth. 

We find that boys need a philosoi)hy of life and, more than that, a 
change of attitude toward life itself and toward the people ^yho are 
trying to help them. It is a concensus of opinion among the directors 
that one of the great stimibling blocks to our ]U'ogram is the attitude of 
the boys. We call them antiattitudes. They are antiteacher, anti- 
social worker, antischool, antipolitician, antipolice, and so forth. 

The CiiAiuMAN. On the rebellious side? 

Mr. (tReen. That is right. 

These attitudes are sometimes ])assed on to the boys by the adults 
and the parents, and sometimes develop as a result of personal ex- 
periences. 

Now the key to the success of any ])rogram, no matter how small or 
limited the facilities are, and I use an old axiom, is the establishment 
of rapport with them. 

Some of these techniques to build up a relationship with these un- 
reached gangs up to the point where I contact them are: Try to be 
natural and always accessible; try to meet any need, no matter how 
small it may seeui tc) me or to my executive director; always have an 
ear. Meet them on their level ; find out their likes and dislikes and dis- 
cuss these likes and dislikes with the boys and with their buddies. 
Be positive and not negative in correcting and disciplining them; for 
an example, try to eliminate don'ts and establish do's. 

Be careful of your own personal habits; be neat and not too con- 
servative. Above all, a lot of my coworkers do not believe this 

Senator Hennings. You say "not too conservative"? 

Mr. Gkeen. Not too conservative or they will call you old-fashioned. 
You won't be able to get to first base with them. That was the i-eason 
for that statement. I won't say wear zoot suits. 

Ik* i)ositive when you are sure of yourself. Be w^illing to accept the 
boy's point of view. If regulations restrict you, be sure to explain it, 
but never pass the buck and never knock another agency because Icids 
are always doing that. 

Now I did not know what this hearing would be like so I just wrote 
this thumbnail sketch of the history and purpose of the area and the 
techniques we use. 

Cei-tain ))()in(s have come up, and I know you are interested in cer- 
tain gang procedures and what not. Before you ask me questions 
about gangs, I am soriy I used the word "gangs." As a rule I don't. 
1 use groups or clubs. 

I do not have any names of groups such as the Exiles or the Pan- 
doras which are located just east of the district where I work. I work 
in the 31st Street district, between Broad and 33d and Montgomery 
and Lehigh, about 27 square blocks I believe. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 45 

The Chairman. You woi-k entirely witli boys, do yoii ? 

Mr. (iREEN. Entirely with boys. 

While you are bringing tluit point up, there is dire need for a girls 
program in that area. 

Now I am open for questions because I can talk from now to dooms- 
day on experiences with gangs. 

The Chairman, You are dedicated to your work, are you not? 

Mr. Grken. I surely am. 

The Chairman. 1 ou are interested in it because you want our 
youth to grow up in the right sort of fashion? 

Mr. Green. That is riglit. 

Senator Hennings. I am sure we could benefit greatly by hearing 
from you extensively. Is there anything or are there any things that 
for the purposes of this hearing, and bearing in mind somewhat time 
limitations, that you would like to tell us by way of views, guidance 
and instruction ? That is what we are here for. We are not here to 
tell the people in the connnunities what to do. We are here to try to 
crystallize certain of these problems in terms of the causes and the 
solutions. 

When all of this is compiled, all that we are going to try to do and 
hope to do is that w^e hope that certain things wdll stand out in relief 
as being some of the important factors of this great problem. 

Now within that framework or, beyond it, if you care to, will you 
not just give us the benefit of your testimony or observations? 

Mr. Green. There are three ])oints I would like to sj)eak about. 
First is truancy. The second is wine. And the third is girls or sex. 
We find tliose attitudes I spoke about to be more among the boys. 

Senator IIennin(!S. I did not undei'stand the second category, 

Mr. (jreen. Wine drinking; in terms of the boys winolers. 

The Chairman. You are talking about alcoholic beverages? 

Mr. Green. In most cases the juveniles 17 and 18 especially in my 
area participate more in wine drinking than anything else, i)rimarily 
because it is cheaper. 

I guess if they could afford gin or Scotch, they would also partake of 
that. 

1 find that as early as 9 : oO oi- 10 : .'U) in the morning groui)s of boys 
in pairs oi- threes ai-e roaming the sti-eet, and most of them know 
me u)) there and they will stop and talk to me. 

"Why are you out of school?-' "I was suspended." "Well are 
you parents going up?" "No, they are working; they don't have the 
time. They need to make the money to keep the household and what- 
not." "So who is going up to scliool to see that you get back to 
school?" "No one." 

So I take it upon myself to go up. During the next month or two 
you see the same boy out in the street again. What the solution can 
be there, whether it is with the parents or with the school, it is not for 
me to say. 

I have my pei-sonal ideas about that, but I keep them to myself. 
But there could be a cooperative program between the parents and 
the schools. 

The Chairman. In most of these cases both parents are working? 

Mr, Green. In most of tlie cases there is oidy one parent, Ihat is, 

46966 — 54 4, 



46 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

the mother; the father is unknown. She is the bread and butter as 
the boys speak of it. 

Now from these truancy experiences, the boys have to go somewhere. 
Some of them are individuals ; they do not attach themselves to groups. 
The}' go in the centers of the city and they become involved eventually 
in police action. Others will go back ; if they are in junior high, 
they will go back to the elementary schools they attended and they 
will meet some of their old buddies who are also truancy cases. And 
through the course of the days they will ask money from the younger 
kids; instead of buying sandwiches and sodas, and things, they buy 
wine. And they will drink wine practically all of the afternoon, 
into the evening. 

Someone brought up the question : Do they have a planned program 
for criminal activity? Actually, I do not think they do. But once 
they get that wine into their system, they will take the poles off the 
trollev cars. They will get on trolley cars and will not want to 
pay fares. If any adults say anything to them, they are ready to 
smack them in the mouth, no respect for parents or no respect for 
others' rights. 

Mr. BoBO. In your particular area, you say they drink wine all 
afternoon. Wliere do they get this wine? 

Mr. Green. That is my next point. Captain Mitchell I think 
brought out the fact that some arrests had been made of adults 
buying wine or kids actually buying wine themselves in State stores 
or private clubs or whatnot. In my district there have been so many 
arrests, I mean so many acts going on that have not been brought to 
the mind of the police or correctional authority. We have records 
here of what* is going on. I think the Senator from Missouri has 
made a statement to that effect, the dangers of these. 

For every boy arrested it is my theory there are two other acts 
committed that go unnoticed, that are not in the record. And these 
boys know this. They also know the laxity of our courts or I should 
say of the overload of cases that our courts have. They know even 
if they are apprehended it will be 6 or 8 months before they will be 
called up. 

By that time, here comes a lawyer who will receive $50 and he 
finds a loophole, and the boys will be out. I have known of cases 
where before the case came up, in the 6 or 8 months' period, they had 
been involved in 2 or 3 other instances. 

I have heard them tell the policeman : "No use your making this 
arrest, my politician will get me out". Or something to that effect, 
and so it happens. 

Senator Hennings. That is in both State and Federal jurisdictions ? 

Mr. Greex. Yes, sir. "With all due respect to the press, I think it 
is a wonderful weapon, but, if you could only come into the pool- 
looms on some of these dark streets or the clubs and hear them talk 
about the publicity that the press gives them, I mean gangs like the 
Pandoras and the other gangs that were involved in this incident, they 
are heroes when you write up the negative side of the stories they are 
involved in. 

I think they could do more educational work on such circumstances 
as with the Blocker boy who I happened to know. They actually 
think they are heroes when they see it. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 47 

I wish it were possible to record some of the conversations that 
have gone on between those two groups. 

Senator Hennings. That is not unusual. That is human, after 
all, seeking recognition. If people cannot get it somehow they try 
to get another way. Youngsters might get it in athletics, by excelling 
in sports. They see their names in papers, pictures ; that is fine. 

Others are not directed in that channel or into other useful and 
constructive activities, so they, too, want recognition as human beings. 
Is that not a pretty basic drive ? 

Mr. Green. Pretty basic. There it shows the need for more work, 
more programs of this type. Incidentally, in that area where the 
incident occurred, the association has I believe a part-time setup where 
the gentleman only works in the evening, 4 or 5 hours a night, some- 
thing to that effect. 

They need a full-time worker there. xVs I stated in my report, I 
have an assistant. I still could use two more men in an area like 
that because it is thickly populated. And just to add to the need up 
there, the project homes are being constructed, but there are thou- 
sands of thousands of people to move into a four-block area which 
will increase the problem more. 

I believe the housing authority that will speak here later, a repre- 
sentative, will bring that up. I could ramble on and on and use time. 

The Chairmax. To what extent do your slum areas here in Phil- 
adel|)hia contribute to this problem? 

IVIr. Green. A very important factor because I have heard the 
kids say in these meetings that I spoke of here, they would stay at 
home if their friends come in. First, they don't have the room. 
Secondly, some of them don't have television, and, if they have tele- 
vision, they can't see the ]3rograms they want to see. They must see 
the program that Ma wants to see. 

The Chairman. How are your housing projects developing here 
in Philadelphia at this point? 

Mr. Green. In my area I now have two with the opening of the 
Raymond Rose project. They are within three blocks of each other. 

They are developing well, but the only thing I see against the 
developing of them, the slums still remain. In no instance in my 
area where they have built a project, and they have two now, have 
any slums been torn down. 

Senator Hennings. How about the recreational facilities near the 
housing project? 

Mr. Green. There is a recreation center right in the middle of the 
2 project homes and the resident agent of the project homes; 1 exist- 
ing now and the other, which will be open in the next 2 or 3 months, 
has a program for recreational activity on a small scale. 

There are no boys' clubs in the area. They use the school facilities 
for basketball or whatever program they have in mind. 

The Chairman. Any further questions ? 

Senator Hennings. I have many questions if I had time that I 
think we could pursue with profit to this subcommittee. 

Mr. Green. To get the true picture of this issue of juvenile de- 
linquency, the best thing is to come out in the area, t think Mr. 
Miniclier suggested visiting one day. 

The Chairman. Have you had an opportunity, Mr. Green, to read 
our interim report, the first report we filed with the Senate ? 

Mr. Green. No. 



48 jm^ENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. I will see that you get a copy so that you can study 
it. 

Senator Hennings. Not only study it but comment on it adversely 
if you are so inclined to do. 

The Chairman. Particularly adversely if you can do so. 

Now, Mr. Green, you have brought to the subcommittee a real lesson 
this morning. You have covered a multitude of things. Chiefly, you 
have told us this : That if we are going to meet this problem squarely 
and courageously we all have to take more time out to give to these 
children of ours. 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

The Chairman. The lawyers, the doctors, the teachers and all the 
people. Is that not the answer ? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

The Chairman- Thank you very much. 

I am informed that Mr. Green is the last witness for this morning 
session. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess now until two o'clock. 

(Thereupon at 12: 15 p. m., the subcommittee recessed to reconvene 
at 2 p. m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p. m., upon the expiration of the 
recess. 

Tlie Chairman. This meeting of the subcommittee will now be in 
order. 

The first witness for the afternoon session is Mr. Robert Rosenbaum. 

Mr. Rosenbaum, will you come forward, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of tlie Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Rosekbaum. I do. 

May I have the privilege of bringing a member of my staff with me? 

The Chairman. You may. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT ROSENBAUM, CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD, 
WHARTON CENTER, PHILADELPHIA, PA., ACCOMPANIED BY 
DANIEL R. BERNSTEIN, STAFF MEMBER, STREET CORNER OPERA- 
TION, WHARTON CENTER 

Mr. Rosenbaum. Mr. Cliairman, my name is Robert Rosenbaum. I 
am cliairman of the board of Wharton Center, a Red Feather agency 
located at 1708 North 22d Street, Philadelphia 21, Pa. 

I was born at Third and South on the old Lower East Side of 
Philadelphia toward the close of the last century. Even during that 
golden age prior to two World Wars, children became members of 
gangs and sought outlets for their pent-up energies. 

I was a member of a so-called gang and had to fight my way to and 
from school on many occasions. In spite of the multiplicity of vicious 
influences, most of us from that area survived to become comparatively 
normal and useful citizens. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 49 

We were fortunate in having personal guidance which abolished 
our savage atavistic tendencies. And we became better men and 
women for having gone through that primitive stage of development. 
That situation is not too different from the circumstances we may 
see all around us today on a wider variety of levels, ranging all the 
way from the neighborhood to the international scene. 

Eleven years ago an examination of the problems of the neighbor- 
hood served by Wharton Center led its board to the decision to under- 
take what has since been dubbed "Operation Street Corner". This 
project was designed to develop new techniques in the approach to 
street corner groups. 

For the first 6 years, we studied the manner in which these groups 
were formed, their motivations, and their activities. We attempted 
a wide variety of methods of approach, finally adopting the pattern 
which has now been in use for the last 3 years, which is a direct 
training service to youth groups right on their own street corners. 

The street corner group is a natural outgrowth of years of child- 
hood association in an overcrowded area, teeming with traffic, small 
traffic from the same block play together. They cannot cross busy 
streets except at risk to life and limb. 

Their horizons are limited by the street corner which eventually 
become their headquarters even after thej^ are old enough to venture 
across thoroughfares. A sense of togetherness persists. 

Each group classifies itself almost automatically as a result of the 
accident of location during the growing years and they adopted the 
name of the corner of the street or the grandiose and fanciful titles 
of the group which formerly occupied that same spot. 

The child clings to the group in much the same manner as his 
grownups whose multiplicity of lodges, trades and labor groups, so- 
cial, cultural, religious and political clubs amply demonstrate the 
instinctive need of the individual for association with others of his 
kind. 

The urge to be something and do something saves the individual 
vanity on the one hand and his normal gregarious requirements on 
the other. The street corner group withers or flourishes, depending 
on individual influences from within or upon the pressures from 
similar adjacent and rival groups. 

Unfortunately for a wide variety of reasons there is little in the 
way of character molding, adult guidance. The potential for good 
and evil depend upon immature juvenile leadership. 

Mass education, mass recreation and mass handling in other fields 
serve a useful function and in view of the great population pressures 
of the present time cannot be avoided. Each member of a family 
finds himself miles away from home in the pursuit of his interest 
and for one reason or another the child suffers from the lack of per- 
sonal consultation that enables him to solve and surmount many of 
the complex personal problems with which he is faced. 

Our Operation Street Corner realizes that the bonds between the 
members of street corner groups are frequently stronger than their 
family ties. We have believed that it is best to stimulate the feeling 
of loyalty and fraternity in such instances, but to cultivate 

The Chairman. Why is that that you find greater loyalty between 
the groups than the family itself? 



50 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. E.OSENBAUM. Well, the family in many instances, in these over- 
crowded areas is a broken family. The pressures of work, their 
working mothers and working fathers, frequently mean an empty 
household. When father and mother do come home from work, they 
are tired. They want to listen to Jack Benny, or some other favorite 
program and the child is asked to leave, get out in the street and shift 
for himself. It finds itself naturally in association with others of 
the same age. And having common activities and common interests 
there is frequently this loyalty to that group rather than to the family 
group. 

The Chairman. I expected that answer. I just wanted it for the 
record. 

Mr. RosENBAUM. It is the same all over. 

We desire to cultivate the potentials for constructive efforts in 
such cases. The maintenance of loyalty to the group can be utilized 
for a future loyalty to the cherished neighborhood and for the even- 
tual improvement of the entire area. The gang, instead of being a 
chaotic group must be helped to become an organized club. The boys 
must carry the ball while the man from Wharton merely referees. 

Before too long they adhere to Robert's Rules of Order. They 
elect their own officers, appoint their own committees, act as their own 
policeman, collect dues, and accomplish projects and vote members 
in and out. Discussions cover the enormous range of teen-age inter- 
ests and problems, including athletic events, parties, trips, sex hygiene, 
plans for future education and jobs, overnight camping, and even each 
person's share in civic responsibility, but always the boys themselves 
plan and vote and carry out the tasks as committee members, each 
being responsible for such things as decorations, food, cleanup, buying 
or arrangements for transportation. 

They also learn to be good losers, to be fair with one another, to 
appreciate help when it is given and to respect talent when it appears 
in the person of a member of a rival gang. 

The method of approach to these accomplishments is as important 
as any other phase of such a project. The contact with the street 
corner group is made by a trained staff member. He studies the neigh- 
borhood and its influences and its facilities. He becomes a loiterer. 
Casually he leans ajrainst a lamp post. He may kibitz a crap game, 
although he never joins one. He may admire the swell tie the guy is 
wearing. 

And he may open with, "Well, what do you think of the Phillies 
this year? I wonder how the big fight is doing tonight?" 

At first his overtures to friendship will inspire little or no response, 
a gloomy look or half-hearted reply. The man from Wharton Center 
moves on. Periodically, he will return to a particular corner. There 
are alwavs several corners under his observation. Gradually, the boys 
realize that he is not a dick. The cops don't come during or after his 
passing. 

They find that he is from Wharton which has won the respect and 
trust of all neighborhood factions. 

It may take several weeks, but eventually the man from Wharton 
Center is tolerated as a straight guy. 

We do not condone or abet crime and in the event of a serious crim- 
inal act, we would do everything necessary to bring the criminal before 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 51 

the bar of justice. Our function is essentially a professional one 
similar to that of a lawyer and doctor and we respect the confidences 
of the children and attempt to exert a professional corrective influ- 
ence. There are many other approaches. The staff worker on the 
street is alerted to all sorts of opportunities for making contact and 
following through with such contacts. 

We have limited our experiment in the past to an area which is 
immediately adjacent to the Wharton Center where we serve a neigh- 
borhood four city blocks in each direction, north, south, east, and 
west, with a population of more than 50,000, being one of the most 
densely populated in this entire city. 

Operation Street Corner includes more than 300 former gang boys, 
from 12 to 18 years of age, and active in 15 clubs under the guidance 
of two Wliarton Center staff men and an assistant. 

Social statistics are difficult things to place into neat categories. 
We know there has been a marked drop in law infractions among the 
members of these clubs and it is our estimate that these have dropped 
by at least 50 percent, including mere routine of being picked up for 
questioning. Many have been assisted in the finding of jobs. Some 
have been stimulated enough to prepare themselves for a university 
education. Most have been given a better emotional and social ad- 
justment to their surroundings and are living happier and fuller 
lives. 

It is our observation that an overwhelming majority of these street 
comer groups are potentially good citizens. Not more than 10 per- 
cent could be classified as requiring psychiatric guidance. On the 
other hand, we have found that most of these children have been driven 
into a state of warfare with a community through their feeling that 
they have been abandoned and that the community has little interest 
in their needs. 

Operation Street Corner has been successful in changing this state 
of mind to a great degree. The marked difference between this method 
and others is the emphasis placed upon the individual. Our workers 
having opportunities to meet with small groups 2 or 3 times a week: 
become real friends and advisers. 

The Chairman. Do you work with both boys and girls? 

Mr. RosENBAUM. Due to the financial limitations which have ex- 
isted in this experiment our major work has been with the boys, but 
in almost all cases there are affiliated younger groups, the sisters, and 
the youngsters who adopt the same fanciful names. If it is the 
Barons, which is the boys' group, there are the Baronettes, the sisters 
and associated girls' group. 

We have not worked directly with the girls' group, only indirectly 
through the boys, because of the limitations of our resources. 

The Chairman. Would you care to say something of your resources, 
how you are financed, for example? 

Mr. RosENBAUM. The Wharton Center is a Eed Feather agency fi- 
nanced by the Community Chest of Philadelphia and vicinity. Oper- 
ation Street Corner has been financed through the cooperation of the 
community chest and three other funds, the Emline Institution, the 
Henrietta Tour Works Memorial, and the Robert Public Fund. 

The Chairman. How many workers do you have in your organiza- 
tion? 



52 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr, RosENBAUM. In this project there are exactly three field work- 
ers at this time. The staff of the settlement house which engages in 
other activities is there for consultation. We also have a committee 
of 4 men, 1 of whom was the associate superintendent of public schools 
of the city of Philadelphia, 1 the retired principal of 1 of the largest 
junior high schools in the North Philadelphia area, the third the voca- 
tional agricultural guidance chief for the board of education of the 
city, and your present witness. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. RosENBAUM. Now our workers having opportunities to meet 
with small groups, 2 or 3 times a week, become real friends and ad- 
visers and exert a direct and intimate influence in contrast to the mass 
methods generally used. 

It is my personal opinion, and I believe that this is shared by many 
others who have had an o])portunity to observe this method and its 
results, that the pattern used in this social experiment is ready for a 
wider use as a supplement to other approaches to the problem of un- 
social youths. 

Such a pattern should be administered by an entity similar to the 
New York Youth Board and it should utilize the resources and man- 
power of both public and private agencies. This is now possible in 
the city of Philadelphia, for instance, because the department of 
recreation and the department of welfare have improved both the 
quality and the scope of their programs through the employment of 
adequately trained professional personnel and where we find also 
similarly staffed private agencies. 

That is the end of my testimony, sir. 

The Chairman. Counsel, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. BoBO. No, sir. 

The Chairman. How many boys do you reach in the course of the 
year ? 

Mr. RosENBATJM. Between 300 and 350. 

The Chairman. That would be annual caseload ? 

Mr. RosENBAUM. That is right. We are three people. 

The Chairman. I think you deserve a great deal of credit. I wish 
we had more organizations throughout the country like yours, particu- 
larly in the big cities, where the youngsters are out of control. 

Mr. BoBO. I do have one question. 

Mr. Bernstein, you work directly M'ith these boys. Do you have 
any comments you would like to add tliat you have found in your 
work ? 

Mr. Bernstein. I would just like to supplement Avhat Mr. Rosen- 
baum has said fairly adequately. 

He has covered our general approach and he has emphasized the 
fact that at one time we too were a mass recreation agency and we 
found that our impact on a person's values, the whole system of 
approaching life's problems, could not be reached with large groups. 

Therefore, as Mr. Rosenbaum mentioned, for the last 11 years this 
particular approach of getting out of the 4 walls of our building, and 
we have a 4-walled building, and getting out to the street corner, 
meeting the groups on their home ground, not asking them to come 
in on our home ground, getting their trust, not having them come to 
us and have to meet our standards, whatever they might be, but we 
have to meet their standards in many respects, has been in effect. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 53^ 

Therefore, we can get their confidences and do, and we hold their 
confidence. We hold their confidence as individuals, not as group 
members only. They are individuals, each one of whom is perhaps 
worthwhile. 

Mr. BoBO. Your feeling is that recreation would not solve it. 

Mr. Bernstein. It is a valuable adjunct, and we use it. We are in 
constant cooperation with the department of recreation, with the 
Crime Prevention Association, with any other agency which is pri- 
marily a recreation service. Our groups are referred to them or 
taken to them by us for part of their program which is recreation or 
athletics. 

The Chairman. Do you keep this close touch with the school au- 
thorities ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Yes, we do. We are in constant contact with the 
counselors. Many of the counselors call us in when they have a prob- 
lem with the boy who often identifies himself as a member of one of 
our groups. 

On the other hand, the boy himself may come to us about the problem 
he is having in school and ask our help and ask if we might come to 
school for him. This, too, we frequently do. 

There is a very close tieup with the local schools using many of 
them as meeting places for those groups who formerly vandalized 
those same schools. 

The Chairman. Are your schoolyards open out of season for recre- 
ation purposes ? 

Mr. Bernstein. Yes, sir, they are becoming so. There was a time 
some years back when they were not. There is real advance in the 
use of all the board of education facilities in our neighborhood. We 
are very grateful to them for their cooperation. 

The Chairman. Are you keeping in close contact with police au- 
thorities, too ? 

Mr. Bernstein. That is a little different situation. There has been 
in the past some misunderstandings in the fact that wdiile we, as an 
attorney does, must hold the confidentiality of our client, which I am 
sure the members of the bar can understand, at the same time as citi- 
zens we must perform as citizens, and responsible citizens, in not con- 
doning or abetting crime. 

One must understand, I think, this unique situation of being in 
between. If one accepts this in between function that we have, one 
knows that there is so much we can do. There is a line past which 
if we go the boys lose confidence in us and we lose any use or value 
we might have in helping them. 

Mr. Eosenbaum. Could I supplement that? 

The Chairman. Yes, Mr. Rosenbaum. 

Mr. Rosenbaum. As you know, and I am sure you have heard it 
in several cities, the teen-age youth has a normal rebellion against 
authority. We all went through the same stage in the process of 
growth ourselves. We knew better than our parents. We absolutely 
knew there w^as no question, we were far smarter than they were at a 
certain stage in our careers. 

The Chairman. We thought we were. 

Mr. Rosenbaum. We thought we were, and we were thoroughly 
convinced of it. 



54 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Now these children, yve find, in working out this "operation street 
corner" which we have developed as a social experiment, that the 
children have come to look on their guidance counselors at schools 
as being in cahoots with the authorities, this great big capital A which 
they set up as the official agency. They find that the well-trained 
juvenile guidance people in the juvenile aid bureau of the police are 
looked on in the same category. They are bunked together with the 
parent. 

As you recall when we were young, the teacher was the person to 
whom we could turn in loco parentis, whether they had the rod or 
whatever it was, we would take it from the teacher but we would not 
take it from the parent. The teachers' day is so swamped with great 
masses of students that in many cases they no longer know the first 
names of their students. 

The Chairman. Almost universally our classes are overloaded 
wherever you go in the country. 

]Mr. RosENBAUM. Yes. We have had conferences at ^-NHiarton with 
the school principals from the entire area. We have tried to act as 
a catalytic agent, stimulating action wherever possible on every scale. 
We have had these people together. I have had the principals of 
schools bemoan the fact that 25 years ago they could stop at the 
front gate and call a boy by his first name and say, "Hi, Pat, how 
is the ball game going?" or something. Today they look at a boy 
when the boy salutes them and says hello, and they just don't know 
his name at all. 

Tliere is that certain something which has been lost, but I do not 
think that our community lacks ingenuity. If we had the ingenuity 
to develop the mechanical devices and approach to many other things 
with terrific thought and analysis behind them, I don't think we 
lack any more ingenuity in our approach to our social problems. 

Our children are getting away from many of us, not because the 
children are any different today than they were when I was a young- 
ster, but because I think we as adults are moi-e preoccupied with 
other things, and are not devoting the thought to the methods whereby 
we can handle our children today. 

I was in Sweden last summer and had the opportunity to be con- 
ducted through a number of their fine social agencies there. They, 
too, have a juvenile delinquency problem. They are handling it a 
little bit differently than we are. But it is interesting. They did 
not go through the stresses and strains of two world wars as we have 
known it. 

The Chairman. Their portion is not a great as ours? 

]\Ir. RosENBAUM. It is not as great because the population is a 
homogeneous population. It lacks the social tensions and strains 
"which are exhibited here, but in proportion and in view of that fact 
I would say it is just as alarming in Sweden as it is anywhere else 
in the world in spite of the fact that they have not had two world 
wars which we have had. I discount, personally, all of the agitation 
about world wars and cold wars and all these other things. 

The Chairman. You heard the testimony this morning did you 
not? 

Mr. RosENBAUM. I heard the testimony this morning, and I have 
heard the statement made many, many times. I think those things 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 55 

are overly emphasized. This is a normal human behavior problem 
which has existed from the earliest time to the present, and will exist 
as long as there are people on this earth. 

The surroundings are slightly different; the dresses are different; 
the outer habiliments are different ; but inside the people are pretty 
much the same, and it is the approach which we must design to fit 
these slightly changed cases. These other things have aggi-avated 
our problem, but they are not basic at all. I come back to that 
phrase, in loco parentis to you. 

The Chairman. Could these difficulties arise from the fact that we 
are moving too rapidly on all fronts ? 

Mr. RosENBAUM. Undoubtedly. People are doing more but they 
are not thinking as much. That is rather a cliche but I think it may 
be true. 

The Chairman. The Chair would be inclined to agree with you, 
sir. 

Mr. Bernstein. It would appear, too, that in large areas people 
are losing their sense of individuality. It no longer is quite so 
fashionable to be unique and an individual. At the same time the 
most basic drive in each and everyone of us is to be someone dif- 
ferent than everyone else. We all want to be unique. 

Many of our boys on the street corner have a tough time in asserting 
their difference, in being different and in being something unto them- 
selves. It is not so easy in a large city such as ours, and when there 
are 50,000 people in four square blocks, to be unique and different. 
There are so many others. Often you have to do something 

The Chairman. What you are saying is that we have gotten in a 
mass production atmosphere. 

Mr. Bernstein. That is right, Senator. I would feel that no longer 
is the so-called gang, which I prefer to call group here, a necessary 
evil but it is important and valuable because a boy moves, from living 
in his father's home to the time he is a teen-ager, when he is a teen- 
ager. Biologically nature says to him, "You are a man," but society 
says to him, "You are not a man and won't be until your twenties 
because you cannot raise your own family until that time because of 
economics, because of a number of things, educational requirements, 
and so forth." 

Therefore, there is a large gap where a boy is neither a boy nor a 
man. He has to struggle through that period and it is a tough period. 
I know, I never would want to live through my own adolescence 
again. At that time the only place that is set up for him cannot be in 
his own home, and he has no other home. His only resort for assist- 
ance are friends of his own age. They give him reassurance. 

Unfortunately, it is frequently the halt leading the blind, but it 
seems to be all that there is for him unless there is a vehicle for getting 
some adult-accepting person who can move in with him and with his 
friends. 

The Chairman. You are familiar with the fact that we have before 
the Senate of the United States today a bill which would give 18- 
year-old children, minors, the right to vote. Are you familiar with 
that fact? 

Mr. Bernstein. Yes. 

The Chairman. Wliat do you think of that proposal ? 



56 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr, Bernstein. I can't say that I am politically too acute. Unfor- 
tunately in this day and age we all become specialists, which is one 
reason I don't do much police work. 

The Chairman. This question really has no direct bearing on our 
problem, but as one member of the Senate, I am very much interested 
in what the public thinks of the proposal. 

Mr. Bernstein. I don't see that our adults are voting too wisely. 
1 guess the kids wouldn't do too badly. 

The Chairman. I have felt as one member of the Senate that if a 
boy could carry arms at 18 in the interests of his country he could also 
vote at 18. 

Mr. Bernstein. That is a real point. 

Mr. Kosenbaum. There are some people. Senator, who believe that 
when a boy passes the age of 13 he then becomes a responsible adult 
and they have exercised that belief for, lo, these thousands of years. 

]Mr. Bernstein. Are you implying that there is a cultural lag 
perhaps ? 

Mr. Rosenbaum. Senator, I would like to present for the record a 
progress report which we have entitled "Operation Street Corner" 
and which will give you much of the data as presented. 

The Chairman. That will be made a part of our files. Let it be 
exhibit No. 1. 

(The report was marked "Exhibit No. 1," and is on file with the 
subcommittee.) 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Rosenbaum, before you leave the witness 
stand, have you any suggestions that you care to make for the guid- 
ance of this subcommittee? We have a terrific responsibility, we 
think. 

I think all of my colleagues believe with me that we are confronting 
one of the No. 1 problems in the Nation. We are concerned naturally 
about our internal security. We are concerned about our national 
defense. We are concerned about our national debt and these many 
problems. But as the President has so well said the greatest resource 
we have in this covmtry is the youth of America. 

If you can give us any guidance or any suggestions that will lead 
this subcommittee to do the sort of job it wants to do, we will be 
happy to have your suggestions or the suggestions of any fine citizens 
of the city of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Rosenbaum. Sir, I have served as president of the Wliarton 
Center board for more than 10 years. During that entire time, I 
have come in contact with literally thousands of youngsters in the 
area. I have a sublime confidence in the future of American youth 
just as I have had in the past. 

We go in for flagpole sitting. We go in for marathon dancing. 
We go in for all kinds of isms and highfalutin and silly antics. But 
the pendulum always swings back to normal. 

I feel that Avhatever the stresses and strains may seem to be at the 
present time, no matter how peculiar or anxious it may seem to be, 
that given the proper guidance and stimulation the road to the future 
is far better than any road we ever had in the past. 

When I say "guidance and stimulation," those are the two words 
that I think should be the key words for your future deliberations. 
The guidance of our youth may take place where it rightfully be- 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 57 

longs — ill the home. If through the stresses that are brought to bear 
on the home that guidance is not always there, then it is up to the 
community through its public and private agencies to stimulate the 
provision of those services which will stand that child in times of 
need. 

Now if you ask me for a blueprint and a pattern, as you have al- 
ready seen and as I have already seen in the years of youth-contact 
work which I have had, there just is no such an animal as, like the 
farmer seeing the giraffe for the first time in the zoo. It varies ; it will 
be a different pattern in one place than in another. And I would 
beseech you not to recommend a strait jacket of one type of pattern 
for the entire youth of the United States. Our needs vary and our 
conditions vary. The approach to the solution cannot be a trite 
formula. 

The Chairman. Have you read the interim report of the sub- 
committee ? 

Mr, RosENBAUM. I have not. 

The Chairman. Well, we will have you on the mailing list and 
send you a copy of that report. I woulcl like to have your comments 
on it, your personal comments, because I think your contribution here 
today has been very helpful to the subcommittee. If you will read 
that report and then tell us very frankly what you think of it, we 
would appreciate it. 

Mr. RosENBAUM. Yes. 

The Chairman. Have you any notions about the purpose that this 
subcommittee is serving? Have you formed any conclusions? 

Mr. RosENBAUM. I have not formed any conclusions, sir. 

The Chairman. Do not be hesitant to criticize. 

Mr. RosENBAUM. I had the pleasure of hearing you talk at the 
Bellvue-Stratford recently. I happened to be in Denver at the time 
your hearings w^ere held there, and I have certainly been deeply inter- 
ested in the work you are doing as must every citizen of the country. 

The Chairman. Some of my colleagues in the Senate held, when 
we were debating the resolution that created this committee, and, 
later, debating the resolution which continued its life for another year, 
that we had no real purpose because it was not our job to furnish 
leadership and to point up the targets that we ought to shoot at at 
the community level; that that was a community matter and State 
matter. But, as one Member of the Senate, I have always felt that 
somebody had to take hold of this problem at the national level and 
give it some national publicity. 

Mr. RosENBAUM. I would like to register complete agreement with 
your viewpoint because in our own affairs in a city like Philadelphia, 
at one time a boys club or settlement or a hospital was a neighborhood 
affair, and the community has seen the wisclom of banding together 
through a health and welfare council and a community chest to do a 
job on an area wide basis. 

While we are 48 separate and individual States, we are one people, 
with one common culture and one objective, and that is the dignifying 
of the individual and the creating of a better way of life. And, if 
through our centralized government in Washington, we can stimulate 
local independent action, to me that is the essence of democracy, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Rosenbaum. 

Mr. Rosenbaum. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 



58 JTTVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. Mr. Gary W. Sullins. 

Mr. Siillins, do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give 
before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the 
United States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sullins. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GARY W. SULLINS, INVESTIGATOR, SENATE SUB- 
COMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. Now, will you state your full name and address and 
your association, for the record, Mr. Sullins ? 

Mr. Sullins. Gary W. Sullins; I am at present with the subcom- 
mittee staff as an investigator. 

The Ciiair]man. Of course, the Chair knew that, but he wanted it 
in the record. 

I would ask the photographers to refrain from taking pictures of 
this witness so that he may not readily be identified later in connection 
with his work as an investigator for the subcommittee. 

Counsel will proceed with the questions and answers procedure. 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Sullins, for the benefit of the record, will you give 
the reporter your age? 

Mr. Sullins. Twenty. Date of birth, December 14, 1933. 

Mr. BoBO. During your time here in Philadelphia you have been on 
an investigative process, and your first assignment was at Daniel Boone 
Scliool, is that right? 

Mr. Sullins. That is right. 

Mr. BoBO. What type of school did you find there ? 

Mr. Sullins. I found there the type of child who is a school- 
behavior problem, the youngster or the juvenile who does not get 
along with his fellow students or who has difficulties in his school 
behavior and who is a social problem. 

This type of person, it seems, is referred to the Daniel Boone School. 

The Chairman. The Chair's attention has been called to the fact 
that the press has interpreted my remarks as a restriction upon their 
recording any of your testimony. I did not mean to restrict the press. 

Mr. BoBo. Now, you went out to Daniel Boone School. You were 
known only to the principal; is that correct? 

Mr. Sullins. That is correct. He was the only person who knew 
I was coming. 

I think it was arranged through Mr. Hoyer, who is the superin- 
tendent of county schools. 

Of course, no one was to know who I was. I was to be a person 
sent from the high school as a social-behavior problem. 

Mr. BoBO. You fitted right in with the group that you were sent 
with ? 

Mr. Sullins. There were 20 teachers at the school and 337 students. 
The principal, the only person who knew my identity, said that out 
of that 403 persons no one questioned my being there. Only one person 
happened to make the remark that it seemed I was a little good to be 
there, but otherwise I was accepted as one of the boys. 

Mr. BoBO. "V\^iat was the age range of the group of boys ? 

Mr. Sullins. I was associated mostly with the teen-age boys, but 
I did have contact with boys whose ages ranged from 9 to 17. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 59 

I understand that those are the age limits on the boys that are re- 
ferred to the Daniel Boone School. 

]VIr. BoBO. While you were there in school you had quite an oppor- 
tunity to talk and discuss the activities with the boys? 

]Mr. SuLLiNS. That is true, especially during the recreational time. 

For instance, the ratio there of the white to Negroes brings forth 
bonds as far as gang activities, as far as friendships are concerned. 
Of course, at first, my friendships were with other white boys who 
were there because there is a protective attitude. 

To give an instance of what I mean here, the first day I was there, 
the kid who was the leader of the class I was in broke the line on our 
way out and came to me and said, on the way out, ''When you get to 
the door, follow me, run and don't ask any questions, and we will go 
out the back way." 

I asked him later what was happening. He said of course there 
were 15 or 20 of the colored boys waiting to mob me afterward. 

That has happened on other occasions. It is on the records. It 
was a protective attitude there because he felt that we had something 
in common. 

Mr. BoBO. I presume you went to the door and ran ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. We ran. We ran down the back alley. It is an alley 
that the kids aren't supposed to use, but they use it primarily for 
the purpose of protection. 

Mr. BoBo. Now, at this school — and this is a school of nothing but 
problem children, the ages ranging from 9 to 17 — you did hear evi- 
dence of younger children paying oft' to the older children for 
protection ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. That is true. It was mentioned first by the principal 
when I had an interview in his office. No one knew why I was in 
there. I was there for the purpose of counseling, which was not ques- 
tioned because every new student that comes there is called into the 
principal's office for counseling. 

I first heard about payoffs from him, and, of course, I got the in- 
formation firsthand, being with the boys, especially the younger ones 
after school when they go to the trolleys. If they have a nickel or a 
dime they are in trouble, so they try to keep their pockets empty. 

If they have the money, the kids pay for protection supposedly to 
the Duke or the gang of boys that are known to be the toughest at 
school and have the operations in hand. 

Mr. BoBo. Also, during your time here in Philadelphia, you have 
had an opportunity, in conjunction with another young man, to visit 
the various bars and taverns in and around the area in Pliiladelphia ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. That is true. Stanley Turtletaub, who is a senior at 
the University of Pennsylvania, and also a minor, age 20, about 2 
months younger than I am, worked with me on this project of visiting 
the bars, the taprooms, and cocktail lounges. Out of this center city 
area we visited approximately 45 of the bars in west Philadelphia 
and mainly the center city area. 

Mr. BoBO. In how many of these bars were you ever asked upon 
walking in, or during time spent in there, for your age? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. One of the 45. As we went into the door — it was 
during the middle of the floor show, which, incidentally, was a strip 



60 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

show, the girl was doing her number — we were questioned as we 
walked into that bar. That was the only one out of the approximately 
45. 

Mr. BoBO. As you made your rounds through the various bars, and 
so forth, you were observing the number of people your own age 
and younger who were in those places and you also kept a record of 
the places visited and the number of apparent juveniles in there? 

Do you have that list there before you ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. Yes, I do. I have the list of the 19 out of 30 places 
that we visited on 1 night. I have the times that we were in the bars 
and the apparent teen-agers, and Stan, who was working with me, 
went inside, took a count of the juveniles, of the apparent juveniles 
and 1 did the same, and as we came outside and away from the bar 
we compared notes and usually there were only 1 or 2 discrepancies in 
the numbers we came up with. 

Mr. BoBo. Now, you did not limit yourselves only to the usual low- 
type place; you tried to make the full gamut? 

Mr. SuLLiNs. As I can point out from the areas here and from the 
different bars, we hit what is known as the dives and we hit some of the 
higher night club cocktail lounges, the bars in the center city area. 

Mr. BoBO. Would you give us the results of some of those ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. I will go down the 19. I will give the name of the 
bar and the location and the number of apparent juveniles and just 
what we found in those. 

First, I will go back to Mrs. Carson's testimony this morning when 
she was pointing out the young-girl problem that she has been con- 
fronted with in her work as a policewoman. She pointed out the area 
on Market Street, where you have the penny arcade, luncheonettes, 
and taprooms. 

We visited the Spigot Bar at 1630 Market Street. There we found 
mostly young girls and a number of apparent teen-agers. We found 
approximately 30 who were under age. Out of that, 17 of them were 
girls. 

There are 2 circular bars at 1630 Market Street, 1 in the front of 
the building and 1 at the back, and in the back one on one side we 
found 9 girls. This was 1 of the 2 places where we did ask for iden- 
tification. We pointed out the one girl who looked very young. We 
asked her for her identification and she had no means of identifying 
herself, there was no birth date or anything on any of the material 
che showed us. 

There we found the attraction for the teen-agers. Every place we 
found, the group of bars we visited, taprooms, the places where we 
found juveniles we found an attraction of some sort. Either music, 
dancing, paid musicians, jive band, floor show, or a strip number, or 
something that attracts the juveniles. 

Here we found there were paid musicians, there was dancing, and 
there was also a floor show. 

Then we went to the Twentietli Century Club at 1301 Locust Street. 
Here we found approximately 43 apparent teen-agers. Out of these 
the majority of them were young sailors. 

Of course, we found also during our survey in the investigation 
that where you find young sailors, you find young girls and here we 
found many young girls out of the 43 who were apparently teen-age 
and juveniles. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 61 

Mr. BoBO. You are stressing that. Are you talking about a group 
15, 16, 17? Are you talking about a group 16, 17, 18, to your judgment? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. In this group, in the Twentieth Century Club, we 
found what appeared to be varying ages, girls from 15 on up through 
19, different age groups among that group. 

This was one of the few places where we did find very young girls 
who were apparently 15 and 16. Here there are attractions also. 

I might point out, too, that all of these apparent teen-agers were 
drinking. The drinks were before them and in our observations we 
saw them drinking and ordering. 

The Chairjnian. Did you see the drinks poured ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. We saw the drinks poured, mixed by the bartenders. 

The Chairman. From the bar? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. From the bar. 

Here we found the same trend. We found paid musicians, dancing 
attractions for the teen-agers. 

Then we went to Club 13, which is also at 1301 Locust Street. Here 
we found approximately 50 apparent teen-agers, approximately half 
boys, half girls. There was a jive band which was the major attrac- 
tion for the teen-agers here and we found the same thing as before. 
We found the attractions, the dancing, the music and here again we 
found the drinking. 

Then at the Top Hat Club, at 1235 Locust Street, we were in at 
10 : 25 p. m., and we only found 4 teen-agers or 4 people of questionable 
age here. These ranged not from the 15-16 group, but these were be- 
tween the 18-21 group. 

Then at the Venture Inn at 225 South Camack, we found a group of 
college kids in the same age group, 18 to 20. With this group the 
attraction was different. There was no music, no live floor show, no 
jive band, but here it was a different atmosphere. It is a meeting place 
for college kids. 

We found no loose girls. I mean by that, unescorted young ladies. 
And we found no sailors and no stags. Here there were about 10 
couples between the ages of 18 and 21. 

Then the Surf Club was the next club at 10 : 40 p. m. This was at 
1329 Manning. 

Senator Hennings. What night of the week was this? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. This was on a Friday night, last Friday night. 

Here we found approximately 5 or 6 apparent juveniles. In this 
bar we fomid a different type of place because here it seemed to us, 
and it was apparent, that this was a meeting place for homosexuals 
and Lesbians, and here you didn't find the great number of juveniles 
hanging out as you do at some of the other bars that I pointed out. 

Then we went to the Colonial Swing Bar. 

The Chairman. You said great numbers. Were there juveniles 
there ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. There were approximately six, but also, by the great 
numbers, in some of the other places I pointed out, 43 in one instance. 

The Chairman. How old were the six? 

Mr. SuLLixs. Ranging between the 17- and 20-gTOup. There were 
no real young kids. 

4G966— 54 5 



62 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The next bar was the Colonial Swing Bar at 11th and Spruce. We 
found mostly young girls out of the approximately 20 juveniles there. 
There were a few young sailors. 

Here we again found the attraction to be a live floor show. As we 
walked in, the entertainer was in her act and she was singing sugges- 
tive and salacious songs while we were in the place. 

Here again, where you found the young sailors, you found young 
girls. 

Then we went to 303 South 11th Street to Chassie Tavern. Here we 
found one of the largest concentrations of juveniles in our observa- 
tions. We found approximately 60 who were apparently between 13 
and 21 years of age. 

Here we found mostly young girls and sailors. As we walked in 
the door we saw what appeared to both of us to be a 13- or 14-year-old 
girl with a cirgarette, a drink before her, and sitting between two 
sailors'. She was one of the youngest looking juveniles that we found 
during our investigation. 

We found, here again, that all of the kids were drinking and order- 
ing their drinks and being served from the bar. There was dancing 
in a back room for couples who wanted to sit away from the bar at 
tables. 

Then we went to 251 South 11th Street to Duffy's Bar. Here 
we only found 2 boys and 2 girls who were of questionable age. This 
was not the young juvenile. This was again the 18-to-20 age group. 

Here we found that the attractions were different than the other 
places in that there were shuffleboard and darts, but again you have 
the attraction for the juveniles. 

Then we went to the Equator Bar at 224 South 11th Street. We 
found approximately five teen-agers here. Out of that we found 3 of 
them boys, 2 of them girls. 

Here, too, there was the music attraction and they were dancing. 

Then at the 107 Bar at 107 South 11th Street, we found 4 young 
boys and 3 young girls who were definitely — from our observation 
we both came to the same conclusion — ^between 17 and 20, in that 
group. 

Then the Rendezvous Bar at 17 Walnut was the next that we came 
to. We found here mostly young girls again. Out of the 17 apparent 
juveniles we found 14 out of the 17 were girls. We found some college 
kids there, again a place where the 18-to-21-year-old group go. 

We found entertainment there and again we found all the juve- 
niles were drinking. 

Then we went to Carroll's Bar at 52d and Walnut Street out in 
West Philadelphia, part of the area we visited. 

At that time it was 1 : 30 a. m. We found only five questionable 
age juveniles. They were again between the 18-and-20-year range. 
There was a floor show there and w^e found that the five that were of 
questionable age were all drinking and ordering their drinks directly 
from the bartender. 

The CiTArRMAX. Were any of these children in any of these places 
misbehaving? 

Mr. SxJLLiNS. Misbehaving only in the sense as I pointed out before, 
where you find young sailors you find young girls and where you find 
kids in a bar usually you find them drinking. If that is the type of 



JUVENILE DELESTQUENCY 63 

misbehavior you are pointing to, that is the type of misbehavior we 
found. 

Mr. BoBO. You did not see any fights or loud behavior ? 
Mr. SuLLiNS, There was the usual loud behavior, especially in the 
place I pointed out, Chassie Tavern, where there were approximately 
60 young kids. 

Of course, there is the loudness. You find some who are intoxi- 
cated and where you find intoxication a lot of times you find much 
noise. 

Senator Hennings. You find much noise among children of that age 
group who are drinking Coca-Cola and 7-up. 

Mr. SuLiiNS. From observation I think you usually find, unless you 
are dealing with the kids, in a drugstore for instance, a group of girls 
having a coke many times would be loud, but you find a group of 
young sailors and young girls where you have approximately 60 in 
the bar, you usually" find much more noise and much more misbehavior 
there. 

The next place was the Flamingo Bar at 5359 Woodland Avenue. 
Here we found a completely different atmosphere in that here every- 
one in the place was young. We found the age limit ranging from 
probably 16 to 25. In the other places we found kids, but we also 
found older people. Here it was a young crowd. 

Here we questioned again for the second time, we asked a young 
girl her age and she had no identification. So her boy friend volun- 
teered the information. He was slightly intoxicated. He says he was 
19. He pointed out that anybody under 14 can get a drink in this 
bar. 

Mr. BoBO. Under 14, or over 14 ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. Over 14. He said any 14-year-old can come in and 
get a drink. 

Here we found the attraction was a jive band and there was dancing. 
We found not couples, but groups, maybe a group of 3 or 4 boys, 
maybe a group of 3 or 4 unescorted girls and then on occasion maybe 
6 in a crowd, 3 boys and 3 girls. 

The next place we visited was the Celebrity Room at 364 South 
Juniper Street. This was 1 : 50 a. m., which is their closing time. 
We found approximately 25 young girls there. 

It is rather difficult to look at the girls and tell their age because 
of their makeup and dress. It is difficult from the juveniles that you 
find in the other places. Here it is a more sophisticated air. The rest 
of the clientele here were older, mostly men who appeared to be pros- 
perous elderly businessmen. 

We found that this was more of a higher type of nightclub. We 
found out, through observation, that a beer in this place cost 75 cents. 
So that is one of the reasons we didn't find juveniles there. That 
is one of the unattractive things about this type place for the juveniles. 

The Chairman. The cost has something to do with it, does it ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. I think so. 

Next, we visited Barton's Show Bar at 18th and Walnut Streets. 
We found here only three girls of questionable age. They were be- 
tween the 18- and 20-year-old group. 

Then at the Holiday Manor at Eighth and Walnut Streets, we found 
3 apparent juveniles, 2 boys and 1 girl. 



64 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

But the rest of the clientele there were older. Those were only 3 
out of approximately 40 people in the place. 

Mr. BoBO. You walked in and from your observation in these places, 
in any of these places that you visited, did you ever see the bartender 
check any of the people ordering drinks at all for identification or ask 
them their age any place where you visited other than the one you 
pointed out? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. As I notice in Philadelphia, the bartenders do not 
question any one. If they are admitted at the door then it is all right 
for them to be served a drink. It seems in Philadelphia that it is 
up to the person who is at tlie door. 

Usually at most of the places you have the owner or manager or 
hat check girl or a waitress or someone who will be standing at the 
door, but through my observation in approximately 45 places, we 
never saw a bartender questioning the age. 

The one other bar that we have here where we found juveniles we 
checked on last Monday night. This is the Paddock Bar and Grill 
at 1322 Walnut Street. Here we found 5 out of an approximately 10 
people in the place under age. They were sitting in the back away 
from the bar. 

Here we found no misbehavior. I mean they were sitting there 
with their drinks. Wliile we were there 1 boy went to the bar and 
ordered a drink, out of that 5. 

These were the 19 places in the investigation where we found juve- 
niles, 

Mr. BoBO. You also checked down here in the penny arcade section 
of Pliiladelphia during various times of the night just to get the ap- 
proximate age of the children that were in there and on the streets. 
Can you give us some observations you might have had on that? 

Mr. Sdllins. Well, we observed these 4 penny arcades on Market 
Street, mostly the 3 down between Broad and Seventeenth on Market 
Street. We observed those for approximately 2 weeks at different 
hours and at different times. 

We found kids in the place up until 1 o'clock in the morning on 
some occasions. Here you find the age ranging from 9 through, well, 
you find older men in there, older persons, but you find from 9 to 21 
a large concentration of juveniles, especially in between 8 and 10 
o'clock in the evening. 

Mr. BoBo. The main attraction in there being pinball machines? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. Pinball machines, shuffleboard, bowling, miniature 
games. 

The reason we were interested there is the fact that on each of the 
machines, especially the pinball machines, you have stamped inside 
under the glass that no minor can legally play the pinball machine, 
but here we found them as young as 9 and 10 years spending their 
money on the pinball machines. 

Senator Hennings. Are those payoff machines? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. Only in the respect that if you go up to 5 million 
in score for instance, you get a free game. It does not pay off as 
far as money is concerned. It does not work on the slot-machine idea. 

The Chairman. You said some of these places were open until 
1 o'clock in the morning. 

Mr. SuLLiNS. I think the ones on Market Street are open during 
the week until 4 in the morning. When I pointed out 1 in the 
morning we found juveniles in the places up to the hour of 1 o'clock. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 65 

The Chairman. How old were those children ? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. From 9 to 21. 

The Chairman. Does counsel have any more questions ? 

Mr. Bono. No. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Sullins. 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Sullins, just a minute please. 

I want to ask one question, I do not want to in any way, Mr. 
Sullins, seem to be cross-examining you, but there is some doubt 
about the ages of all these children, is there not, those people you saw ? 
It would take quite an expert to determine whether they were 16 or 
21 or 22? 

Mr. Sullins. That is right. I have a brother 5 years older than I 
and visitors in our home never have any trouble telling which one 
of us is younger. 

Senator Hennings. I assumed you are perceptive and a good judge 
of age, but the judgment of none of us is beyond rebuttal on questions 
of age. 

Mr. Sullins. That is true, sir. 

Senator Hennings. Now, there is only one other point in our effort 
to be fair. You cannot tell in all cases where you have observed 
people drinking just what it was they were drinking. You know 
you did see some drinks of liquor ordered and served. 

Mr. Sullins. Well, you can tell the different brands of beer by the 
bottle. We saw the different brands of beer before them. We saw 
them drinking from the glass. 

Senator Hennings. Was this beer for the most part? 

Mr. Sullins. We heard the kids also ordering mixed drinks, for 
instance, rye and ginger, and you saw the bartender pour it in the 
glass. 

Senator Hennings. If they ordered it you assumed they would 
get it, or they would not stay ? 

Mr. Sullins. That is true. We made it a point in many of the 
places to check. For one thing, a kid can't be fooled in that respect. 
If he orders liquor and gets Coca-Cola, he is going to make a com- 
plaint. Of course, in these places they want no complaints anyway, 
it would seem. 

Senator Hennings. Now, these places you covered for the most 
part, with one exception I believe you called the Celebrity Club, were 
moderately priced establishments, were they not ? 

Mr. Sullins. Yes, sir; in most of these places you have uniform 
prices. It ranges, but usually it runs 50 cents or 40 cents for a beer, 
and so forth. 

Senator Hennings. Did you go to any of the so-called more ex- 
pensive places ? 

Mr. Sullins. As I pointed out, the Celebrity Room, in these places 
in making our checks we didn't sit down and order the drinks our- 
selves and pay for them. So we don't know exactly what the prices 
would be. 

Senator Hennings. You could find out going into the place, you 
could ask them how much the drinks are, could you not? 

Mr. Sullins. That is true. 

Senator Hennings, I assume you did that in some of the places. 



66 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. SuLLiNS. In several of the places. We tried to watch the 
bartender at the time. When a beer was ordered we would look at 
the price rung up on the till. 

Senator ELennings. You saw no flagrant disorders? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. I saw no violence ; no fights. 

Senator Hennings. You saw no flagrant drunkenness, did you? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. In cases there was apparent intoxication among the 
groups. 

Senator Hennings. If it had been flagrant it would have been 
certainly more apparent. 

Mr. SuLLiNS. There we go back to the matter of observation. 

Senator Hennings. Yes, of course. It comes back to the matter 
of judgment and I assume you do have good judgment. Have you 
any suggestions, Mr. Sullins, as to what you think should be done 
about some of these establishments based upon what you saw ? 

Mr. Sullins. I feel there, sir, I am not qualified to say or to ex- 
press opinions. 

Senator Hennings. Well, you are somewhat of that age group 
yourself. Where do you think these children might go if these places 
were not open ? 

Mr. Sullins. We might point back again to the penny arcade. 
Supervised activities such as a dance, for instance, on a Friday night 
with maybe a school dance, with your faculty supervising. There 
you don't come up with the same problem that you come up with in 
the bars on a Friday night. 

Senator Hennings. I am not defending this form of nocturnal 
activity on the part of the young people who go to places that sell 
liquor and disport themselves with sailors, the young girls, but I 
don't tliink you would get many of the sailors, for example, to go to 
a su])ervised dance, would you ? 

Maybe the USO or something of that kind. Would these young 
people go to supervised entertainment if such were to be afforded? 

Mr. Sullins. As you pointed out before, I am in that group, and 
let me say that I did. 

Senator Hennings. You did and you enjoyed that more? 

Mr. Sullins. Well, definitely. 

Senator Hennings. Now, of course, the children we are trying to 
i-each and the ones who apparently concern us most are those who 
don't go to the places that are supervised. Wliat can we do about 
that? Suppose they won't go? Is it for us to make the laws stricter, 
the inspection more frequent, the penalties greater to be visited upon 
places that sell liquor illegally to minors, or is it to try if we can to 
channel them to other places, but will they go? 

Mr. Sullins. It must be pointed out, first, Was there supervised 
activity for them ? 

Senator Hennings. Was there and is there? 

Mr. Sullins. That I didn't check into. 

Senator Hennings. You didn't talk to any of them to find out 
"whether there were other things to which they went occasionally ? 

Mr. Sullins. No, because we were trying to remain as inconspicu- 
ous as possible. 

Senator Hennings. So the children might have gone some nights 
to the supervised dances in the schools. This might have been just a 
night of slumming, or a night out on the town, or night of adventure? 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 67 

Mr. SuLLiNS. It might have been a night of slumming for the ap- 
proximately 450 ? 

Senator Hennings. So necessarily the ones you saw were not all 
habitues of these places, regular patrons ; we have no wav of knowing? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. That you can't tell in the short time oi investigation 
you have. You have to frequent the places and become so familiar 
with all of the faces of the people to attempt to tell whether or 
not they are regular clients. 

The Chairman-. But the law could be enforced, could it not, or 
should be? 

Mr. SuLLiNS. There are existing laws and I think it is up to the 
people to enforce the laws. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Sullins. 

Mr. Stjllins. Thank you. 

Mr. BoBO. Mrs. Clara Baldwin. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of 
the United States Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. CLARA BALDWIN, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Baldwin, have you a prepared statement? 

Mrs. Baij)win. Not exactly. I have some facts down here that I 
might forget. 

The Chairman. You may proceed in your own manner. 

Mrs. Baldwin". Thank you. 

At first I should say I am a housewife and also, Mr. Chairman, the 
mother of 13 children. My husband and I have 23 grandchildren, and 
1 great-grandchild. We sponsor a neighborhood club. 

Also I am division leader of a citywide organization that is fight- 
ing delinquency and its causes. We primarily are interested in our 
neighborhood area because it is considered the crime area. 

The Chairman". We had a map here this morning of the city of 
Philadelphia. I wonder if you could tell us where your area is? 

Mrs. BALD^^^;N. Our area would be from Chestnut Street to Roberts 
Avenue and in the immediate neighborhood we would be interested 
from Broad Street back to Strawberry Mansion, because that is what 
I am going to talk about, the taprooms that are giving us the most 
trouble. 

That seems to be our main trouble, the taprooms that we have to 
combat in fighting delinquency. As the young man told you about 
the youngsters that are found in the taprooms in the central city, 
we have it much, much worse in our neighborhood because the chil- 
dren there have no place to go. 

Besides, they are in 2-room apartments and families are 6 and 7 and 
sometimes 8 in 2 or 3 rooms. 

Youngsters, when they get older, want to go somewhere. We find 
they are ending up in these taprooms. They find there the jive 
machines and music and drinks along with it that attract them there. 

We are interested in doing something that will help us combat 
delinquency in that neighborhood in that respect. 



68 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

I think we have 144 taprooms from Girard Avenue to Susquehanna. 
"We have 24 from Broad Street to 23d Street on Columbia Avenue. 
We have 11 from 25th and York to 29th and Ridge. 

We have one case pending where we are trying not to get a trans- 
fer of another license there. 

Those are the things, Mr. Chairman, that we are primarily interested 
in over there. 

Mr. BoBO. This is an area that would cover how many blocks, 
from Broad to 23d would be how many city blocks? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Ten, I guess it would be, from Broad to 23d it would 
be 10 blocks. 

Mr. BoBo. I am sure your organization and your group and you 
unquestionably have made some efforts to have the number cut, or 
closed, after you found the children of the neighborhood were there. 
Will you tell us something about that? 

Mrs. Baldwin. As citizens and as neighborhood groups we have 
been down to the liquor board several times and begged them not to 
transfer any more liquor licenses in our neighborhood. 

However, we won just one case out of the many we have in court. 
With the help of Father Toy we are fighting one at 1418 Susquehanna, 
which is to be a new one, and 12th and Dalton Street and Broad and 
Dal ton Street are ones that are to be. 

We also have 1 pending at 25th and Berk, besides that we have 3 
State stores which would ordinarily take care of a whole lot of people, 
but they continue to give us transfers in these neighborhoods. 

Mr. BoBO. From your own observation, Mrs. Baldwin, in talking 
with the parents in this neighborhood, in talking with the children in 
these neighborhoods, do the children visit these taprooms and bars? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, they do. 

Mr. BoBo. Do they visit them in great numbers ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, they do. I will say, for instance, the ones 
in my neighborhood would probably go up on Columbia Avenue where 
they would be out of our sight, but they do still go in them. 

Mr. BoBO. Do you notice youngsters getting intoxicated on the 
street, or getting into trouble ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, around Columbia and Ridge. 

Mr. Bobo. That stems from your observation and talking to parents 
in the groups ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. You don't have to talk. If you stand on the streets 
you w^ill see it. 

Mr. BoBO. That is one of the reasons for the interest of you mothers 
and so forth ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

The Chairman. Have there been any records of revocation of li- 
censes that you know of recently ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Never in our setup. 

The Chairman. Even though there are violations of the law there 
have never been any revocations? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, sir. 

Senator Hennings. I assume you have called this matter to the 
attention of the police, Mrs. Baldwin, repeatedly? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, we have. 

Senator Hennings. What happens after you have done that? 



JTJVENILE DELESTQUENCY 69 

Mrs. Baldwin. I can't say that anything happens unless he drives 
by there and looks to satisfy you. He may not even stop the car. 

Senator Hennings. Do the police by and large pay attention to you ? 
Do they seem to follow the matter up ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, there is no foUowup. We haven't had any 
followups that I know of. 

Senator Hennings. You have spoken just to the policeman on the 
beat in that area, or have you gone to the chief of police? 

Mrs. Baldwin. We have more or less worked, we have been trying 
to get the liquor board not to transfer any more because it apparently 
is out of the policeman's hands. They can't do too much about it. 

If you go by some of these tap rooms right now you would see there 
were violations of the law on the outside and nobody bothers them. 

The Chairman. Your contacts, then, have been made directly with 
the liquor board ; is that right ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is right, and courts. 

Mr. BoBO. Could you give us any idea what the followup is on your 
appearance before the board ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. They have been very kind in saying they are working 
with us and they are going to do the best they can for us. In the 
meantime they open up another beer garden. 

Senator Hennings. Have they ever closed any place? 

Mrs. Baldwin. So far they haven't. I think the last one was closed 
in 1941. Then they had five murders, otherwise they would not have 
closed it. 

Senator Hennings. After five murders they closed one place in 
1941. Have you been living in that neighborhood all this time? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, I have lived there since 1943. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mrs. Baldwin. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Is Frederick T. Gelder in the room? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Gelder. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FREDERICK T. GELDER, CHAIRMAN, PENNSYL- 
VANIA STATE LIQUOR CONTROL BOARD, HARRISBURG, PA. 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Gelder, first, would you identify yourself with your 
full name and address and agency or organization which you are 
connected with ? 

Mr. Gelder. Frederick T. Gelder. My home address is Forest City, 
Pa. I am chairman of the Pennsylvania State Liquor Control Board, 
with headquarters at Harrisburg. 

Mr. BoBo. Will you tell us something of the composition of the 
Philadelphia Liquor Control Board, the number of members, the 
enforcement agency side of it, and so forth ? 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Gelder is chairman of the State board? 

Mr. Gelder. Of the State board, but we have jurisdiction all over 
Philadelphia and the 4 adjoining counties, I think between 30 and 40 
enforcement officers. 



70 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr, BoBO. It is a three-man State board that hears applications for 
licenses? 

Mr. Gelder. It should be a three-man board. Right now there are 
two. One died and the successor has not been appointed. 

Mr. BoBO. Before this board is heard complaints that are referred 
by the police department of the city of Philadelphia and you hold 
the hearings on revocation and suspension and so forth? 

Mr. Gelder. Wliat the police department does is entirely a matter of 
the police department and they make arrests and take them before the 
local courts, but very often we get the testimony or we follow the 
cases and then we cite the following arrests that have been made by the 
police. 

The Chairman. Is that testimony sworn testimony ? 
Mr. Gelder. That would have to be sworn testimony. 
The Chairman. Strangely enough, this subcommittee found! in 
Boston that the board up there did not even swear a witness. 

Mr. Gelder. I have been somewhat surprised, listening to the young 
gentleman who was a witness here a few minutes ago, at some of his 
statements, and also, in fact, wondering when he first stepped up, 
what the problem would be if a young man his age and somebody 
who looked about his age went in to get a drink, whether a bartender 
would think he was or was not 21 years of age, because he was in that 
class where it was pretty difficult to tell. 

Of course, the responsibility of the licensee is to know. 
Senator Hennings. That was part of the subject matter that I was 
trying to get at, Mr. Gelder. 
Mr. Gelder. I noticed that. 

Senator Hennings. I am sure the chairman said this and it may 
bear repeating, if the Chair will indulge me — I think we should make 
it abundantly clear that it is not the purpose of this subcommittee to 
come high riding into cities and making State officials and local officials 
look bad. That is the easiest thing in the world to do, make sensa- 
tional headlines. 

Many of us here have been public officials of one kind or another 
and there are problems that are very difficult. Tliis is not easy, this 
business of administering jobs such as yours. 

I was of the same mind when young Mr. Snllins took the stand. If 
I were a man employed as a bartender, or if I had a place of business, I 
am wondering where I would draw the line. You cannot interrogate 
everybody and ask them all for identification. 

With all that in mind, why do you not tell us a little bit about what 
you think could be done to help you fulfill the obligation of your 
job. 

Mr. Gelder. Speaking along the lines of the testimony he gave, I 
would say 18 months or 2 years ago one of the newspapers of Pennsyl- 
vania, in a city of from fifty to eighty thousand, sent a young man out 
and he got something to drink in every licensed place in that city. 
There apparently was not one licensee according to the report in the 
paper who was living up to the law. 

We amplified the number of enforcement men we had in there and 

we weren't able to find those people who were not living up to the law. 

Very often we will find a lot of young people in a place and we have 

an open inspection where we have to go to get their age. We find 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCT 71 

when we go back and get the birth certificates that some of those that 
we thought were under 21 are 21 years of age. 

In fact, today when the youngster tries to dress up to his father and 
the girl tries to dress up to her mother, on the other hand, grandma 
dresses down to the mother, too, it is just a little bit hard to tell too 
much about age, I can realize the problem of the men who are selling 
liquor. 

But, of course, in our case we have to hold them responsible. They 
are held responsible under the law. 

The Chairman. Mr. Gelder, how do you police your law ? Do you 
have inspectors out through the State ? 

Mr. Gelder. We have about 160 men at the present time who are in 
our enforcement department. 

The Chairjman. That is quite a relief, is it not ? 

Mr. Gelder. Very much so. The most they can do is to see whether 
or not the licensee is policing his own establishment and if we find 
that he is not, then we have some undercover men go in there to get 
the evidence. 

Of course, we have upwards of 20,000 licensees in Pennsylvania. ^ 

Senator Hennings. Now, you heard the testimony of Mrs. Baldwin, 
Mr. Gelder? 

Mr. Gelder. I could not hear all of it, but I think she was talking 
about new licenses being granted. 

Senator ELennings. She was speaking of places now in existence 
that are flagrantly violating the law and selling minors and about 
which the good mothers of that neighborhood very repeatedly com- 
plained and nothing whatever has been done. 

Mr. Gelder. Before I leave I would like to have her tell me whom 
she complained to. 

Senator Hennings. I was going to say since these hearings are not 
purely theoretical this would be one opportunity if you would be 
good enough to talk to her and see if something can be done. 

Mr. Gelder. Automatically, almost, when we get a complaint, we 
make an investigation. Of course, we should have the cooperation 
of the police of Pennsylvania because while we have only 160 enforce- 
ment officers we do turn back from the liquor control board the license 
money, which represents between five and six million dollars a year, 
to the local municipalities. 

The city of Philadelphia probably gets a million and a half from us 
a year, license fees returned. 

Of course, I always thought policemen should have fairly good 
knowledge of what is happening on his beat. It seems to me that if 
some of the tilings were happening that the young man spoke about, 
he ought to know something about it. 

If he went into that place and confronted the bartender he prob- 
ably wouldn't even have to make an arrest to get order. 

Undoubtedly a lot of the young people are attracted to licensed 
places because of the amusement, because today if they have an 
amusement permit they can put on a show and have dancing. We find 
very often that young people do go because of the amusement and not 
necessarily to drink, but to dance. 



72 JUVENILE DELmQUENCY 

It has been our experience however, that when we get minors who 
are in their later teens and very seldom any that are in the younger 
teens 

The Chairman. Borderline cases ? 

Mr. Gelder. They are more apt to be borderline cases. In fact, 
sometimes when the testimony comes before us we find that the ex- 
aminer who heard the case comments on the fact that they look mature. 
They look to him over 21 years of age. 

When we have cases, incidentally — ^you spoke about how they did 
in Boston — when we cite, they are given notice and a hearing is held 
before an examiner who is appointed by the governor and a deputy 
attorney general who tries the case. Then it comes before us and we 
usually screen those matters and then they come before the board for 
penalty. 

The Chairman. Do you have many revocations of licenses in Penn- 
sylvania? 

Mr. Gelder. Well, we do revoke, yes, but probably not as many as a 
great many people think we should and I presume more than a great 
many others think we should, because the peculiar thing about the 
liquor business seems to be one man wonders why you would do 
something about it and the other wonders why you would tolerate it. 

The Chairman. It is a very hard thing to regulate. The subcom- 
mittee is conscious of that fact. 

Mr. Gelder. I think the lady who preceded me said something 
about licenses piling up in the locality. I want to say something as 
to that, because very often we have people remonstrate against appli- 
cations of licenses that are to be transferred from one area to another — 
under the law the board has very little, practically no option in the 
matter if it is not within 300 feet of a church, unless it is proven that 
the person is not of good moral risk. 

If it is a man whose integrity is not found at fault, we have little 
option. 

Senator Hennings. Or a man has been convicted of a crime? 

Mr. Gelder. Or has been convicted. 

Mr. BoBO. Under the law of Pennsylvania, say the city of Phila- 
delphia, you would not have so many in this area and so many in 
that area, and they could not have more than that? 

Mr. Gelder. The municipality is the limit. 

Mr. BoBO. The municipality is the limit and the man can move 
his licenses any place ? 

Mr. Gelder. When the licenses were first graiited there was no 
limit to the number that could be issued. In 1939 a restriction was 
placed so that it should be i3.ot more than one to a thousand, or a 
fraction of a thousand, but nothing was done about those that were 
over the quota at that time. 

Of course, a city like F'hiladelphia, we probably have double our 
quota — 3,337 licenses. 

The Chairman. In the city of Philadelphia? 

Mr. Gelder. At the present time. That would include retail and 
would include clubs and hotels. 

Incidentally, this is no quota for hotels. 

The Chairman. That would not include your State stores? 



JTJVENILE DELINQUENCY 73 

Mr. Gelder. There is no quota for hotels and the clubs do not count 
in the quota. 

Senator Hennings. How many State stores are there, sir? 

The Chairman. That figure did not include the State stores? 

Mr. Gelder. That did not include the State stores. We have 606 
stores in the State and roughly 40 in Philadelphia. 

Mr. BoBO. If I had a taproom on Chestnut Street and wanted to 
move over to Market Street, or I sold mine to someone who wanted 
to move over to Market Street, could I do that at will or would I 
make application ? 

Mr. Gelder. You would have to make application to the board. If 
you were within 300 feet of a church or a public building, and we 
get petitions opposing it, we can't give them the consideration that 
we give them if you are not within that 300 feet, although we invar- 
iably send them to a hearing if we do have petitioners opposing it. 

Mr. BoBO. We found in Washington, Mr. Gelder — and, of course, 
one of the areas of the exploration of this subcommittee is also adult 
contribution to juvenile delinquency — we found certain bars that 
catered almost exclusively to the young group. 

Within Philadelphia or Pennsylvania, have you found any adults 
that are unscrupulous enough to just trade with the young group 
since you have been chairman of the board? 

Mr. Gelder. Not to trade exclusively that way, but, of course, where 
they have music and entertainment it probably attracts the younger 
people, but not simply teen-agers, if that is what you mean, or those 
under. 

Of course, then, you have the problem today — back years ago the 
teen-agers didn't get more than a block or two away from home at 
night. Today even a 16-year old can borrow his father's car and if he 
has a license to drive he takes his girl 20 or 30 miles away. 

And if there is a dance, he might go in to dance. 

Under the law, however, they have no right to even cater to young 
people in their place although they don't sell them anything. 

Mr. BoBo. My feeling on the thing personally is that the owner of 
the place should be sure and that is where the responsibility really 
lies, on the owner, to make sure that no one is under age in his 
establishment. 

Mr. Gelder. Yes, juvenile delinquency is such that it is merely col- 
lateral with us. Our province is adult delinquency in the case of the 
licensee. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Gelder, for coming over 
here this afternoon. 

Mr. Gelder. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Mr. Allen H. Wetter. 

Is Mr. Dalgleish here? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee is indebted to you for coming 
around and helping us. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Daixjleish. T do. 



74 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT H. DALGIEISH, JR., GENERAL SUPERIN- 
TENDENT OF TRANSPORTATION, PHILADELPHIA TRANSIT CO. 

The Chairman. Will you state your full name and address and as- 
sociation, for the record, please ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Robert H. Dalgleish, 107 Harrogate Koad, Phila- 
phia 31. I am the general superintendent of transportation for the 
Philadelphia Transportation Co. 

Under my direction come the operators of our vehicles. I supervise 
the managing of the vehicles, the training of the employees, and the 
collecting and accounting for the receipts. 

The Chairman. How many vehicles are under your control ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. The peak vehicles today are about 2,300 cars and 
900 buses. 

The Chairman. When you say cars, you mean streetcars? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Streecars, and 900 buses. 

Property damage created by this juvenile misconduct, riders of 
school age particularly, has always been a real problem for us. In the 
past, however, it seemed to have taken the form of less serious nature, 
than it has since the ending of World War II. 

The misdemeanors and damage caused by the youthful riders seems 
to have increased materially year after year since the end of World 
War II until 1953, which seemed to be to us the most damaging year 
we have had. 

The situation as we see it has, however, improved markedly in the 
last few months. 

The Chairman. Can you account for that ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, I think so. There has been a great deal 
more attention put to the matter of policing of the loading points for 
the children and a considerable program of education on the part of 
the schools which may be now accumulating in effect. 

The misconduct of the people of school age on our vehicles falls 
within three categories generally. 

One, the damage committed covertly by individuals which comes 
in the classification of cutting of seats and scratching of the backs of 
the seats and cutting initials into things and damaging things which 
cannot be observed by the operator because it is done secretly. 

The damage committed openly by groups and damages, misconduct 
toward our employees, usually caused by groups. 

Last year this vandalism and destruction cost the company approxi- 
mately $30,000 in property damage. Most of the damage was perpe- 
trated by individuals as well as by groups. 

To give you some idea how it breaks down, there was about $7,500 
of that which was window breakage, usually through stones, snow- 
balls, BB shots. We have quite a number of BB shot damaged 
windows. 

Cutting of leather and other seats averages about 15 seats per week 
at the cost of about $5,300 a year to us to reupholster those seats. 

Broken and stolen light bulbs in the order of about $3,600 a year. 

Last year damage caused by boys who entered our property and 
started our vehicles and ran them into each other resulted in damage 
that cost us about $5,000. 

The Chairman. Were you able to recover any of these damages 
from responsible parents ? 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 75 

Mr. Dalgleish. No, we have not been able to do so. Usually if 
we have been fortunate enough to apprehend the people involved, 
the matter goes before the juvenile aid bureau of the police depart- 
ment. They are reviewed by a magistrate and as a result either put 
on probation or warned and let off. So we have not made any at- 
tempt to go further with collection for such damages. 

In some cases where the celebrants after athletic games have caused 
damage, we have had interiors of our vehicles almost completely 
wrecked even to the extent of breaking backs off the seats and throw- 
ing them out of the windows. I suppose that is youthful enthusiasm 
and as a young man I participated in some of that, but I don't believe 
that the youngsters in my time were as nearly malicious in the dam- 
age caused. They were more disturbing and not of the malicious type 
of thing that really is wanton destruction of property. 

When such damage occurs we contact the school authorities and 
students. The students are lectured in assemblies by the principal 
and at times our own representatives were invited to speak to these 
assemblies. 

The school authorities and the student leaders themselves are co- 
operative and I think they are doing everything that is reasonably 
possible. 

The Chairman. "VVTio do you channel through, Mr. Taber? 

Mr. Dalgleish. We go to school boards themselves. These com- 
plaints are channeled through our public-relations department to 
their school. 

Mr. Dameron, one of our public-relations representatives, is in 
constant contact with the school. We carry about 110,000 students' 
rides a day. As a result it is extremely important to us to have a 
good relationship and to see that the matter is handled well because 
we increase our services in order to provide service for the school 
riding. 

Of course, we provide that service at a reduced fare, which does 
not pay our out-of-pocket expense for carrying these children. 

However, we find that both the public and parochial school officials 
have repeatedly assured us of their willingness to suspend or other- 
wise severely discipline students we can specifically identify which is 
about as far as a group like that could go. 

The problem of identification of the culprit, however, certainly 
is a difficult one because when you get a group of children in a crowded 
vehicle our operator is usually faced to the front because he must be 
alert and when the damaging situation takes place, and even if he tries 
to handle it, it washes out in the big crowd and he cannot be expected 
to watch and apprehend the people involved. 

When misconduct gets completely out of hand we have asked the 
police for help because the school board has said that they can only 
go so far with the matter of handling the situation with the children 
in the schools themselves. 

As a result, we refer the matter to the juvenile aid bureau of the 
police department and they have assigned plainclothesmen and 
uniform police to the trouble spots and where necessary aiTests are 
made, but the offenders are usually taken to the youth center and 
released with a warning and very few cases ever result in any court 
action. 



76 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. You say completely out of control, or completely 
out of hand? Would you give the subcommittee a typical case of 
what you mean by completely out of control ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. At most of our high school and junior high school 
locations, at the break or what we call break, at the time the school 
lets out, we have a major loading problem. The children, of course, 
want to crowd on vehicles together. They push by without paying 
their fare. We try to put additional supervision there to help with 
the collection of the fare and the orderly handling of the children in 
loading. It has gotten to the point where fights break out. They 
show off. The boys show off to the girls. 

The Chairman. That has always been so. 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, it makes on the whole a very difficult thing 
for our men to handle. 

So at these concentrated loading points we have asked for the 
assistance of the police and for the most part have gotten it. 

It seems to me in the last few months we have gotten even better 
results from the police and, therefore, our damage or destruction and 
trouble between the kids and our operators has somewhat improved. 

Our union went so far as to take the matter directly to the police 
department in parallel to what we were doing as a company. These 
roughhouse tactics at certain of these school loading locations have 
required a number of police to maintain order and we have found that 
not only at that location, but for some distance on the line away from 
the school it was necessary to keep the police there in order to assure 
the thing being handled until the crowds disperse. 

Since January 1, the number of instances that have been reported 
officially through our employees to us which we have passed on either 
to the schools or to the police have amounted to 58 such cases. Twenty- 
one of them have gone to the schools directly because we thought it was 
of a nature that they could handle them, and the balance to the police. 

We try to handle the situations as they arise. We have known 
points of trouble on which we put additional supervision. 

However, I would like to say, while it is a big problem to us, when 
you consider the fact we handle somewhat in the nature of 110 
thousand children a day on vehicle rides, perhaps the number of in- 
stances we have are in themselves a small proportion. 

Still the problem of our employee in handling these incidents be- 
comes an acute one because he himself is subject to attack. We have 
had instances in which knives were taken away from children, very 
bad looking and vicious knives. And we are anxious to support the 
employee against these mob attacks of relatively big children. 

I would like to add one more thing. I think the schools have done 
a very splendid job of trying to attack the problem from a rider 
educational angle. They have gone so far as to form school trans- 
portation committees consisting of 5 or 6 representatives from each 
junior and senior high school. They are active in practically every 
one of the schools throughout the city. Their purpose is to promptly 
report to us, direct or through the faculty, any unsatisfactory condi- 
tion which may arise in the transit service so that prompt correction 
measures may be taken by the company. 

Now, the PTC realizes that acts of misbehavior among the students 
are more apt to take place on vehicles that are overcrowded than on 
one carrying a normal load. Immediate steps are thereafter taken 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 77 

to remedy tliis overcrowding in the service. Overcrowding in the 
service and other things which are unsatisfactory from a transporta- 
tion standpoint are referred through these committees to our company 
in a fully cooperative enterprise between the student and the company. 

We feel that these committees help to at least have a segment of the 
student body take part in a public enterprise, in trying to help them- 
selves in the transportation problem. 

We have done as much as we could as a corporation to assist them 
in building up these student transportation committees. 

I hope what I have said at least points up the problem. I shall be 
very glad to answer any questions. 

The Chairman. It points up the problem all right, but I wonder how 
much connection this vandalism has with other types of delinqueny ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. I cannot answer that directly, but we do know that 
the majority of damage is created by and at the time when there is 
a majority of school riding and in the areas where the older school- 
children are involved. 

The Chairman. You never traced any of these cases directly ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, some instances have been traced to an indi- 
vidual. 

The Chairman. Who was otherwise delinquent ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. I don't understand that. Senator. No, I am not 
certain that they have been traced so situations where people were 
otherwise delinquent. 

The Chairman. Then there is no real followup, is there? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Only that that might be given by the law enforce- 
ment authorities upon the apprehension of the misdemeanor. 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Dalgleish, how long have you been with 
the company ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Twelve years. 

Senator Hennings. Have you noticed any substantial increase in 
this kind of property damage and vandalism, disorder, bearing in 
mind that there has been some increase in population and schools are 
somewhat overcrowded and that possibly your facilities have not been 
increased to keep pace with the increase in riders, if that be true ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, Senator, I think I can honestly answer that. 
I have been general superintendent of transportation for 8 years. It 
seems to me that in that time there has been an increase of more than 
normal riding, increase in not only the amount of damage, but the 
character of damage. 

Senator Hennings. That is your impression ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. You have no records or figures ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes ; I think the record is available. 

Senator Hennings. I do not question your word. I wondered as 
to the accuracy of your observations. 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, sir; we have records as to accurately what 
damage was — I cannot tell you at this time, but it is available. I know 
that the damage last year was in the order of $30,000. 

Senator Hennings. We know in metropolitan communities there 
is always the question of adequate transportation facilities at the peak 
hours. 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, sir. 

46966—54 6 



78 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Senator Hennings. I do not know whether you have been able to 
furnish what is called adequate transportation or not in terms of 
overcrowding of buses. That would be a factor at any rate, would 
it, without asking you to answer that question. 

Mr. Dalgleish. I might answer to this extent, that the school riding 
takes place slightly after the morning peak hour and just before the 
evening peak hour. 

Senator Hennings. It is the school peak hour and it is the peak hour 
where the schools are located. 

Mr. Dalgleish. That is correct. 

Senator Hennings. That would be the peak hour for the schools ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. True. 

Senator Hennings. And the buses and cars are crowded, are they 
not? 

Mr. Dalgleish. We think not beyond the reasonable loading stand- 
ards for that size of vehicle. 

Senator Hennings. Of course, the public service company's notion 
of reasonable loading standards and the public's notion have fre- 
quently been in conflict, have they not? 

Mr. Dalgleish. That is debatable. 

Senator Hennings. Without undertaking to blame you for that, 
or to exonerate you for it, either, this business of vandalism has been 
with us through the ages, has it not ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, it has. To what I thought was a lesser degree 
in the past. 

Senator Hennings. I was surprised on my first visit to St. Paul's 
in London to see fellows had carved their initials back in the gallery 
in the 1600's, in the 17th century. There they were, the same old 
fellows, 1769, and so on. We found many in the Egyptian tombs, 
the excavations, some of the ancients could not resist putting their 
names in the public places. 

So that and the old business of splitting the seats — I can remember 
they used to take streetcars off the tracks sometimes in smaller com- 
munities, lift the cars off the tracks, in the days of horsecars they would 
get on the back platform and rock them. 

So they would assault the motorman. In San Francisco they get 
the gripman and put him out of the way and they take charge of the 
cable cars. Particularly after games — you have a good many ath- 
letic events in Philadelphia — there is a lot of that business going on. 

Mr. Dalgleish. That is true. However, I remember in the past 
my association with such things, we did that. We pulled a pole off 
the wire. We attempted to divert the attention of the operator to the 
extent we could to prevent the proper payment of our fare. 

On the other hand, I think the character of the treatment today is 
somewhat more malicious and certainly more damaging. 

Senator Hennings. Yes, but certainly you are in a position to 
know about that and certainly with the passage of the years we are 
not as inclined to view things as youthful peccadillos as much as we 
might have 20 years ago. 

Part of my interest, and I am sure the other members of the sub- 
committee, our chairman, in this whole inquiry is not necessarily to 
indict the youth of today as being in all respects worse than the youth 
of yesteryear. The lamentations and anguish that arises over the 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 79 

conduct of Willie Jones today may or may not be justified in terms 
of the conduct of his father or his grandfather. 

I for one do not really know. I know that the population has 
increased substantially. We know that there seems to be an intensi- 
fication of what some people have been pleased to call juvenile de- 
linquency. We know that so-called crime seems to be increasing. We 
knew it was increasing back in the twenties, too, did we not, during 
the late lamented prohibition era in the days of the gangs. 

We do not have as much organized crime in this country today as 
we had in the twenties and early thirties. We do not have the adult 
gangs operating on a big scale. 

So there are all sorts of factors entering into this, are there not? 

Mr. Dalgleish. That is correct. 

Senator Hennings. Certainly we are sympathetic with your prob- 
lem. Property damage is always important. 

Mr. Dalgleish. It is one. Senator, that we feel a responsibility to- 
ward, because a substantial proportion of our riding is school children 
riding. It is an obligation which we have assumed in the community 
at, as I say, a fare which would not pay for the cost of the operations 
on the additional services. 

Therefore, we feel that a better control of the damage created cer- 
tainly is desirable. If anything we can say or do might be helpful 
we want to do so. 

I call your attention, however, to the fact of activities of the Phila- 
delphia schools in relationship to this school rider problem ; we have 
in our industry an extreme interest in this particular school situation 
because all transit companies like ourselves have this as a major prob- 
lem. Wherever they see any refreshing approach to this student edu- 
cational problem with relationship to the riding conduct on vehicles, 
they have been quick to try to find out how it was done and try to get 
the school's cooperation in the community. 

The school relationship here with the transit company is one that 
has been well thought out in the industry as a whole. I think it 
might be helpful in the same kind of problem elsewhere. 

The Chairman. Mr. Dalgleish, you feel, I take it, from your testi- 
mony, that this vandalism which you describe discloses a trend to- 
ward a greater degree of delinquency ? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Yes, sir ; I feel that there has been an upward trend 
in the damage created and in the seriousness of the individual ap- 
proaches. We have had our operators in a great many instances at- 
tacked by a group that was larger than he could handle as an in- 
dividual. 

The Chairman. Physically attacked? 

Mr. Dalgleish. Physically attacked and their seats taken away 
from them. 

Now, as the Senator mentioned, yes, I think it is the nature of most 
the kids to try to avoid the payment of fare. You know the trolley 
company seems to be fair game. I don't believe, as I look back on it, 
that there was ever any organized attack against the conductor and 
with the intent of making off with the receipts, which seems to me to 
have been the pattern in the last few years. 

I say it has markedly improved since the first of the year because I 
believe the ])olice are giving it more specific attention than was given 



80 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

in 1953, and since that is so, I think we are getting better results as 
long as the police attention is being put on it. 

The Chairman, Thank you very much for your statement to this 
subcommittee. You have made a great contribution to the subcom- 
mittee in its work. 

Mr. Dalgleish. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Charles Robinson. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give to this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the Avliole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Robinson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES ROBINSON, VICE PRESIDENT, PENN- 
SYLVANIA STATE CIO, AND BUSINESS AGENT, TRANSPORT 
WORKERS, LOCAL 24, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Do you have a prepared statement Mr. Robinson ? 

Mr. Robinson. No ; I don't. 

The Chairman. Will you first state your name ? 

Mr. Robinson. Charles Robinson, 5014 North Fifth Street, Phila- 
delphia. I am business agent for the Transport Woi-kers' Union, 
Local 24, representing employees of the Philadelphia Transportation 
Co. 

I am here today because I am very much concerned over the welfare 
and safety of the people whom I represent. 

Contrary to the feelings of the Senator here, who seems to take it 
very lightly, I would like to say that I am sick and tired of the attacks 
that are made upon the operators, both physically and otherwise, 
where they are being beaten, knocked unconscious', at times they have 
their money stolen from them, and 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, may I interject there, what is 
it you thought I took so lightly '? 

Mr. Robinson. Well, this idea of vandalism and attacks made on 
people. To me it is not light. 

Senator Hennings. Now, sir, I nmst say a word to you, if you do not 
mind. You are drawing a very broad conclusion from my effort to 
develop whether or not this is an intensification of what has been 
going on, whether this is acute or whether it is chronic. I want you 
to understand I have spent 8 years of my life in law enforcement. 
I have been district attorney. I have been courtroom prosecutor. 
It has been my unpleasant tluty to send men to the ])enitentiary and to 
the gallows. 1 resent your broad implication that 1 am taking any of 
this lightly. 

I would not be here if I were. On the other hand, I think it is part 
of the duty of this subcommittee to put things in proper perspective. 
I had heard nothing specifically about the attacks until Mr. Dalgleish 
referred to physical attacks. I do not take those lightly upon any- 
body at any time, any place, and I do not take any vandalism lightly. 

My only effort is to try to hold this investigation — along with the 
chaii-man, and I think we all agree — in persjjective, sir, not to take 
any of this lightly. 

Mr. Robinson. Well, I would like to say this 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 81 

Senator Hennings. Do you understand what I am trying to say? 

Mr. EoBiNSON. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. Do you believe me? 

Mr. KoBiNSON. Yes ; I do now. 

Senator Hennings. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. KoBiNSON. However, before in your approach I thought you 
were taking it lightly up to the time he did mention the physical at- 
tacks on the employees. 

The Chairman. The Chair would like to think, Mr. Robinson, that 
you overstated the case a little bit. 

Mr. Robinson. You might put it that way. 

On numerous occasions our employees have been attacked, as I said, 
both physically and otherwise. They have had money stolen. I am 
concerned also about the fact that they are not paying their fares, 
the fact that they are damaging property and committing vandalism. 

I have approached the company many times and they in turn have 
turned it over to the police. 

Up until recently there was not too much action taken as far as they 
are concerned. 

I then approached the school board. I talked to the principal of 
various schools. They seemed to want to cooperate, but, however, 
nothing was done about it. The vandalism and attacks continued. 

I then went to the Commissioner of the Police, Mr. Gibbons. I 
explained the case to liim. He listened to me quite well and he sent 
out a force of about 20 or 25 police and they covered these various 
schools. 

I have a list of them here I will read out to you. 

At the time the police were out there it seemed that the attacks 
stopped, there was no vandalism to any extent other than what normal 
schoolchildren will do. 

However, when the police were withdrawn the outbreak imme- 
diately started up again. I went to the school board and the police 
and told them unless it was curtailed and they stopped that stuff, 
we would have to take the service off those lines for a period of 
2 or more hours a day. 

Well, the papers picked that up and the schoolchildren apparently 
listened to it because the vandalism stopped and the attacks stopped 
for a period of time. 

I have a list here of different attacks that have been made on the 
employees of PTC, the operators of the trolley cars and buses. If 
you would like, would like to read out the schools that are involved 
first. 

There is Simon Gratz High School. 

Gillespie Junior High School, located at 17th and Pulaski Avenue. 

You have the Bok Vocational School. 

You have the Audenried High School, located at 33d and Tasker 
Street. 

You have the Overbrook High School, located at 59th Street and 
Lancaster Avenue. 

They are the schools that we are having trouble with, the operators 
are becoming involved with. 

I would like to read out to you a couple of things that have hap- 
pened to the people. In one instance we had a girl operator who 



82 JUVENILE DELINQTJENCT 

was beaten, kicked, knocked down on the floor and actually walked 
on. They robbed her of $11.60 some cents. 

The Chairman. Who do you mean by "they" ? 

Mr. Robinson. The students from Gratz High School. They stole 
her money amounting to $11.60 some cents. They took her tickets 
which were also charged to her, which she had to pay for. 

We had another girl operator beaten and robbed to the extent of 
putting a knife in her back. 

The Chairman. Were these children apprehended for these 
offenses ? 

Mr. Robinson. Yes, they were. 

The Chairman. Take the first case. How many children were 
involved ? 

Mr. Robinson. On the first one there were roughly 20 or 25 children 
involved. 

The Chairman. Boys or girls, or both ? 

Mr. Robinson. They are both. They were mixed. They stand 
in the front of the car and when the car reaches its destination, the 
end of the line where the school is located, they immediately rush 
the conductor, refuse to pay fares, if he or she attempts to stop them ; 
that is when they are attacked. They are knocked down and trans- 
fers and exchanges are stolen and in some cases money is stolen. 

In the first case no one was locked up or arrested. 

In the second case where the girl was robbed and knocked to the 
floor and a knife put in her back, they called the police and the police 
entered the trolley car and took 2 or 3 away. 

The Chairman. How many children involved in the second case? 

Mr. Robinson. About 20 of them. 

The Chairman. Were they all apprehended? 

Mr. Robinson. No ; they picked up the 1 with the knife, and 2 others, 
I think it was. 

To my knowledge there was no disposition of the case. It was dis- 
missed out of court. They were taken to the youth center here in 
Philadelphia and that is all that happened to it. 

We had one operator by the name of Hughie Love. He was working 
on 21 route and the students of the Gratz High School attacked him. 
They were led by a little fellow about 15 years old who was the leader 
of the group. He had the kid arrested and pointed him out to the 
magistrates who were at the courtroom as the fellow who did it. 
The fellow admitted it and admitted that he had had five previous 
offenses and he was discharged. 

We had a former operator, he does not work here any longer, he left 
a few months ago. He was beaten and knocked aU over the trolley car 
by 25 of the students of Gratz High School. They called the police 
and there was not one arrest made. They came in and told them to 
behave themselves and that is all there was to it. 

The operator himself lost 2 days of work as a result of the beating 
he had taken. 

We had an old conductor approximately 65 years of age who was 
attacked by a group of girls. 

The Chairman. Does your record show the dates of these cases? 

Mr. Robinson. No. I think one of your representatives has the date 
on some of them. 

The Chairman. Does the staff have this information ? 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 83 

Mr. BoBo. Just approximate date. These have all occurred since 
1953. 

The Chairman. Wliat is your latest date? 

Mr. BoBO. These have all occurred since September of 1953. 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

Mr. BoBO. Do we have the same ones that you have ? 

Mr. Robinson. No, I have some in here that I don't thinl?: you have. 

The next occurrence we had was a conductor around 65 years of age 
who was attacked by a group of girls. They beat him over the head 
and shoulders with an umbrella and spit in liis face and refused to pay 
fares. 

We had an operator working on 21 route and after school he was 
attacked by two individuals who knocked him unconscious. They 
stole his watch and $27 in money and his wallet. I don't think they 
were apprehended or locked up, either. 

We had another instance where the students of Gillespie Junior 
High School placed bullets under the rail of the trolley. Wlien the 
trolley moved the bullets went off striking a woman in the leg and she 
was later sent to the hospital. 

We had a young fellow, a boy about 13, who was approaching the 
trolley car one day, was approached by another individual and asked 
for a nickel. I think he asked him for a nickel as payment for pro- 
tection. The boy refused to give it and as a result he is a cripple 
today, to my knowledge. He was stabbed in the stomach and I think 
he is paralyzed. 

That also happened over to Gratz High School while the boy was 
approaching the trolley car. 

The Chairman. What happened to that case ? 

Mr. Robinson. That I don't know. Our operators were witnesses to 
it, I know. A couple of operators saw the incident. 

We had another young girl late working on the trolley cars. She 
observed a group of 10 to 12 boys getting onto the trolley car. There 
was a young girl on the car at the time. They surrounded the girl in 
the back seat of the trolley car, pulled her dress off her, her blouse and 
skirt and attempted to rape her on the trolley car. 

How far they succeeded, or what actually happened, I don't know. 

However, I do know we have that record that there was an attempt 
to rape the girl on a trolley car. This happened either in October or 
November. 

The Chairman. Of last year ? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. They were a group of high-school 
boys, football players coming from practice. 

The Chairman. Is there a record of this incident? 

Mr. Robinson. I don't know whether there is a record or not. I 
tried to get it in the depot where the girl comes from and we could 
not find it. However, it is known by the officials of the company and 
the union that it did happen. 

Mr. BoBO. These statements you are making here are what the 
operators have reported to you personally as to what happened ? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

Mr. BoBO. You do have within your records some place the specific 
dates and times? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. Not only do we have that, but the 
individuals involved are willing to come here or anywhere else as 
witnesses to testify to the facts that these things have happened. 



84 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. These are serious charges. It would seem to the 
Chair at least, and I am sure to the distinguished colleague from 
Missouri, there ought to be some court record of these incidents. 

Senator Hennings. What I do not understand is, as you have indi- 
cated, they go to the Youth Center ? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

Senator Hennings. According to your records and I assume you 
have some means of keeping the record of dispositions of the com- 
plaints of your operators, apparently nothing is done except that they 
may have been talked to and sent home. 

Mr. Robinson. I would like to point out a couple of instances. We 
had a fellow working on 50 Route. At the end of the line we have 
a loop where the trolleys pull in and men get off and attend to their 
needs. He left his exchanges sitting on the trolley car. It is private 
property by the way. 

Two or three boys, I think three boys, got on the trolley car and they 
stole the exchanges. The operator immediately called the police and 
thev came and caught the kids with the transfers on them. 

They put them in the police car and the operator inquired whether 
or not he should go to the police station with them. They told him 
no, that they would take the fellow to the Youth Center and they 
would take care of it. 

However, the operator was informed about a week or so later that 
he had to pay for the exchanges lost. So at that time I went to the 
police station and inquired, that is, I sent a fellow to the police station 
and inquired whether or not there was a record of an arrest made. 
There was no record of an arrest made at all at the police station 
involved. 

There was no record in the Youth Center of the three boys appre- 
hended stealing the transfers. There was one case that we know 
where no action was taken. 

Senator Hennings. Have you ever talked to any of the police offi- 
cials about this? 

Mr. Robinson. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. What have they said to you about that ? 

Mr. Robinson. I talked to Gibbons and he told me that : "Sure, you 
will find that kind of stuff no matter where you go." That was his 
answer. 

Senator Hennings. I mean for failure of the police not to make a 
report of it. 

Mr. Robinson. That is right, that he could not control the actions of 
all people. 

We had this other instance where the fellow was pointed out and 
he had five previous arrests and the boy was discharged. There are 
two instances that I know of. We had the case of another girl oper- 
ator working out of Frankfort Depot. She was assaulted by three 
young fellows. They beat her to the extent that she lost 3 days of 
work. 

The thing was taken to the grand jury. I would like to point this 
out: When it came before the judge, he asked her how many days 
work she had lost. She told him three. He said what do you make 
a week. She told him $70. He said, "You make enough money, 
you should be able to afford it." That was an answer given to the 
girl operator. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 85 

I can bring that girl here as a witness, if necessary. The judge 
told her she was making $70 a week and she could afford the 3 days 
lost wages. 

Now we are constantly having trouble on this 21 Koute, Gratz 
High School and Gillespie Junior High, where they are pulling the 
pole off, breaking windows, interfering with the operation of the 
trolley cars. It is constant over there. 

Senator Hennings. Do we understand, Mr. Robinson, that a judge 
told this operator — it seems incredible — that she could afford the 
loss of the money? 

Mr. Robinson. That is what she told me. 

Senator Hennings. And, in effect, there was no reason to do 
anything about the offense? 

Mr. Robinson. In fact, when she was brought to the stand 

Senator Hennings. What court was this proceeding held in ? Was 
it the Quarter Sessions Court ? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

When she was brought in on the stand they asked her what a 
switch iron was. I don't know if you gentlemen are familiar with a 
switch iron, but he wanted her to describe what a switch iron was, 
and deliberately tried to prove that she had attacked the individuals 
with the iron. 

Then later when I think she resented that and there were words 
he told her she could afford the 3 days of loss. 

The Chairman. What is a switch iron ? 

Mr. Robinson. A switch iron is a tool which we use to throw the 
switch either to the right or left. 

The Chairman. That would have been my guess, but I was not 
sure. 

Senator Hennings. Was there an issue made of this case ? I think 
it may point up something of very great importance. Was there an 
issue made? 

Mr. Robinson. Not to my knowledge. 

Senator Hennings. Was it a jury trial? 

Mr. Robinson. Yes, it was. 

Senator Hennings. Then the defendants in this case entered their 
pleas of not guilty ? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

Senator Hennings. And the lady who testified, the operator, was 
sworn and told her story ? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

Senator Hennings. Then was it the jury that acquitted the 
defendants ? 

Mr. Robinson. I could not tell you. I am not that familiar with 
the case. 

Senator Hennings. That would be very important, you see, because 
in all these cases of trial there might be an issue of fact. Some- 
times people are acquitted and prosecuting witnesses often very prop- 
erly believe, conscientiously and honestly, that they should not have 
been acquitted. 

When the matter is left to the jury and the jury acquits, under our 
system of the administration of the law, that ends the matter, at 
least for that case. 



S6 JTJVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. Robinson. If I am not mistaken they were given 6 months 
suspended sentence or 6 months probation. 

Senator Hennings. They must have been convicted then? 

Mr. Robinson. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. They could not have been g;iven probation 
otherwise. Wlien was it that the judge said she could afford to lose 
the money, after they were put on probation ? 

Mr. Robinson. I could not tell you. I was talking to the young 
lady yesterday, to the lady in the depot; she was telling the story to 
the representative of the subcommittee. 

I overheard the story. That is why I am bringing it up today. 
She was willing to appear if necessary as a witness. 

The Chairman. A statement like that, from the facts, in front of 
a juror would certainly be a reversible error, would it not? 

Senator Hennings. It would be tantamount to a directed verdict 
I should imagine if the court seemed to take the offense as of no 
significance. 

The Chairman. One or the other. 

Senator Hennings. We would have to know what happened in 
court. 

Mr. Robinson. I am only telling you what was reported to me or 
to your subcommittee. 

This Bok Vocational School, on 47 route. We had a conductor 
60 years of age that was beaten and robbed of a peacoat by the students 
of Bok Vocational School. 

At that time his face was disfigured. He had 2 black eyes as big 
as this mike here and he was completely beaten, a man 60 years of 
age, by a ^^oup of around 20 to 25 students. 

They refused to pay their fares. They stole his transfers along with 
the peacoat. That was reported to the police. The actual disposi- 
tion of the case I am not sure of. They beat it off the car when the 
police came. I don't know how many were caught or how many 
weren't. 

We ha"ve had several instances of students from Daniel Boone School 
over on Girard Avenue. I think it was mentioned here before this 
morning. Those kids are constantly stealing everything that is not 
nailed down. If the changer is available they steal that. In fact, 
I know one instance where they reached in a conductor's box and 
knock exi 4 or 5 quarters out of his changer and put it in their pocket 
and beat it. 

They will steal anything, transfers, money, anything they can get 
their hands on. They are students of the Daniel Boone School. It 
happens on 47 route. 

On 29 route which serves Tasker and Morris Streets in south Phila- 
delphia, the students at Junior High School attacked the operator on 
route 29 not too long ago with rocks. They had rocks and stones and 
they beat the man with them to the extent he refused to go out and 
continue his day's work. At that time there was a threat by the 
depot, itself, the bus garage rather, that they would not operate on 
route 29 under any circumstances. 

However, the union talked to them and we told them it was a foolish 
thing to do, go on out and we would put police protection there, and 
we did. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 87 

I have a report that the students of Bok and Audenried are con- 
stantly damaging both route 29 and 47 which service both the schools. 

They are breaking windows, pulling the poles off and inconvenienc- 
ing the operators. 

Mr. BoBO, This has become such a problem from the cases you have 
listed so far, Mr. Robinson, that some of your operators are at least 
fearful of working on these routes on which school children ride? 

Mr. Robinson. That is correct. 

Mr. BoBO. It not only involves one area of the city but it goes from 
north to south ? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

Overbrook High School — we had an instructor working in the 
instruction department of the company. He was attacked by the 
students of Overbrook High and beaten. To what extent I don't 
know. 

We had another operator on G route. That is a bus route. He was 
sent to the hospital by the students of Overbrook High. He was 
beaten, tramped on, and went to the hospital. 

I have a statement signed by the man to the effect that he was 
beaten and sent to the hospital. 

The Chairman. Over his signature ? 

Mr. Robinson. Yes. 

Mr. Bobo. We have that. 

The Chairman. Without objection, it will be made a part of the 
files. 

(The statement referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 2," and is on 
file with the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Robinson. Now I would like to say this, that the police have 
done a wonderful job while they are there. As long as the police 
are on the street and observing these kids, it is wonderful. The opera- 
tors have no trouble. I would like to point out, also, at one time we 
had a policeman stationed at each school. He was a regular man 
there. His duties were the school period. That is all he took care of. 

In the shakeup in the police department — I understand they had 
a shakeup not too long ago — these officers were removed from the 
schools and sent out to some other beat and no one took their place. 

At the time those officers took care of the kids they respected them. 
They admired these officers, and they got along quite well. Immedi- 
ately after they removed them the attacks started again. 

I think it would be advisable to try to get the police department 
to put those officers back where they were before. They get to under- 
stand the children ; the children understand them. There is a mutual 
feeling between them. I think it would be a good idea if they did. 

The Chairman. Are these officers you refer to especially trained 
in juvenile matters? 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

I attempted to get the school board, the company, PTC, the union, 
and the police force to call a meeting in the assembly room of tliese 
various high schools. Each one would present their case to the chil- 
dren, the students, and see if we could not bring something about that 
would teach these kids or show them what they are doing and what 
they are causing here. 



88 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The police commissioner agreed with me on that meeting. The 
district attorney agreed with me on that meeting that we should call 
it, and the school board agreed. But up to this time there has been 
nothing done. This has been roughly 6 months ago. I do believe if 
we could get a meeting of that sort where each one would present 
their side of the picture that we could do something along those lines 
that would help this matter out because it is too serious a thing 
when our operators or the workers have to go out there under the 
threat of being beaten or robbed or molested or whatever you may 
want to call it. And I think something should be done about it. 

The Chairman. The Chair would like to suggest, Mr. Kobinson, 
that you might see Mr. Taber who has a goal in that field in the de- 
partment of education here in the city of Philadelphia who made a 
very able presentation before this subcommittee in Washington on 
last Friday. 

I think if you would talk to Mr. Taber, you would get some real 
help in that area. 

Mr. EoBiNSON. I think it would do a lot of good. 

I don't believe in taking children and locking them tip or beating 
them is any good. That is not the answer to it. 

I believe through education you can do a lot more than you can 
with a whip. That is the way I would like to see it done. 

The Chairman. I think the subcommittee agrees with that. 

Senator Hennings. I am glad to hear you say that, Mr. Robinson. 
These offenses of violence and robbery have occurred within the paiftt 
what period of time ? 

Mr. Robinson. Since September we have had a number of them. 

Senator Hennings. How long have you been in your capacity and 
in a position to observe these things? 

Mr. Robinson. Ten years. I have been with the company 14 years. 

Senator Hennings. You have never known of any such intensified 
violations heretofore? 

Mr. Robinson. "Well, we have always had it to some degree. There 
has been trouble on the cars especially after football games or bas- 
ketball games. 

At one time it was nothing but mischief. They would turn little 
bulbs out. 

Senator Hennings. I was thinking of robbery, the unprovoked 
assaults and brutal assaults on these operators. 

Mr. Robinson. That is right. 

It seems that every time when a new group comes into the school 
that is when your outbreaks start. They will last for a period of 
6 or 6 months through that term, then they quiet down. 

Then the next group comes in and you have it all over again. It is 
usually that there is one fellow that is the leader. As long as he is 
able to stick his chin out and do anything, they will follow him. 

However, if they grab hold of the leader, the rest will go along; 
there is no trouble. But this one guy leads them constantly. At 
least that is what I have found over there. 

I have been over, myself, many times to these various schools. They 
didn't know who I was. They thought I was a detective. You could 
always pick out the leader. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 89 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chainiian, I do not recall in any of our 
other hearings that we have heard of this. 

The Chairman. For the benefit of the Senator from Missouri, the 
Chair would say that we had some testimony from some of the insur- 
ance people in our Washington hearings, in the D. C. hearings. I 
have forgotten the gentleman's name, but it is in the record. 

Senator Hennings. Of assaults upon operators ? 

The Chairman. No ; property damage. 

Senator Hennings. I was speaking more, Mr. Chairman, of these 
physical assaults, brutal assaults, with robbery as a motive. 

Mr. EoBiNSON. I think the Senator understands now my opening 
remark. 

Senator Hennings. I do and I want to apologize to you if I seemed 
for the moment to be somewhat animated. 

We are trying to get at the problem, Mr. Robinson, and you can 
be and will be most helpful to us. 

Have any of your operators or you, for example, had an oppor- 
tunity to go to any of these schools to talk to the children ? 

Mr. Robinson. No. I tried to bring that about. I talked to the 
principal of Gillespie High School and Gratz High School. In fact, 
I spent 2 hours there one day. 

They seemed to resent the idea that I was interfering in their work. 
They told me that the people in the neighborhood resented the fact 
that I had gone to the police and it hit the headlines in the paper. 

Whether it was resented or not it had an effect on the children, 
but they were very perturbed about it and they didn't pull any 
blows; they told me so. At that time I asked if they would not sit 
down with me and allow me to go in the assembly room to talk to them. 
They denied me that right. 

Senator Hennings. It seemed to me, too, you might bring to bear 
the sense of fair play and justice to these young people in terms of 
their assaulting workingmen who are doing this to keep their families, 
support their families, keeping them going. 

The jobs of these operators certainly are not easy jobs and maybe 
as your problems are explained to these children it might help. 

Mr. Robinson. I know ; we have attempted that. 

On many occasions we have had the operators lose 1, 2, 3 days. In 
fact, one old fellow lost a week's work, that was working on 21 Route. 
He was off for 1 week ; they beat him so bad. 

I think if we can explain to the students about what is going on 
here we could do something with them. At least we should be given 
this opportunity. We are looking for ways to solve this thing and I 
think if we are given a chance we might be able to do it. 

The Chairman. Does counsel have any further questions? 

Mr. BoBO. No. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Robinson. I would 
suggest that you see Mr. Taber. 

Mr. Robinson. I will do that. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of 
the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wetter, I do. 



90 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

TESTIMONY OF ALLEN H. WETTER, ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT 
OF SCHOOLS, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Will you first state your full name and address and 
your association for the record ? 

Mr. Wetter. Allen H. Wetter, 4324 Tyson Street, associate super- 
intendent, 1 of 5 associate superintendents. I am sorry, Mr. Chair- 
man, if I am late this afternoon. I thought I was to be here at 4 
o'clock. 

The Chairman. It is perfectly all right. You are well within time. 

Now, Mr. Wetter, first might I ask this question: Would not Mr. 
Taber be the proper one to see about a situation such as was described? 

Mr. Wetter. Mr. Taber would be a very good one to see or I would 
be happy to see Mr. Kobinson or the superintendent of schools would 
be happy to see him. 

I think one little point made by the last speaker should be studied a 
bit. He indicated that the school was annoyed or the principals of 
these two schools were annoyed because an approach had not been 
made directly to them. I did see some communication in connection 
with this, and I believe the principal said they had not heard from the 
union prior to the publication of the order in the newspaper. 

I think the principals would welcome at any time a relationship 
between themselves and the members of the unions or the members 
of the transportation company as has been mentioned. I think that 
sort of thing can certainly be worked out. 

Mr. BoBo. You have a prepared statement ? 

Mr. Wetter. I have a statement about 2i/^ pages. 

The Chairman. You may proceed in your own manner. 

Mr. Wetter. Very well. Thank you. 

One of the 10 basic principles upon which the program of the Phila- 
delphia public schools is built is this : 

Education must develop in every individual an appreciation and loyalty to 
the Government of the United States of America, the American way of life, and 
the ideal of an increasingly enlightened and useful citizenship. 

Instruction in citizenship takes many forms; it also takes place 
every hour of the schoolday. In one way or another, the subject 
fields and particularly the social studies are used to emphasize the 
privileges and responsibilities of an American. But in addition, 
there are the extremely important practical applications and special 
experiences tied in with the life of the school and the community. 

Our schools have faith in their young people, the great overwhelm- 
ing majority of whom have wholesome reputations. Our schools are 
also keenly aware of the juvenile delinquency problems. They recog- 
nize that there are causes of delinquency — congested neighborhoods 
such as found in large cities, discontented and untrained parents, the 
general feeling of unrest and insecurity of the times, the lack of 
recreational facilities, some types of messages and programs from 
mass media, and others. 

This does not mean that our schools excuse teen-age gangsterism, 
vandalism, and other forms of delinquency ; nor does it mean that they 
have no interest in youth in trouble. 

In 1952, Dr. Louis P. Hoyer — and I would like to say he would be 
here if he were in the city. He is in Los Angeles at the present time. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 91 

I am trying to substitute for him — in 1952, Dr. Louis P. Hoyer, super- 
intendent of schools, caused the attention of our school personnel to 
be sharply focused on these problems when he initiated a movement 
to build better citizens through more effective character educatioH. 
After a careful study of the situation by school personnel, interested 
citizens and community agencies, the school program was launched 
at an all-day conference of all the city's public schoolteachers on 
October 12, 1953. 

In a keynote address Dr. Hoyer said : 

The problem involves a low moral tone, poor attitudes toward citizenship, and 
a lack of regard for law and order, for the rights of others, and for personal 
integrity. 

We are going to do all we can through the schools to improve conditions and 
to produce good citizens. 

The raising of moral standards will take continued and persistent effort on 
the part of all of ns. 

The community in which each school works must be made aware of our pur- 
poses, of the methods we use and of our reliance upon other community groups. 

This movement has been progressing steadily. Student self -disci- 
pline has been emphasized. The All-City Student Council Confer- 
ence on November 17, 1953, developed its plans for meeting the prob- 
lems. In individual schools, the student governments have drawn up 
citizenship codes and have assumed responsibility for seeing that the 
codes are respected. 

In the parents' area, the Philadelphia Home and School Council, 
representing 220 home and school associations, has undertaken a cam- 
paign to concentrate attention on character building in the home, 
and is making an all-out appeal to community groups to remove 
"character-crippling blights such as undesirable hangouts, corner 
loitering, sale of vicious literature, sale of liquor to minors, excessive 
and disreputable taprooms, bad housing, the lack of adequate recre- 
ational facilities." 

As far as it is humanly possible, teachers are endeavoring through 
a positive instructional program and through personal relations to 
serve children and youth as individuals each of whom has specific 
needs and unique potentialities. 

The goal is to have each achieve as much as his ability will permit, 
;nid nothing less. The schools are working to build moral character, 
enhance physical and mental health, make good citizens, teach the 
three R's, develop vocational competence, prepare for advanced study, 
teach the meaning of wholesome family life, and inculcate respect for 
one's neighbor. They offer recreational opportunities on playgrounds, 
in canteen and in evening recreation centers although there is need for 
more. 

One gi'oup in which delinquents are likely to be found is that of 
the "drop-outs." The greatest mortality in school attendance takes 
place in grade 10 A as students obtain working permits or reach their 
I7th birthday. The reasons may be discouragement because of fail- 
ure, lack of interest, desire for independence, financial need, family 
tradition towards education, or weakness of parental supervision. 

The scliools are endeavoring to meet this situation through classes 
in which the curriculum is adjusted to meet the needs of those who 
are overage, maladjusted, or low in mental ability; adjustment groups 
in reading and arithmetic; schoolwork programs, counseling services, 



92 JTJVENILE DELINQUENCY 

transfers to semiskilled vocational and home-economics proj^ams ; fi- 
nancial help from foundations; correction of physical defects; and 
other means. 

For students who have special problems which might lead to de- 
linquency, there are these services among others : 

Counselors (126) and counseling teachers (119) ; 

Classes for the mentally retarded (OB) (6,924 pupils) ; 

Classes for disciplinary cases (OD) (216 pupils) including the 
Boone School for OD boys ; 

Shallcross (residential) School for truant boys (90 pupils), consid- 
eration is being given to the establishment of a similar school for 
girls; 

The superintendents' case review committee which has adjusted the 
cases of more than 200 youth whose problems have been grave ; 

Teachers at the Youth Study Center of the Juvenile Court, and at 
Pennypack House of the Department of Welfare ; and 

Home and school visitors. 

Publicity has been given the fact that school buildings have been 
subject to vandalism. Forcible entries, thefts, and destruction of 
equipment and plumbing cost about $25,000 last year. 

There were 280 forcible entries in 1953. Among items stolen were 
radio and television sets, typewriters, record players, and less con- 
spicuous items. There is reason to believe that many of these entries 
were made by older out-of-school youth and adults. 

The degree of wanton destruction was limited. Usually when a 
pu]>il is caught in a destructive act, the procedure is to discipline 
and counsel him, and to ask the parent to make restitution based on 
the ability to pay. 

Within the last year, 120 schools have established junior sanitation 
units which are sponsored by the police sanitation units. The effec- 
tiveness of the student groups in cutting vandalism, in enhancing 
the appearance of buildings and neighborhoods, and in fostering right 
attitudes has been outstanding. 

Concerning the window-glass bill of $100,000, the buildings depart- 
ment indicates that a large part of the breakage is due to ballplaying 
in yards. The windows are not screened because of fire 
regulations. 

Mention has been made about seven police asssigned to senior high 
schools. Police have been there for a number of years. The reason 
has been to prevent interference by outside individuals and groups 
from time to time. These persons are generally above school age and 
are "tired of work." The interference has taken the form of disturb- 
ances at lunch periods, attacks upon individual students, and in some 
instances upon teachers who attempted to remove them, although that 
has been limited in number in recent weeks and months. 

Community agencies have given invaluable help in meeting the 
delinquency problem. 

The Crime Prevention Association works actively with the schools 
in preventing delinquency, in solving youth and gang problems, and 
in providing recreation. 

The Juvenile Aid Bureau of the police department has its head- 
quarters in the board of education administration building, and is 
always on call to meet serious incidents in the school communities. 



JUVENILE DELmQUENCY 93 

Social and welfare agencies help students and families in need, 
and provide service opportunities for students. 

Business and industry cooperate in school-work programs. 

The Philadelphia Ti^nsportation Co. sponsors student transporta- 
tion committees which enlist the aid of fellow students in improving 
the transportation situation. Also, in connection with a recent in- 
cident, representatives of the company, the union, the family, and the 
student body worked together in making plans for improvement. 

Inspiration and leads to constructive action are offered to students 
by leaders from government, business, and industry. Certainly, as 
far as the department of superintendents is concerned, and I feel the 
principals, too, any thing that will bring the whole story before the 
youngsters, anything that will encourage us to cooperate is worthy 
in our opinion. 

"We are willing to go as far as we possibly can. 

Racial and religious understanding is developed with the help of 
Fellowship House and other intercultural groups. 

In all of our studies we are thinking of terms of being children of 
one gi-eat God, trying to develop the kind of understanding in which 
we believe. 

School personnel members have played a leading role in community 
councils. A major purpose of these organizations has been to serve 
youth. 

Participation in welfare campaigns, junior city planning, civic 
projects, patriotic festivals, and civil defense have beneficial effects. 

This is only part of the story. Briefly, the schools are striving to 
help young people recognize the significance of their heritage, and to 
fit them for the kind of living which as citizens and heirs of America 
they will share with others. 

The Chairman. Mr. Wetter, your biggest problem really is the lack 
of adequate teachers, it it not? 

Mr. Wetter. Our schools at the present time of course could use 
more teachers. We could decrease if we had more teachers. 

The Chairman. What is the average class load ? 

Mr. Wetter. In the elementary school about 36, junior high school 
33, and senior high school 31. 

When you get into a complex roster as you might have in the 
secondary school you can see some classes will be larger and some 
classes smaller than that. 

We are trying to get more teachers all the time. We have 100 
vacancies in the elementary schools and 100 in the special classes. In 
the secondary field we are covered at the present time but teachers 
are needed, yes, sir. 

The CiiAiRMAx. We find that a universal need throughout the 
country. 

Mr. Wetter, we are deeply indebted to you for coming before the 
subcommittee this afternoon. We thank you for your contribution. 

Mr. Wetter. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Now the subcommittee has two more witnesses. 
I understand these witnesses are to appear together. They are Mrs. 
Joseph Giordano and Mrs. Evelyn Johnson. 

Will these witnesses come forward, please? 

4C96G— 54 7 



94 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Conmiittee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth,, 
so help you God ? • 

Mrs. Giordano. I do. 

Mrs. Johnson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. JOSEPH GIORDANO AND MRS. EVELYN 
JOHNSON, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Counsel will you proceed with the examination of 
the witnesses ? 

^Ir. BoBo. We understand that you two being mothers want to give 
the parents' viewpoint on juvenile delinquency and are anxious to 
get home to your children; so we would ask you, Mrs. Giordano and 
Mrs. Johnson, to proceed in your own way to tell us what you have 
done in your group that you think aids in combating this problem. 

Mrs. Giordano. I think, first of all, when these occasions arise the 
colored people and the white people, should get together with the 
boys that argue and hit each other. I think more mothers and other 
representatives should go to that one school at the time that is going 
on; go into each and every classroom, understand, talk to them, let 
them know that we cannot hel]) if they are colored and w^e can't help 
that we are white, that we should get together. 

They may laugh at us but some of it I think will sink home. 

On the corners there are gangs fighting. I go out and try to break 
them ui). I speak to them as I have told you. They seem to agree. 
I think if we could get that across in the school, white mothers, colored 
mothers, and somebody higher up, I think children would sort of un- 
derstand that. 

Mr. Bono. You have foimd that to be a problem between the two 
in your particular neighborhood? 

Mrs. (iioRDANO. Yes. 

Mr. BoBO. Plave the mothers in that particular neighborhood gotten 
together? You are interested in your children, what they do in 
school as Mrs. Johnson is interested in her children in school. 

Mrs. Johnson. That is right. 

Mr. BoBO. I understand that there is a local newspaper editor out 
there that is helping you witli this problem. 

Mrs. Giordano. That is right. 

]\Ir. BoBO. You all have found parents are interested in the children 
and want to know what they are doing, you feel that parents should 
go to the school and talk to the children ? 

Mrs. Giordano. I think it will help some. They may laugh. But 
I have spoken to a group of colored boys and told them the same 
thing. 

I have said, "We can't help we are white and we can't help we 
are colored," but one said, "Lady, you think so but not everybody." 

Some of it will sink in. It should be done right there. 

Mr. Bobo. You think within the schools that could be done within 
the classrooms? 

Mrs. Giordano. That is right. 

Mr. Bobo. You have found in your particular neighborhood which 
I presume is a mixed neighborhood 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 95 

Mrs. Giordano. That is right. 

Mr. BoBo (continuinc;). That by working together and in coopera- 
tion that you cut down the incidences of white fighting the colored 
and tlie colored fighting the white? 

Mrs. GioKDANO. Yes. 

In our neighborhood every time I see that I am out in the street and 
I try to put a stop to it. 

Mrs. Johnson. This problem seems to arise, as Mr. Robinson I 
think said about the vandalism on the trolley cars, every so often. 
It dies down for awhile and it flares up again. 

It has been happening for years because it was happening when I 
was going to school down there, I know. 

We decided since it is the children themselves that are doing the 
tilings tliat are disliked, that if you approach them we feel like when 
they reach high school age or junior high school age, which my daugh- 
ter has not yet, but I am interested in it because I live in the commu- 
nity, that they are intelligent enough to know right from wrong if you 
approach them rightly and not give to lording over to them and com- 
manding them to do right. But if you approach them as intelligent 
human beings, they will understand. 

The best persons to approach them are their own parents. Nat- 
urally, if I went to the school and I wanted to talk to my daughter's 
class they would listen out of respect to her because they are her 
friends. 

And if you get the idea across and then also working on getting the 
idea across to your own children because you don't know what they 
do outside of your home, you only know what they do at home. Wlien 
they are away from home, you can't watch and see them or what they 
do and they run into outside influences. 

We are trying to get the parents together, too, to cooperate. If we 
can show our children that we can live together, there is no reason 
why they can't. 

The Chaikman. Does counsel have any further questions? 

Senator Hennings. I would like to say, Mr. Chairman, to these 
two ladies that they are attacking this problem where it should be 
attacked. When things happen you try to do something about it. 

Mrs. Johnson. Right then. 

Senator Hennings. I want to express my admiration for your fine 
Christian spirit and your evidence of good citizenship in trying to 
make us all realize that there is a brotherhood of mankind, whether 
you be of one race or creed or another. 

Until we do that all over the world, we are not going to have peace 
and we are going to continue to have crime and trouble. 

Mrs. Giordano. That is right. 

Senator Hennings. That is one of man's unending tasks it seems. 

Mrs. Johnson. The Senator asked about Mr. Puccinni, the editor 
of El Popolo. His idea is a good idea because — I think it is, at least, 
and we all thought so ; it is not investigating ; it is not enforcing a law. 
But his idea was that all the papers, the different racial papers, the 
different neighborhood papers, and the Italian papers, the Jewish 
papers, each has their own weekly most of them, would take the good 
things that come out, like in the schools, in the different athletic 
achievements, and so forth, that they would take those and print 
them up and run them up and play them up just as much as they do 



96 JUVENILE DELESTQUENCY 

the crime stories so they can build a better understanding between 
people in that way because everybody reads the papers. Practically 
everybody that can read reads the papers anyhow. 

Instead of tearing down, build up the feelings of other people. 
He did write a few stories. Maybe you can't have one every day 
because it would take a lot of searching to find something that would 
interest the i^eople every day. But when you come across one, pub- 
lish it as well as publish the bad things. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Johnson and Mrs. Giordano, the Chair wishes 
to commend you for your testimony and to associate himself with 
the remarks of his colleague from Missouri. 

Thank you very much. 

Mrs. Johnson. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

Mrs. Giordano. Thank you. 

The Chairman. That concludes the witnesses for this afternoon. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess until 9 : 30 tomorrow morning 
in the same room. 

(Thereupon, at 5 p. m., the subcommittee recessed to reconvene 
at 9 : aO a. m., Thursday, April 15, 1954.) 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 



THURSDAY, APRIL 15, 1954 

United States Senate, 
sxtbcommittee of the committee on the judiciary, 

TO Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, 

Philadelphia^ Pa. 

The subcommittee met at 9 : 30 a. m., in courtroom No. 1, United 
States Courthouse, Philadelphia, Pa., Senator Robert C. Hendrickson 
(chairman of the subcommittee), presiding. 

Present : Senator Hendrickson. 

Also present: Herbert Wilson Beaser, associate chief counsel, and 
James H. Bobo, assistant counsel. 

Louis M. Miniclier, consultant; Donald H. Goff, consultant, and 
Gary "W. Sullins, investigator. 

The Chairman. This session of the Subcommittee on Juvenile 
Delinquency will be in order. 

The first witness this morning is Judge Hazel H. Brown. 

Will you come forward, please ? 

Judge Brown. Judge Milieu is with me from our court. Do you 
wish him at the same time ? 

The Chairman. Suppose we have you both come up together. 

We do not need to swear judges ordinarily, but we have been swear- 
ing all witnesses. 

Judge Brown. That is all right. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give to this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the 
United States Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Judge Brown. I do. 

Judge MiLLEN. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAZEL H. BROWN, PRESIDENT JUDGE, PHILA- 
DELPHIA MUNICIPAL COURT, ACCOMPANIED BY HERBERT 
MILLEN, ASSOCIATE JUDGE, PHILADELPHIA MUNICIPAL 
COURX 

The Chairman. Counsel, you may proceed to interrogate Judge 
Brown. 

Mr. BoBO. For the purpose of the record, will you identify your- 
selves to the reporter, and your positions ? 

Judge Brown. I am president judge of the municipal court at the 
present time. 

Judge MiLLEN. I am merely an associate judge. 

97 



98 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. BoBO. I understand you have a prepared statement that you 
would like to present to us. 

Judge Brown. I have a prepared statement. I think it is too long 
to review here. May I submit it ? 

The Chairman. You may proceed in your own manner, just as 
you wish. 

Of course, the statement will be incorporated in the record at this 
point anyway in its entirety. Let it be exhibit No. 3. 

(The statement referred to was marked ''Exhibit No. 3," and reads 
as follows:) 

A Statement From the Mxtnicepal Court 

The juvenile court of Philadelphia, a division of the municipal court, was 
created by statute of the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1913 and has exclusive 
jurisdiction of all dependent, neglected, and delinquent children under the age 
of 18 years. 

The subject of juvenile delinquency is one of great moment today and thinking 
citizens are concerned to find the cause of this abnormal behavior of juveniles 
and interested to find a solution. Human nature is basic but the conditions 
which influence human behavior and human relationships change constantly 
with the permutations of social and economic forces. In a normal social climate, 
the individual is conditioned for peacetime living. He is not in conflict with 
society or his fellow man. But the human individual responds to emotional 
forces and to influences that are singular to him and consequently he must be 
treated on an individual and personal basis. The effects of war reach into 
every phase of society. As a consequence, the social balance is upset and 
strange patterns of behavior result. 

In Philadelphia, the ever-changing aspect of urban life offers continuing 
challenge to the responsibilities of the community and to the sociolegal obliga- 
tions of the juvenile court. As a court, we are meeting those responsibilities. 
Ca.ses of juveniles come to the court in several ways, namely, by complaint of 
parents ; of citizens ; of the board of education and through arrests by the police 
for offenses committed on the street. Under the law, there are no preliminary 
hearings in cases of juveniles. If the matter is of slight or inconsequential 
nature, it is adjusted by our probation staff in the Youth Study Center giving 
due regard to the rights of persons offended against, but always in the light of 
the best interest of the child, that being, of course, the compelling and ruling 
interest. In this way, numbers of children are protected from the connotation 
of delinquency that never existed but that dispositions by formal court action 
would surely suggest. Cases that require court treatment receive it. 

Court hearings are private and only the parents of the child, together with 
counsel if one has been engaged, such witnesses as are necessary to establish 
the delinquency, representatives of social agencies and court officials are present. 
The record is protected from indiscriminate public inspection by the juvenile 
court law. Preparation of cases for disposition by the judge is an assignment 
of the probation department. A comprehensive examination and investigation 
by the staff is made into every factor and circumstance related to the problem. 
The home of the child is visited and surveyed from a social angle. The parents 
are interviewed and the subject of the child's general behavior is discussed. 
Complaining witnesses are also interviewed, the arresting officers contacted, and 
the school report of the child as to attendance, deportment and ability to accept 
the curriculum is obtained. The psychiatrist and psychologist are in possession 
of this information and use it as the basis for their professional evaluation of 
the child who, of course, is seen personally by them. All of this investigation 
and study produces the case record from which recommendations for disposition 
are made. This case record is before the judge for his information and guidance. 
If commitment to a correctional institution is made, the court relies upon that 
school to fix the type of training that the child needs and to determine the time 
required for such training. A full summary of the case record is forwarded 
with the child. The undeviating rule of the court is never to interfere with the 
training period of a child once responsibility of his welfare is accepted by the 
institution. The juvenile court has confidence in our schools for the training 
of delinquents and the judge relies entirely upon their recommendations. When 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 99 

the training period has heen completed, the recommendations of the school for 
the return of the child to the community is accepted and the child is supervised 
by the probation dei)artment until the judgment of the court directs that further 
probation is unnecessary, 

A situation that plagues the court and frequently frustrates the juvenile 
court judge is the lack of institutions for the defective delinquent boy and girl 
under fifteen years of age. There are no provisions in Pennsylvania for children 
of that age, or younger. We find that many of our most disturbing problems 
are in this category and believe that the schools and other agencies acquainted 
with the juvenile problem will agree that there is imperative need for institutional 
facilities to absorb this type of boy and girl and otter to them through specially 
designed training the opportunity to develop into adults with a measurable 
capacity to adjust in the community. 

Every child is worth working with and since its beginning, the court has 
relied, and justifiably, upon probation as the first plan when searching for that 
need of the child whose delinquency represents a deficiency of some kind. But 
we have an overburdened staff that must be increased. When a probation officer 
is overtaxed with an unreasonable load, he is restricted to a general supervision 
of his probationers leaving no time for the development of a relationship with 
the juvenile which represents the true nature of probation and produces the 
social results for which probation aims. We are asking for, and hope to get, 
additional funds to enlarge the staff. 

Our probation officers are appointed on a merit-system basis after competitive 
examination by a board of educators from our local universities and a member 
of the Philadelphia Bar Association. This board and not the court fixes the 
qualifications, conducts and controls the examination. The appointments to the 
probation staff are made only from a list compiled by the Merit System Board, 

The Juvenile Court of Philadelphia has always recognized the impact of 
health, mental and physical, on human behavior and has therefore a psychiatric 
and medical staff of distinguished practitioners. This staff is also undermanned 
and must be increased. It labors daily under terrific pressures. Everyone 
familiar with the situation recognizes the value of the scientific knowledge and 
advice made available by these services and necessary to the informed dis- 
position of juvenile cases. The Juvenile Court of Philadelphia was among the 
first, if not the first, court in this country to recognize the value of and utilize 
this knowledge in an applied and concrete way. No enlightened disposition of 
a juvenile can be made without it. 

The hospitals of Philadelphia cooperate with the court in gratifying fashion. 
Many of the recommendations of our medical department are carried out through 
their services in the medical and neuropsychiatric sphere and give effect to 
the social operations of the court as an adjunct of medical probation. There 
should, however, be an expansion of outpatient clinic services to which the emo- 
tionally disturbed child who does not require commitment could be referred. 
Very often upset home conditions are reflected in the conduct of children and 
influence them to irrational behavior and continued delinquency. This situa- 
tion could be helped greatly if the court had such clinics to evaluate these prob- 
lems on a family basis. 

No plan can be evolved that will rectify and cure all the ills of society. 
There is in every human society a segment of people who will always be at odds 
with the social order. Many of these have been denied the natural endowments 
which a highly complex order requires for satisfactory compliance. Help can 
be given to others who are experiencing difficulties in conforming but who possess 
the capacity to accept the help and understanding of a socially conscious com- 
munity which provides the means public and private for the help they require. 
I believe our community is doing this with ever-increasing watchfulness and 
action. 

The whole function of the Municipal Court in its conception, organization 
and administration has been geared to the preservation and stabilization of 
the home. The cohesiveness of family life has been the interest of the juvenile 
court and it is not nor has it ever been fragmentary. It represents the reason 
for our existence and in it is found the basic objectives to which as a court we 
have devoted ourselves. 
Submitted by 

Hazei, H. Brown, 
President Judge of the Municipal Court of Philadelphia. 

April 13, 1954, 



100 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Judge Brown. In the statement I have concentrated entirely on 
the court's function, not going into any of the causes of juvenile 
delinquency. 

I think it is almost impossible to put your finger on the exact cause, 
or the cure. 

The CHAiR]MA]sr. There is no one cause, is there ? 

Judge Brown. No, I think definitely not. Nor is there any one 
formula that will cure all the evils of juvenile delinquency. 

"We have found, of course, that the juvenile delinquency is increas- 
ing. In our age group under 18 it has not quite reached the peak in 
1945. 

I think Judge Millen will join me in saying one of the troubles is 
that the delinquencies are more serious than some of those in prior 
years. 

The Chairman. In the lower age groups particularly ? 

Judge Brown. That is true, they are more serious offenses than 
they were back in 1945 when our number of delinquencies was still 
greater. 

I have not included in my report any statistics, because I under- 
stand you have asked our chief probation officer to come, and he will 
present statistics of the court, in case you would like to have them. 

The Chairman. We would like to have them for our files. Judge 
Brown. 

Judge Brown. Our court has exclusive jurisdiction in everything 
dealing with children, that is, dependent, neglected, delinquent chil- 
dren under 18 years of age. 

I have outlined in the statement the way the children come to us, 
sometimes complaint of parents, complaint of individuals, or by 
arrest. 

They are handled, first of all, in an interview at the Youth Study 
Center, and many of those children have their problems adjusted 
witliout coming into court for formal court action. 

We also bear in mind the complaints of the prosecutors, if they 
are prosecutors, and try to satisfy them and adjust the child in the 
community. 

In the whole procedure, this preliminary examination, the court 
hearing, the emphasis is entirely on the child and its adjustment in 
the community and not punishment for a crime as it would be in an 
adult procedure. 

I think we have excellent facilities in our court for probation offi- 
cers, for medical departments, except that we are handicapped, as I 
think most of the social and legal courts are, by staff, not enough staff. 
It is a little hard to get your community and therefore your appro- 
priating bodies to give you adequate money to take care of this prob- 
lem. We are limited by appropriation. 

We, of course, commit cliildren. We don't sentence them, we com- 
mit them to various schools for training, if that is necessary, and 
probation has failed. 

We have difficulty with the child that is mentally disturbed, not 
only the mentally deficient child — there are not enough places for 
them — but there are not adequate facilities in this State for the 
mentally disturbed child, particularly the child under 15. 

There is no place that we can really send them where they may 
have study and be adjusted to return to the community. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 101 

The Chairman. You do not have adequate ps^ychiatric treatment 
for the chikh'en ? 

Judge Bkown. That is right. There are not enough outpatient 
clinics. Tliere are not enough places where you can send children 
for hospital care and training for the mentally disturbed child. 

We seem to have more of those coming into court than we used 
to have in the past. Here I am guessing. It probably reflects the 
disturbed condition of parents in the community in general. 

The Chairman. Do you have adequate probation officers, adequate 
numbers of probation officers? 

Judge Brown. Numbers, no ; we do not. 

The Chairman. That seems to be a fault we find more or less uni- 
versal, wherever we go. 

Judge Brown. Our caseload is too heavy and one probation officer 
has too many children to look after. 

It is quite natural the child does not get the individual care, be- 
cause the probation officer tries to adjust the child in the community, 
using" the various facilities, and we have excellent ones here, of boys' 
clubs, the Big Brothers, of course the church facilities. 

The probation officer is not able to follow that up as well as he 
could if he did not have a large caseload. That is a perfectly obvious 
statement. 

We are short, too, in our own court, of medical and psychiatric 
facilities. That is, we do not have enough psychiatrists, and we are, 
unfortunately facing the fact that we at the present time are not 
able to pay salaries large enough to attract them, as many as we 
need. 

The Chairman. The Chair was amazed the other day to hear 
Chief Judge Bolitha Laws of the district court in Washington say 
that we had some 7,000 probation officers in the Nation, and we needed 
40,000. It is an astounding figure. 

Judge Brown. Yes. 

The Chair]\ian. Would you agree with that? 

Judge Brown. It sounds quite likely. I don't know any thing about 
the figures, but I know we need more here and every community which 
I know about needs more. 

The Chairman. Not only need more, but you need well-trained pro- 
bation officers. 

Judge Brown. That is true. 

The Chairman. Probation officers who understand children and 
their problems. 

Judge Brown. That is right. 

I think ours are well trained. Our probation officers are chosen by 
a merit system. We have a committee which is formed of educators 
and one member of the bar and they conduct the examination and 
they are chosen only from the list of qualified people, but we do not 
have enough. 

The Chairman. Do the service clubs, the Rotary club, Kiwanis 
clubs. Lions, and so on, help you and give you much aid in this field ? 

Judge Brown. At the present time, I don't believe they are except 
as they work through other agencies. They are interested in other 
clubs and in the Big Brothers. 

Perhaps Judge Millen can answer that better than I. 



102 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Jiid^e MiLi.EN. I think Jud<>e Brown lias outlined the situation 
accurately. Insofar as the service clubs are concerned, I don't think 
they have interested themselves in the court procedure. 

It nuxy be on the fringe they do reach the boys. 

The Cj [AIRMAN. They do in some communities? 

Judge MiLLEN. Yes. 

Would you mind telling us how they do that in other communities 
so that perhaps we may ])ass it along ? 

The CiiAiKMAN. My mind goes back to many years ago on that score 
when I was a membei- of and one of the founders of the Rotary club 
in my conniiunity. Shortly after we were established I took on per- 
sonally as a lawyer the job of looking after children who were in 
trouble in my own coimty because I lived in the county seat, you see. 

We followed these children very closely. It was a very, very won- 
derful feeling to know that you w^ere helping these children. 

Judge MiLLEN. I was going to say we have here the Big Brother 
Association. Possibly it fills up the gap which needs to be filled up. 
It may be in other communities they don't have organizations of that 
kind. I don't know. 

The CiiAiuMAN. Well, we all have (o pitch in a little more and apply 
ourselves a little more to the ])roblem of the children of the country. 

Judge MiLLEN. I think by and large we try to approach it from the 
top rather than getting at the bottom of it. The family situation, to 
my mind, has a great deal to do with juvenile delin(iuency. Perhaps 
it is a lack of appreciation which the ])arents have for the desires of 
their children, for their ambitions, and perhaps it is because of the 
fact that the parents are engrossed in making a living in this time 
when high cost is prevalent. 

But it would seem to me that since the war and since the depression, 
these parents presently are the products of that, and there was a 
gradual letdown. After any war it seems to me that there is a gradual 
letdown in the moral strata of a community. 

Particularly is that true in the heavily populated districts which are 
crowded. In the crowded areas, of course, we find most of the crime. 
That may be attributable to certain things. I am merely theorizing 
now. 

The Chairman. War uproots the family, usually. 

Judge Mtllen. That is true. 

The Chairman. As you say, you are entirely correct, that the family 
situation is the biggest factor that we confront in our search for the 
correction of the present problem. 

Judge MiiJ.EN. It may be that it is not tlie child's fault entirely. 
Perhaps it is the fault of the parents in not being able to guide them 
as they should. 

On the otlu'r hand, it seems to me that the children of this day and 
generation are just a little more precocious tlian they wei'e in genera- 
tions past. 

Therefore, they require intelligent a]i])roaches from their parents; 
possibly they don't understand their aspirations. 

Tlie Chairman. The President of the TTnited States has described 
this problem as adult failure. I thiidv perhaps in great measure he is 
entirely correct. 

Judge JMiLLEN. It may be adult failure due to the fact that the 
adults don't understand. If they could be impressed Avith a gi'eater 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 103 

sense of their responsibility it would seem to me that they would 
resijond. 

The Chairman, Why do you suppose that parents cannot under- 
stand their responsibilities? 

Judge MiLLEN. Because of the fact that in this day and time they 
are thinkin*^ about their own pleasures' and their own acquisitions of 
enough money to live in the same style as their friends and neighbors. 

The Chairman. That is not because they don't understand; it is 
because they are selfish. 

Judge MiLLEN. Yes, they don't understand that the greatest nat- 
ural resource which we have in America is' the youth. They don't un- 
derstand that as they would have those children grow they must treat 
them, just as ])lanting a tree, they don't understand that. They have 
gotten away from tlie tenets of the old faith. 

There is a letdown in tlie spiritual conduct of people, all of which 
represents, to my mind, a lack of understanding of values. 

The Chairman. Do you find that in your court. Judge? 

Judge MiLLEN. I do. 

The Chairman. Do you see it in tJie witnesses that appear before 
you? 

Judge Mullen. I see it daily. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you one or two technical questions. 

What sort of procedure do you have for waivers from one court to 
the other; for example, from your court to the quarter sessions court? 
I mean for minors. 

Judge Millen. If a minor commits a homicide, we sit only as a 
committing magistrate and the child is passed on to the quarter ses- 
sions court. 

Do I answer your question ? 

The Chairman. That is what I mean. We have found in some 
communities, particularly in the District of Columbia, a gi-eat con- 
flict in the matter of waivers. The juvenile court does not have to 
waive the trial of a minor at all. It has led to some embarrassing 
situations at times. 

As a result of our hearings down there in Washington, the District 
Commissioners are having some conflict. We wondered what the pro- 
cedure was in Philadelphia ? 

Judge Millen. I should think invariably where there is a homicide 
we waive jurisdiction and sit as committing magistrate only. 

Judge Brown. In homicide, we have exclusive jurisdiction to begin 
with. It does not arise in anything but homicide. That is only under 
18. Children 18 years and up would come in the regular court. 

The Chairman. You find no difficulty in this field? 

Judge Brown. We don't have any conflict here at all. 

Judge Millen. Only in homicide do we waive jurisdiction. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bobo? 

Mr. Bobo. Judge Brown, could you point out to us where the juve- 
nile court fits into the municipal court system? I understand there 
are twelve municipal-court judges. 

Judge Brown. Fourteen. The juvenile court is just a division of 
the municipal court. In its social and legal branches we consider it 
really a coordinated court because the files from one court to the other 
are open, from one division to the other division, for review. 



104 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The juvenile court is just one part of our larger court which handles 
civil, criminal, domestic relations, adoptions, everything to do with 
the children. 

Mr. BoBO. Are the judges sitting as juvenile court judges rotated 
between the 14 ? 

Judge Brown. No, we don't have rotation in our court. The judges 
are assigned to particular courts and they are usually assigned by the 
president, after consultation with the associates, of course. 

One judge sits for a j^ear definitely. 

According to our Juvenile Court Act a judge is supposed to be 
assigned to the juvenile court, but one judge cannot handle all of 
our juvenile court work because we have two courts sitting in session 
almost every day, and other judges handle those. 

Judge Millen, Judge Propper and I have been handling all the 
juvenile work this year. 

Mr. Bono. On your caseload one or two of the witnesses yesterday 
brought out the fact that at times a child might w'ait 8 months before 
his case is heard, and I think one of the witnesses brought out the 
fact that in February there were lags of 1,600 to 1,800 cases. 

Judge Brown. There was a lag at the first of the year. I don't 
believe there was as much as 1,600. It probably was about a thousand. 

We have been concentrating on that and we are now caught up. 
It is about 3 months back. That is the backlog. 

When I speak of backlog, I mean the less serious offenses. The 
ones that are really serious where the children will be held in the 
youth study center for hearing, the very serious things are held, 
the hearings, within 2 weeks. 

But for the less severe ones, although they may still be serious, 
we are about 3 months back, but we are concentrating on those, ancl 
I think by the summer definitely that will be wiped out. 

IVIr. Boiio. This would be partly due to the fact of your handicap 
through lack of probation officers? 

Judge Brown. No, it was not that. It was lack of judges. 

Mr. Boiio. Then also the court has quite a problem, as you brought 
out once before, on the disposition of children within your institu- 
tions, once they have come before the court? 

Judge Brown. That is true. 

]Mr. Boiio. Do they have to meet certain IQ standards and certain 
physical standards to be committed to the institutions? 

Judge Brown. With certain training schools. We have in the 
vicinity several training schools that are private schools, with State 
aid. They have their own standards. 

I think that quite logically when they are setting out to be a train- 
ing school for children they cannot take the substandard, that is, 
the child who is mentally not equipped to do the work. 

Some of them have manual training — well, a little more than what 
is commonly called manual training. They are really trade schools. 
If they have their own program of that kind, they cannot take the 
child with a low IQ. 

Then there is not room for the definitely feeble-minded child, too. 
The waiting lists there are tremendous. I think probably Commis- 
sioner Wise was here yesterday and if he was he no doubt spoke 
about that. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 105 

Mr. BoiiO. He will be here this afternoon. 

On your probation staff what is the normal caseload? I think 3^ou 
said it was short. What is the normal caseload on your probation 
stati 'i 

Judge Bkowx. I do not have those figures. Dr. Eeinemann, who is 
the chief probation officer, and is to testify here, does have those, 
and he can tell you nuich better than I. It would only be a guess 
if I gave it to you. 

The Chairman. How many probation officers do you have in your 
courts 

Judge Bkown. I don't know that figure, either. 

fJudge MiLLEN. We employ them very frequently and we lose them 
frequently, so there is quite a turnover. The reason we do lose them 
is because of the fact we cannot pay them salaries commensurate with 
what they can make outside. 

Judge Bkown. I did not check those figures, coming here and 
knowing that Dr. Reinemann would bring them. I did not think 
you would want the duplication. 

The Chairman. He will probably have them. 

Judge Brow^n. He will have them. 

Mr. Bubo. In addition to these children that commit offenses, does 
the court hear all cases of dependent and neglected children? 

Judge Brow^x. Yes, and the children who are handicapped men- 
tally and physically, so that they need institutional care come before 
us. 

Mr. BoBO. We had quite a bit of testimony j'-eslerday concerning 
the rowTlyism and vandalism on the public transportation system 
here. Has that given the court real concern? Have any of those 
cases ai)peared before the court ? 

Judge Brow^n. Yes, they do come before the court and they do give 
us concern. There is a great deal of damage done in those cases, not 
only physical damage to some of the operators, but to the equipment. 

Now, I suppose probably the PTC or the mothers wdio come feel 
that we are not interested enough in restitution, having the parents 
correct that. We are often limited as to the ability of the parent 
to pay, because some of these parents are already on public assistance. 
It is hard to suggest that they make restitution for their children 
when they don't have funds at all. 

INIr. BoBO. Not only here, but in a number of other places we have 
heard testimony to the effect that it seems like the offenses of the 
teen-agers are becoming more serious. 

Would you say that is true here? 

.rudge Brown. Yes, I think it is true here. 

Mr. BoBO. Is the age at which they are committing these serious 
offenses staying rather static or going up or down ? 

Judge Brown. It is going down. The younger children are com- 
mitting more serious offenses. 

Mr. BoBO. Between the 16- and 18-year-old groups? 

Judge Brow^n. Even down to 12, particularly when you come to 
wa-ecking of parking meters and such damage. 

The Chairman. That is one of the factors that gives this subcom- 
mittee great concern. Judge Brown, as you can imagine. We find the 
more serious crime is being committed in this younger group. 

Judge Brown. Yes, that is our concern, too. 



106 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. BoBO. What psychiatric services are available, Judge Brown, 
to your court ? 

Judge Brown. We have the clinics connected with hospitals and 
the Child Guidance Clinic in Philadelphia. We refer children to 
them for care. 

Our medical department, our psychiatric department, is purely 
diagnostic so that if we have to we suggest to the parent to take the 
children to the clinic if they are not in such serious condition they 
need to go to an institution. 

Mr. BoBO. I would presume that a great portion of your backlog 
which we spoke of a moment ago, would be caused by the tremendous 
amount of dependent and neglected children being brought into the 
court. 

Judge Brown. No, this backlog was delinquency. 

Mr. BoBO. It was more delinquency ? 

Judge Brown. Yes, a great deal of it truancy. 

The Chairman. You say a great deal of it was truancy ? 

Judge Brown. Yes. There is a great deal of truancy and they are 
brought into court by the board of education. 

The Chairman. What were the more serious offenses? What sort 
of crime reflected itself in the more serious offenses? 

Judge Brown. Of course, we do have some murders, homicides, 
burglaries, larcenies, some holdups, even rape among the seventeens. 

The Chairman. Judge Brown, as you know, this subcommittee is 
just trying to help in this situation. I wonder if you have any advice 
or counsel that you in your long association in this field and your 
experience can give this subcommittee that we might return to Wash- 
ington one of tliese days shortly and write the sort of report that will 
be helpful throughout the Nation, not only at the Federal level, but 
at the state and community levels of Government ? 

Judge Brow^n. I am not quite sure. If it is just to be a report of 
advice, I think that would be very helpful. I did not know whether 
this subcommittee was talking in terms of any Federal legislation 
which is not needed. 

The Chairman. We have already sponsored some Federal legis- 
lation. 

Judge Brown. It seems to me that the whole problem should be 
handled on a State and local level. There is no place for Federal 
legislation in it, to my mind. 

The Chairman, We have the areas of runaway children. That 
is a big problem, you know. 

Judae Broavn. That is true, but they can be returned to tlie local 
entities. 

The Chairman. Then we have the parents who move from one 
State to tlie other. 

Judge Brow^n. I have one sugirestion I would like to make, and 
that is you pass for the District of Columbia the uniform support law. 
We have great trouble, we cannot get any help from residents in the 
District of Columbia. They have not passed that act. They won't 
send the people back. 

The CiiAiR:\rAN. We have only apologies to make for some of the 
things that happen in the District of Columbia, I am sure. As long 
as the District is ruled by the Congress and as long as w^e have the 



JTTVENILE DELINQTJENCY 107 

absence of home rule there, we are going to have a continuance of 
this situation. 

Judge Brown. Most States have passed that act, but the District 
of Cohnnbia does not have it. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bobo, do you have any further questions ? 

Mr. BoBO. I think that is all, sir. 

The Chairman. I believe you have court this morning. I want to 
get you back on the bench in time for your proceeding. 

Judge Brown. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Thank you for coming here this morning. 

Judge MiLLEN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Dilworth and Mr. Gomberg. 

The Chairman. I will swear you together. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give to this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Dilworth. I do. 

Mr. Gomberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARDSON DILWORTH, DISTRICT ATTORNEY, 
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, ACCOMPANIED BY STANLEY GOM- 
BERG, ASSISTANT DISTRICT ATTORNEY, PHILADELPHIA 
COUNTY 

The Chairiman. It is very nice to have you here this morning. 

Mr. Dilworth. It is a great honor to be invited, sir. 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Dilworth, I understand you have a statement. Do 
you wish to proceed from the statement ? 

Mr. Dilworth. We have turned that in to Mr. Goff. It is fairly 
lengthy. I Imow you don't want to go into all that. Of course, we are 
most familiar with the local aspects of the situation. 

The Chairman. The statement will be marked "Exhibit No. 4" and 
printed in the record. 

(The statement was marked "Exhibit No. 4," and reads as follows :) 

General Statement by the Honorable Richardson Dilworth, District At- 
torney OF Philadelphia, and Assistant District Attorney Stanley Gom- 
berg, TO Special Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency Regarding 
THE Problems of Juvenile Delinquency in Philadelphia, Its Methods and 
Its Effectiveness in Handling the Problem, with Recommendations fob 
P^ederal Legislation 

the juvenile delinquency picture in PHILADELPHIA 

Like other cities, Philadelphia has experienced a sharp increase in both the 
numbers and severity of delinquencies. Last year the juvenile court handled 
over 8,300 cases. Our resources for treating the problem are seriously limited. 

Our juvenile court has failed to treat adequately the problems that arise. 
This is partially because its staff is undei-paid and overworked. Partially, 
because over the years it has refused to modernize its approach to the rehabilita- 
tion of delinquent children. (Its methods are basically the same as they were 
50 years ago.) And partially because the institutions with which the court 
is forced to work are overcrowded or not geared to treat the child's specific 
problem. Some institutions sorely needed have just never been built. 

On the prevention side, the fact is that there is no governmental agency in 
Philadelphia established with the specific purpose of devising and coordinating 
a community delinquency prevention program. The juvenile court does not 
conceive this to be its proper function. Private agencies, mostly notably the 
Crime I'revention Association, have attempted to Institute city wide prevention 



log JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

programs. But limited funds and lack of overall cooperation have prevented 
these attempts from being more than superficial. 

Our police department has recognized the importance of the juvenile problem. 
It has doubled the size of the juvenile aid bureau. These men, who are 
specially trained, have been doing an excellent police job. But, the police do not 
prevent delinquents. They apprehend them. 

In other words, Philadelphia and Pennsylvania have much to do if we are to 
accomplish anything beyond talking about the problem. 

The office of the district attorney is charged with the obligation of prosecut- 
ing all cases passing through the juvenile court. But, the assistant district 
attorney assigned to that court performs his duty in a manner which extends 
far beyond the usual concept of the prosecution of cases. 

Perhaps no other court in our legal system is given so great an opportunity to 
perform constructive work. In this court, good citizens are lost or gained. 
Criminal careers may be averted, and hundreds of thousands of dollars each 
year may be saved the citizens of this Commonwealth if the court functions 
constructively. Though this concept seems considerably removed from the ordi- 
nary understanding of the function of the district attorney, it is nevertheless true 
that the court has the means to increase substantially the reservoir of well-being 
in this city, particularly in cases of runaway children, insecurities in children 
arising from family difficulties, and similar problems. This obligation, as well as 
the desire to assure the protection of the community from the unlawful acts of 
juvenile delinquents, must be recognized by a district attorney's office completely 
aware of its role. 

The past year has seen a nationwide awakening to the importance of the 
problems of juvenile delinquency. This has been partially the result of con- 
siderable publicity given to public hearings held by the Senate Subcommittee 
on Juvenile Delinquency, which have spotlighted the rapid rise of delinquency 
rates throughout the country. 

In addition, there has been in Philadelphia a resurgence of public interest 
in the problem. Columnists in both large newspapers of general circulation have 
devoted considerable space to the problem. In some instances, the point of 
interest has been the causal factors involved in the delinquency problems. 
In other cases, public interest has been aroused specifically with regard to the 
procedures of the juvenile court itself. Questions have been raised as to the 
ability of the court to operate effectively to rehabilitate juvenile offenders. 

There is no question that the Philadelphia delinquency rate has been rising 
continually since the beginning of the Korean war. The peak year in court his- 
tory was 1945 when the court caseload was 9,2-38. During World War II, the 
rate had risen from 6,382 cases to over 9,000. From 1945 until 19.50 the rate 
dropped to a caseload of 6,193. The rate then started climbing again as the 
effect of Korea was felt. In 1951, there were 6,497 cases; in 19.52. 7,365 cases; 
in 1953, about S.:;()0 cases. (The Crime I'revention Association this weekend 
announced that its first quarter figiires indicate a downturn for 1954.) 

These figures, of cour.se, are not definitive measures of delinquency in Phila- 
delphia, since they do not include the substantial number of informal com- 
plaints nor the unknown number of nonapprehended delinquents. 

One cannot underestimate the seriousness of the continuing juvenile delin- 
quency problem in terms of the danger to lives and property. The variety of 
cases which are treated by the juvenile court goes to the limits of the penal code. 
In 1953. juveniles continued to be brought before the court in matters involv- 
ing homicide on an average of better than one a month. (Although the juvenile 
court has jurisdiction to try all other cases involving unlawful acts by children 
under the age of 18, it has but preliminai-y jurisdiction in murder cases.) 
During 19.53, the court was plagued with numei-ous cases of auto theft (429). 
unlawful bre;d<ing into and entering (953), and eases of juveniles carrying 
concealed and deadly weapons (214) . 

The most serious prc)l)lem of juvenile delinquency confronting the court is the 
intense gang activity among juveniles. Such gangs are ordinarily organized on 
a neighljorhood basis, with tlie not unusual result that when boys of another 
neighborhood are found within the home territory they are beaten and driven 
from the area. Gangs of girls also are known to the court. This gang activity 
has resulted in serious injuries, and, as a matter of fact, most killings by 
juveniles in 1953 were the result of gang activity. 

The gangs known as the Head Hunters and the Green Street Counts, whose 
combined activities were responsible for the deaths of 3 persons, and injury 
to 7 others, in 1953, struck fear in the hearts of Philadelphians. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 109 

On a Saturday night in March 1953, six teen-agers, 15 to 17, persuaded an adult 
to purchase several bottles of wine at a local State liquor store in South 
rhiladelpliia. Thereafter, they became violently intoxicated, and, knives in 
hand, roamed the streets in a reign of terror. Sunday morning found 2 dead 
and 6 seriously injured. 

Newspaper accounts quoted one of the boys as saying that they had set out to 
"hunt a few heads". The designation "Head Hunters" was thereafter affixed. 
Six boys were involved, 4 of them have been sentenced to life imprisonment and 
2 were .sentenced to indetiuite terms at the White Hill State Industrial School. 

Their episode taught that alcohol and teen-agers are an explosive mixture ; 
that there is a need for tightened enforcement of laws relating to adults purchas- 
ing liquor for minors, in violation of the liquor code, and contributing to the 
delinquency of minors. 

The increase in the numbers of 1953 arrests of juveniles for intoxication over 
1952 ; and. in the number of juveniles medically diagnosed as alcoholics, is 
challenging. 

The vicious saga of the Green Street Counts hit headlines in the summer of 
1953. Where the tragedy of the Head Hunters resulted from a more or less 
casual association, the Counts were a formalized, cold-blooded organization 
comparable to mobs of adult racketeers. The gang, with headquarters in the 
congested area of the city a few blocks north of city hall, had its rigid discipline 
of obedience to the mob will through fear (one boy was purposely shot in the 
leg after showing weakness in a robbery executed by the gang). It also boasted 
an arsenal of firearms. To these familiar attributes of criminal mobs, were 
added the juvenile touches of a written constitution, in which were designated 
such officers as "Secretary of War" and "Keeper of the War Chest". Last week- 
end another gang was discovered by the police in North Philadelphia with the 
same sort of constitution and bylaws. 

In August, the Counts boldly entered a taproom in North Philadelphia, intend- 
ing to hold up the bartender and patrons at the point of a gun. Panic stricken 
when their plan failed in execution, they shot their way out. The bartender was 
shot and instantly killed. One of tlie patrons was injured. 

Five boys, ranging in age from IG to 20, were indicted. At this writing, all 
but one have been tried, found guilty, and sentenced to life imprisonment. 

Another extremely troublesome situation which gained prominent newspaper 
notice was gang rowdyism on central city public transportation. In the fall of 
19.j3, members of the Transport Workers Union employed by the Philadelphia 
Transportation Corp., complained that on trolley lines servicing students at 
two central city high schools and one junior high school, gangs of boys had 
vandalized trolley cars and even robbed motormen. The union officials threat- 
ened to stop trolley line service on these important central city communication 
lines unless immediate steps were taken. 

It was necessary to station police iu the trolley cars ; and. also at the trolley 
stops near the schools. Since that was done no new outbreak has occurred. 

Less than a month ago, juvenile gang warfare, between two gangs known 
as the Pandoras and Exiles, resulted in a lioy being shot from a racing automobile 
by a teen-age gunman. Arrests swiftly followed, but the problem is not alleviated. 

These gang situations have proved extremely serious. The office of the 
district attorney has recommended that a Youth Commission be established 
by the city of Philadelphia. One of its important functions would be to 
strengthen social work activities with members of these gangs, in order to turn 
their energies into constructive or nonharmful recreational activities. Addi- 
tional functions of the proposed youth commission will be discussed below. 

Despite the above, the magnitude of the problems treated in juvenile court 
or the nature of those problems must not be misunderstood. In 1953, juvenile 
delinquency comprised but 1.9 percent of the juvenile population from 7 to 17 
years of age. (In 1952 the rate was 1.7 percent.) Moreover, all the cases which 
come into court are not concerned with young hoodlums who differ from their 
adult criminal counterparts only in the differences of age. As a matter of fact, 
the majority of the cases arise from backgrounds of proverty. family maladjust- 
ments, racial prejudice, excessive parental discipline or the lack of it. parental 
alcoholism, or immorality, or any of the other unfortunate circumstances which 
may engulf children. 

Cases involving runaway or disobedient children do not require the stern 
measures necessitated by gang cases or the cases of juvenile armed robbery 
and the like. In many ways, the former cases are more important for here 
46966—54 8 



110 JUVEXILE DELINQUENCY 

the opportunity to reconstruct a life, to search out the basic causes of wayward 
conduct is far greater. It is in these cases, therefore, that the court is best 
able to attain its goals of the welfare and rehabilitation of children. 

Yet, it is these very cases which present the most difficult, delicate problems 
to the court. To aid it in its determinations, the court employs the facilities 
cf the physical and social sciences. It is the policy of the court, not always 
carried out, that every case shall undergo a thorough social casework investiga- 
tion into the family background of the child, conducted by probation officers, as 
well as physical and mental examinations, conducted by the medical and 
psychiatric staff. This is in accord with the social tradition upon which tiie 
court is founded. 

After the hearing a child may be discharged, if it is felt that his court ex- 
perience has had a sufficient therapeutic effect to assure his future good conduct. 
He may also be put on probation, if it is felt that he may benefit from the 
guidance and supervision that can be given him by members of the probation 
staff. Or he may be committed, if such institutionalized training seems the 
best course. 

In January 1953, in connection with his duties in the .iuvenile court, As- 
sistant District Attorney Stanley B. Gomberg prepared an extensive report 
concerning the court's problems and procedures. Embodied in the report are 
over 60 recommendations concerning the entire court system, from the moment 
of arrest, or filing of the delinquency petition, to an evaluation of the institu- 
tions to which juveniles are committed. A copy of this report is herewith sub- 
mitted to the Subcommittee. 

The report, entitled "One Year in Juvenile Court — 1952" embodied some 
important disclosures and recommendations. 

Some of the more important were the following: 

Although the probation staff was under a merit system for new appointments, 
one-third of the staff was politically appointed without examination. Seventy- 
five percent of the probation officers were paid less than $8,000 a year. Salary- 
wise. Philadelphia was at the bottom of the list of all ma.ior communities through- 
out the counti'y. The salary makeup of the staff lacked equalization of pay for 
similar duties, uniform pay increases or salarywise recognition of length of 
service. (Since that time reforms have been made in the salary system, and 
some increases have been granted. The average salary is still less than $3,300 
per year.) 

In addition, it was disclosed that the probation officers of the stafE carried 
a caseload of 75. On the other hand the United States Children's Bureau has 
stated 50 as the optimum caseload. 

It is therefore fair to say the probation staff is overworked and underpaid. 

Pointing out that the juvenile court follows the recommendation of the proba- 
tion staff in 85 percent to 90 percent of the cases, the report questioned whether 
the court was doing the best kind of job in rehabilitating delinquent children. 
The judge regularly assigned to juvenile court averages less than 5 minutes on 
a case in a court day. Municipal court statistics for 1951 (the last then pub- 
lished) showed that of every hundred delinquents in the court 42 had been 
there before. Since then, in 1952 the repeater rate was 44 percent and in 1953, 
a startling 47 percent. There is, therefore, room for much improvement as the 
report indicated. 

The report also questioned the validity of using the courtroom to hear all 
cases. Certainly, cases involving runaway and incorrigible children, cases 
resulting solely from family maladjustments ; and, most juvenile sex cases cannot 
be constructively handled in an austere courtroom. The judge should be willing 
to meet the troubled child and his family at its own level in a conference — not 
a trial. Recommendations to this effect were made, and have been ignored. 

The report also pointed out that the informal procedures of the juvenile 
court — employed in the name of the "social approach" — constitute a substantial 
threat that the juvenile, who is rarely represented by counsel, will be over- 
reached, that his legal rights can be lost sight of in a busy day where the court 
handles over 40 cases in a 3 hour court day, as is not unusual. It called for a 
close adherence to the rules of evidence. 

Since that time the superior court lias held that "the court must have juris- 
diction, its basic findings must be supported by evidence and the rudiments of 
procedural due process observed. The record must be legally and factually 
adequate to .sustain the findings of fact and order of commitment." 

Since the issuance of the report, Philadelphia has shown an awakened interest 
in the need to strengthen our procedure for the treatment of juvenile delinquents. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 111 

With the extensive publicity given the report of Jlr. Gomberg in September 
1U53, the Greater Philadelphia movement called upon the juvenile court to 
permit an independent survey of the court. Thereafter, the juvenile court 
agreed to jointly survey the procedures of the court in conjunction with the 
Greater Philadelphia movement. This survey is now in progress. 

In 1953, over 8,000 cases came before the court. This heavy workload plagued 
a thinly staffed psychiatric division. The Gomberg i-eport pointed out that it 
was necessary that additional funds be allocated to the juvenile court for the 
hiring of additional psychologists, so that standards of selectivity regarding 
what cases require psychiatric diagnosis can be devised. No such funds have 
yet been forthcoming, however. 

In these respects the court needs help. Suggestions that it seek the aid of 
Philadelphia's private community resourses ; its hospitals, clinics, and private 
funds, have to a large extent not been accepted. Where a working relationship 
with local psychiatric clinics, could aid the medical staff, such a program has 
not yet been worked out. Nor has the court accepted suggestions that a citizens' 
advisory committee would provide considerable assistance to the court in inter- 
preting its needs to the community. 

In addition, the tools with which the court must work for the treatment of 
juveniles are extremely limited. Most of the present institutions are over- 
crowded and some which are sorely needed do not yet exist. To a large extent 
this deficiency lies within the responsibility of the State. Present feelings 
within that system — such as a lack of any institution for female defective de- 
linquents, for male defective delinquents under 15, truant girls — are numerous. 
The unfortunate fact is that these fallings result in countless continued delin- 
quencies for which the juvenile court cannot be held responsible. 

Probably the most serious lack in the institutional pattern is the absence of 
any facility for short-term commitment (a week to a year), of any juvenile 
under 16 years. This seriously handicaps the court. 

In addition, Pennypack House to which juveniles 16 and 17 years are com- 
mitted for short terms is merely a wing of the county prison. Yard facilities are 
shared jointly with adult offenders. We need immediately a new Pennypack 
House which is truly an institution for short-term commitment of juveniles. 
W^ithout such an institution, the work of the juvenile court is much more 
difficult. 

What should the community do by way of preventing juvenile delinquency? 
Up to now the entire prevention program has been left in the hands of private 
agencies with limited funds. 

The time has come for our city government to step into the prevention 
picture. The delinquency problem will be attacked at its source only by a 
community-wide effort. The district attorney's office has recommended the estab- 
lishment by the city of a youth commission. The purpose of the commission, 
which would be augmented by a professional staff, would be the following : 

1. To mobilize a concentrated effort by all of the municipal government's 
departments in this field — police, district attorney, recreation, health and wel- 
fare departments. 

2. To cooi'dinate the often overlapping program of social agencies which 
specialize in the juvenile field; and, coordinate their work with that of the 
municipal departments, so as to effect a concentration of effort. 

3. To introduce into the total community effort against juvenile delinquency 
the many citizens' organizations, such as the American Legion, the ^iwanis 
and others, who have no expert knowledge in the field, but have a sincere interest 
in the delinquency problem and want to do something about it. The commission 
could establish constructive, coordinated programs for such organizations. 

4. To act as a trouble shooting body, ready to put members of its staff in any 
area of the city where difficulties arise, either by reason of racial tensions, 
juvenile gang activity, or other such danuerous conditions. 

5. To act as a public relations body to disseminate accurate information and 
educational materials. 

Our office has recommended that to start the program the city appropriate 
$5.5,000 for the establishment of such a youth commission. It should be chaired 
by a community leader, assisted by a paid staff with a salaried executive di- 
rector. This executive director should be a dynamic leader in the field of 
juvenile and social problems. His salary should be at least $12,000 a year. 

It is also our feeling that although juvenile delinquency is essentially a local 
problem, the Federal Government can play an important role in aiding in this 
fight. Wo recommend that the following legislation be considered. 



112 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

1. The establishmeut of a National Fonndatiou ou Youth Problems and Cor- 
rection. The Foundation would be charijjed with the duty of devising standards 
for adequate treatment facilities for delinquent juveniles. Thereafter, Con- 
gress would enact legislation to contribute Federal funds to any State which 
would appropriate its own funds to construct such institutions for the treatment 
of its juvenile problems. 

2. Similarly, the Foundation should devise standards for youth commissions 
on the community level for a comnmnitywide attack on this national problem. 
Federal funds should be made available, on a grant-in-aid bases, to support 
such programs. 

3. A similar procedure should likewise be followed with regard to the estab- 
lishment of extended school counseling programs. On enti-y into school every 
child should be thoroughly examined mentally, medically and psychiatrically, 
and accurate foUowup records be kept thereafter. In addition, sufficient trained 
social personnel should be available in our schools to find early in their lives 
our problem children. At this point, before behavior patterns become relatively 
inflexible, the greatest amount of constructive rehabilitative work can be 
achieved with the child and his parents. Such a program requires more funds 
than are usually available in local communities. Federal funds should be made 
available for this important work. 

4. The obtaining of firearms liy juveniles is a most serious problem. Fed- 
eral legislation for the absolute control of all small arms, their registry and the 
recordation of all transfers, with penalties for violation, is sorely needed. 

Your subcommittee has in the past heard recommendations for legislation to 
facilitate the apprehension and return of fathers who desert their families and 
flee to other States. It has also been recommended that legislation be enacted 
to facilitate the I'eturn of runaway juveniles who cross State lines. We join 
in endorsing such proposals as necessary in the overall search to solve the 
national delinquency problem. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I read fairly carefully the testimony of yesterday. 
I aaree entirely with those witnesses who said we don't liave a really 
serious narcotics problem here, not that we don't have a narcotics prob- 
lem in any city, but I say it is far less serious than in most big cities. 

I do think we have a bad liquor situation in the saloons, probably as 
bad, or worse, than in other cities, and I think that is through long 
standing patterns of years and years of leniency. 

I know of practically no saloon license that has ever been revoked 
and they are fined $10 a day and every saloon is glad to pay $10 a 
day in order to operate. 

Yon really have to get a complete shambles in a saloon pins a 
murder to get a license revoked. 

Mr. P>()r,o. How does this $10 a day fine work? Are they closed? 

Mr. DjLwoKTii. They don't even close them. They will close them 
for 30 days and they will take an appeal. Then they will say, "In- 
stead of closing you for 30 days, which w\ill create a hardship for your 
bartenders, we will let you pay a fine of $10 a day." 

IMr. Bono. Kather than suspension it is a fine? 

Mr. Dii.woRTir. Yes, sir. 

On the local situation as to the physical aspects again it is the 
fault both of our city and our State. The way we let our physical 
facilities run down. We have in this city absolutely that you can 
send a juvenile delinquent for short terms if they are under 16 years 
of age. You simply have to send them home. That is about what it 
amounts to. 

Between the ages of 16 and 17, up to 18 years of age, the only place 
you can send them is out to the house of correction. We flatter it 
by calling it the Pennypacker House, but it is nothing but a wing of 
the house of correction. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 113 

So during their recreation hours their association is with bums, 
perverts, drunks, and all the other people sent to the house of correc- 
tion, ancl there is virtually no way of correcting that with the physical 
facilities we have. 

On top of that we have no place where we can send truant girls 
and the truant girls are not turned over to the municipal court until 
the school cannot do something with them. 

Of course, there is no correctional treatment. There is no place 
where we can send female defective delinquents. There is no place 
Avhere they can be sent. 

We have no place where we can send male defective delinquents 
under 15 years of age. 

Then, of course, the other very serious thing is that it is apt to 
take as much as a year to get a child, who is either mentally ill or 
what in the old days were called insane, into a mental institution. 
It is very rarely they can ever get in under 6 months, and it may run 
a year. 

Last summer a murder actually resulted from that. The child was 
sent home and the child finally let fly with a gun and there was a 
murder. 

So we are very far behind in our physical facilities. 

As to the situation itself, how it is going to be met, my own guess 
is that the juvenile delinquency problem here is not as serious as it 
is in other large cities because 1 think we have a more stable popula- 
tion, a sort of more permanent population, and a more homogenious 
population than other cities do have, that is, at least on the east 
coast. 

So I do not think we have as bad a juvenile delinquency problem, 
although it is bad and it is bad in every other big city, as the other 
big cities have. 

I personally believe that the way we can most effectively combat 
it — there are an awful lot of wonderful agencies in this city, but there 
is no real cooperation. All the men who were here yesterday are 
doing a wonderful job, but there is nobody who is in a position to 
knock everybody on the head and have a really concerted program. 

You have what is designated as a very bad trouble area. If we 
had a municipal agency, as has been suggested by Mr. Gomberg, a 
juvenile commission headed by a real civic leader, who would not be 
a salaried man, with a staff, the head of that staff to be called the 
executive director, say, with a salary of at least $12,000 a year, and 
probably preferably $15,000 a year, who could coordinate all the work 
of your city departments that are interested, like police, district at- 
torney, health, welfare, recreation, also get all these funded civic 
organizations that are interested in juvenile delinquency, also really 
to put the hammer on your PTA associations, and all those groups in 
the area. Bring in a great many agencies who, while not primarily 
interested in juvenile delinquency, are extremely interested in your 
community welfare, like your veterans' organizations — they have lo- 
cally here splendid programs for our children, some of our service 
clubs have recreation programs and camps for the children in the 
summer, your Legion and VFW have baseball programs and that — 
if we could concentrate the efforts on our trouble zones and concen- 
trate there rapidly, I think we could do much more effective work. 



114 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

I do not see how you can do it unless you have a man of ability and 
authority who can devote full time on a salaried basis to rounding 
up all forces of the community that are on the side of law and order 
to combat this problem. 

The Chairman. Is there anything more important in our lives 
today than the children of America ? 

Mr. DiLwORTH. No, sir; there certainly is not. I personally feel 
that each generation is a little better than the last. I think that is 
about all we have that we can be particularly proud of. 

I really do think that this generation is better than the preceding 
one. Each one has been. I sincerely believe that. 

As Mr. Gomberg's figures show, there was a dropping off in ju- 
venile delinquency in 1947, 1948, and 1949. As soon as the Korean 
war started it went up again. 

The first decrease we had was in the first 3 months of this year. 

Mr, Gomberg has made a study of the other cities. Of course, your 
staff has made a careful study. I don't know of any other city that 
has a really adequate concentrated organized program. 

They all talk a great deal about it. For instance, we had wonderful 
reports and investigations made here, but we still don't get down to 
the action stage. 

Mr. BoBo. Are you familiar with the California youth commission ? 

Mr. DiLwoRTH. I am not, myself. Mr. Gomberg is. 

Mr. BoBo. Is that the idea you are suggesting? 

Mr. Gomberg. Yes ; but more particularly like the New York com- 
mission. They are pretty much the same, but the New York commis- 
sion, which brings into its commission as ex officio members as they 
call them, members of your city departments, for example, the juvenile 
court, department of recreation, and so on, and also works in your 
social agencies; up there they have a million-dollar budget given by 
the city and a million-dollar budget contributed by the State. 

So they can do (juite a tremendous job. 

They tried to involve in their plans all of the social agencies in the 
city, and as many of the citizens' organizations as they can. 

I think that is the way to approach it. I think that is the only way 
to approach it. 

The Chairman. Do you find your local and State laws adequate in 
this field, in the juvenile field ? 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I don't think it is a question of laws. 

Mr. Gomberg. I think the laws are adequate. By and large you can 
pick up changes here and there. 

The Chairman. In your experience in the treatment of this prob- 
lem, do you feel that it would be helpful if we had more uniform laws 
as between the States ? 

Mr. DiLWORTii. Of course, I am thinking now, and it is not directly 
affecting juvenile delinquency, it is an awful sweat getting people 
extradited, your nonsupported cases and those do affect juvenile de- 
linquency, tlie red tape we still have to go through despite the uniform 
laws on extradition. 

The Chairman. There is a need for more Federal legislation in 
that area ? 

Mr. DiLWORTH. Yes, sir ; I think there is. 

The Chairman. We are conscious of tliat. "VYe are having the staff 
prepare legislation for introduction in the next session of the Congress. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 115 

It has always been my feeling, for example, we have these uniform 
laws we have adopted over the years that relate to contracts and nego- 
tiable instruments, and they have been very helpful throughout the 
Nation. 

It would seem to me not so much as a lawyer, but as just a citizen, 
that if we had more uniform laws in the States, we could reduce 
delinquency. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I think it would be very helpful, sir. Of course, 
Stanley Gomberg thinks there should be a uniform deadly weapons 
law. I think that would be some help, although the weapons I have 
seen recently and the police have been bringing in a lot in the last few 
months, most of them seem to be homemade. 

These children seem to be absolute geniuses in the manufacture of 
weapons. 

Have you heard what they can do with an automobile aerial ? They 
take these radio aerials off automobiles, cut them off, and make a .22 
caliber pistol out of them. The firing pin is a rubber band. It is an 
amazingly ingenious weapon. They can kill a person with them. 

Mr. Gomberg. They can kill themselves with it, also. They blow 
up in the hands. 

The Chairman. This was a great exhibition we had yesterday. I 
was surprised at some of the devices that the youngsters have 
developed. 

Mr. BoBO. I notice in your statement you submitted to Mr, Goff, 
that you spoke of the Green Street Counts and the arsenal that they 
had. Would you go into that problem? I believe your office was 
the one that handled that particular problem. 

Mr. Gomberg. Well, it started in the juvenile court. However, in 
our Juvenile Court Act, anyone over 14, if the act is sufficiently severe 
and the juvenile court feels that a jury trial would be in the interest 
of justice, can certify the case down to the criminal court. 

In that particular case the act was so severe that the court did 
certify the case to the criminal court, although some were juveniles 
under 18. 

In that case, we had a situation where some of the boys up around 
21st and Green Streets, which is a distance not so far from here, had 
gotten together and organized a gang. They did some amazing 
things. They appointed officers ; they had a keeper of the war chest, 
a secretary of war. They had a written constitution. They had re- 
cently merged with some other gang and had formalized that by a 
written document. 

But they were not juvenile at all in the way they approached the 
robbery of the taproom. 

They went into a taproom up in North Philadelphia and they had 
a lookout and so on, but because they were juveniles — I think very 
nervous — something happened in the course of their robbery, they 
killed the bartender and injured one of the patrons in the bar. 

All of the people in that gang have been tried. They have all been 
sentenced to life imprisonment, with one exception, who will be tried 
shortly. That was a very serious situation. 

Mr. Bobo. Do you have the figures on how many cases are waived 
from the juvenile court to the quarter sessions court which would come 
through your office ? 



116 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. GoMBERG. I can't put my finoer on that immediately, but I can 
tell you there are not many. I would venture the guess that the num- 
bers do not exceed 100 in 1 year. That is an outside figure. 

Mr. BoBO. You are the assistant district attorney that handles the 
juvenile court matters? 

Mr, GoMBERG. Yes. sir. 

Mr. BoBO. What relationship does the district attorney's office have 
in juvenile-court cases? 

Mr. DiLwoRTH. We wish we knew. We are having a conflict with 
the municipal court on that right now. 

The Chairman, I was going to ask you to comment on the municipal 
court in Philadelphia, Would you care to amplify your statements? 

Mr, Gomberg. Can I start out by saying what the law says and 
then we can tell you what the problem is, if you are interested, sir ? 

Under the municipal court law and juvenile court law, in the 
Municipal Act particularly, there is the obligation placed on the dis- 
trict attorney to prosecute all cases in which the municipal court has 
exclusive jurisdiction and under the Municipal Court Act exclusive 
jurisdiction is given to the municipal court in all juvenile-court cases. 

Consequently, by law, we are given the responsibility of repre- 
senting the community's interest in juvenile court. 

As you have seen in these hearings, of course, not only is the inter- 
est of the child involved — and to my mind that is paramount — but 
there is also the interest of the community involved and its own safety. 

I think Mr, Robinson from the PTC yesterday probably impressed 
that on you. It is quite a problem. And we feel that the law is 
quite a good one to have the district attorney there to perform the 
function both of protecting the community and assuring as much as 
he is able to do that the hearing is run in as fair a way as possible 
and also to see that the result is as just as jDossible, that is, to give 
our advice to the court as much as we can. 

Mr. DiLwoRTH, The judges in the municipal court under the act, 
and I think it is a very good act we have here. Judge Boyle when he 
was President Judge, and Judge Brown, both are doing a splendid 
job in that administration of the court. They are keeping the proba- 
tion officers and investigating officers out of politics. 

Judge BroAMi has recently set up a splendid board to pass on that. 

The conflict we have had has been with one particular judge over 
whether we are to have access to all the records of the court. We 
think with the enormous powers, the sweeping powers the court has, 
that it is important that there be a district attorney in court each day 
to protect both the interests of the Commonwealth and of the minor, 
because tlie judge can get awfully arbitrary in those closed sessions 
witli the powers that he has, very sweeping powers that he has. 

Therefore, to refuse the district attorney's office access to their so- 
called confidential case histories, to us is just inconceivable. That is 
the only dispute we have with the court. 

The Chairman, We have found a similar situation in the District 
of Columbia that is rather troublesome and I think it is being cor- 
rected, I am sure we are going to correct it by statute. 

Mr. Gomberg, It is troublesome to us because I think you feel an 
obligation to adequately represent all the interested parties in such a 
proceeding. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 117 

Then you have to feel the obligation to know as mucli about it as 
you can. 

The way the cases are run in the juvenile court is that they are 
processed in such a v>ay tliat the first time the district attorney has 
any contact with them at all in the usual course of things is the day 
he walks into court and the day the case walks into court. 

Now^, from time to time you get inquiries as to certain things. 
You would like to look into them to see what the facts are. The police 
sometimes say, "We have such and such a case coming, and we are 
wondering about certain legal problems, and so on. 

In addition to that, when the case is over, you are often left with 
wonderment as to what certain facts are which might have given you 
a different slant on your recommendation to the court. 

Mr. -DiLWORTH. We had one particular case which highlighted it 
to me. A mother brought her child into the department of welfare to 
turn the child over to the department of welfare because she did not 
feel she could support it. I don't remember whether she was a married 
or unmarried mother. 

Of course, the department of welfare had to get a formalized order 
from the municipal court which the municipal court gave. Then very 
shortly after that the mother decided that she wanted the child back. 

In the meantime they had had a psychiatric examination of the 
mother and I think they were probably correct that she was not in any 
mental shape to take care of the child. 

But when she went down to file a petition for a hearing — and mind 
you, she had voluntarily surrendered the child to the welfare dej^art- 
ment and then she wanted her child back — the probation department 
simply tells her that they won't accept a petition from her. 

She is certainly entitled to a hearing, as we see it. 

She came to us. We wrote to Judge Boyle and he granted a hear- 
ing, but this particular judge was unwilling to let us see the case 
history so that we could decide. 

I think it was one of our duties to see whether the mother had gotten 
a square deal in this thing, or whether she had not. 

They have enormous powers. They have the closed hearings, which 
is perfectly correct. They listen to 30 or 40 cases in a 3-hour session. 
That is not criticism. They have to. 

That means the average time that is devoted to a case is less than 
5 minutes. 

Under all those circumstances, and they don't, of course, have to 
pay any real attention to the laws of evidence and all that. In many 
cases a child really does not get a full chance to have passed on one 
question that is very important to the child, whether he really was 
guilty of the offense he is accused of, or not. 

But judges have to handle an enormous volume of cases. They 
are very apt to look at the report from the probation department. 
The probation department says the boy was there, but if the boy says, 
"I was not at the scene ; I was not involved," they brush that aside. 

The Chairman. It is inconceivable that the district attorney cannot 
look at the records. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. We are allowed to look at what we call the record, 
but the important records, of course, are the so-called case histoiy 
and the history of the child and his background. That is the record 
to which we are refused access except upon written consent. 



118 JIA^ENILE DELINQUENCY 

In the case of the mother, this one particular juclo;e, and he is the 
only one that we have trouble with, finally said to Stanley Goraberg^ 
"I will let you look at it, but I won't let the district attorney look at it." 

The Chairman. Do we need a correction in the law? Of course, 
we are not here to try to suggest corrections in State or local laws. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I don't think we need any correction in the law. I 
think we need a little commonsense from the particular judge. 

Mr. GoMBERG. May I explain something ? 

The Chairman. You may. 

Mr. Gomberg. What we are given at the hearing is what is known 
as a summary sheet. It is a list of the cases, the records of the boys, 
and also the recommendation of the probation staff as to each par- 
ticular case, and then a paragraph, not often exceeding 15 lines or 10 
lines, in which certain facts are set forth by probation staff. 

The thing that concerns me particularly is that I think it would 
be natural for the probation officer who believes this is the proper 
recommendation to emphasize such fact in the record as would support 
that recommendation. 

All other facts may not be adverted to at all. It is those facts, of 
course, to get the complete picture, that we would like to address our 
attention to. That is my point. 

The Chairman. Mr. Dilworth, I have before me a report One 
Year in Juvenile Court, by Mr. Stanley B. Gomberg. I am sure 
that you have studied the recommendations which begin on page 90 ? 

Mr. Dilworth. Yes, sir. Of course, it was following that report 
that we were first refused access to these records. 

The Chairman. It Avas the report that caused the refusal, you 
think ? 

Mr. Dilworth. That is right. 

The Chairman. What have you to say about the recommenda- 
tions I referred to, starting on page 90 ? I have been going over them 
while you have been testifying. 

Mr. Dilworth. I think they are splendid. I think I am correct 
in saying that every civic organization in the city very heartily 
approved them. 

Again, this is not criticism of the court, because, as I say, both 
Judge Boyle and Judge Brown have done splendid jobs. They have 
been conscientious, they have been interested in the juvenile court, 
and I think they have given it the best they have. 

But for years things have been handled in certain ways and they 
just don't like particularly a change in certain respects. 

I think this report was the thing that led the greater Philadelphia 
movement to ask permission to make a general survey of the court, 
not in criticism of the court, but just to suggest that possibly they 
had not kept sufficiently in contact with what was going on in other 
cities and what was going on presently, and sort of improving the 
general procedures. 

Finally, it was agreed, and I understand Judge Brown has agreed, 
that they shall come in there and they are now conducting a sort of 
joint survey with the court, and I think that will help a lot. 

Judge Brown has been cooperative in every way. 

The Chairman. I notice in these recommendations, for example, 
for court hearings children should not be criticized in the presence 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 119 

of parents and parents should not be criticized in the presence of 
children. 

You refer in that respect to the hearings in the court? 

Mr. GoMBERG. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. One of the things that was being done, for instance, 
in the presence of the child the court would read out the record of 
the parents showing that the father was a habitual drunkard, the 
mother was a prostitute, or in another case he would read out the 
findings on the child, if the child was moronic, and so forth, in open 
formal court. 

Mr. GoMBERG. It seems to me from my observations that that now is 
done very little. I thought you would be interested in that. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I know of only one judge who was doing that. 

The Chairman. I concur wholeheartedly with virtually all of these 
recommendations. 

Mr. GoMBERG. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. I want to commend you for a fine report. 

Mr. GoMBERG. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Bobo, do you have any questions of 
Mr. Dilworth ? 

Mr. Bobo. I have just one question. 

Do you think there is any need for Federal legislation or do you 
think we have adequate Federal legislation perhaps to handle the 
problems of juveniles? 

Mr. Dilworth. I have not particularly considered it. Mr. Gom- 
berg did, and at the end of our statement he has four recommenda- 
tions on pages 8 and 9. 

I concur in those. 

Mr. BoBO. Mr. Gomberg, would you give us your idea as to what 
these recommendations are? 

Mr. Gomberg. Yes, I would be very happy to. 

First of all, let me say with regard to these recommendations that 
it has seemed to me in studying the problem a little bit, because of my 
experience in the court, that the real attack upon the problem must 
be from a prevention point of view. 

Of course, when the cases come into court, it is no longer a preven- 
tion problem; it is a treatment problem. But a real attack on the 
juvenile delinquency problem is a prevention problem. 

Now, with regard to that it seems to me that prevention cannot 
only come from the social agencies because of all the cases that come 
into juvenile court; the social agencies have contacted a small pro- 
portion of them before they get into court. 

As I think someone said here yesterday — I think it was you, Senator 
Hendrickson — we don't seem to get to the grassroots of the problem. 

How do you do that ? It seems to me the only way you do that is 
by organizing a communitywide effort. There is an awful lot of 
interest in this pi'oblem, but most people just don't know what to do. 

Members of our office speak every night, and many of them speak 
on juvenile delinquency. I do a great deal. People say to me, "AVliat 
can this organization do?" 

The only honest answer is that immediately you can do nothing. 

So it seems to me that the real problem is to organize the community 
into some constructive activity. So that one of the recommendations 
is with regard to the youth commission idea. 



120 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

I think the community should be encouraged to engage in a com- 
munitywide effort with a partnership between the governmental agen- 
cies, the expert social agencies, and the citizens' organizations. I 
think the Federal Government should at least consider helping in that 
by establishing a grant-in-aid program for that purpose. 

I think that has to be done. 

The Chairman. I am glad to hear you say that. Just recently in 
the Congress I voted for an increase in grant-in-aid for highways. 
Of course, we need new highways. 

But if we can build concrete highways with Federal money, we 
certainly can build character with Federal money in our children. 

Mr. GoMBERG. Yes, I think that is a very good point. 

In addition to that, you see, I did recommend that there be estab- 
lished what I call just oti'handedly a national foundation on juvenile 
problems. The purpose of that would be that from what little I know 
about the problem it seems to me there is lack of uniformity in the 
approach to the problem by the Government. Most of the counties of 
Pennsylvania have no institution of their own for juveniles. I think 
only three have institutions for juveniles of their own. 

The Chairman. Counties? 

Mr. GoMBERG. Counties. 

The Chairman. How many counties do you have in Pennsylvania ? 

Mr. Gomberg. Sixty-seven. 

Many of the States have problems. I think such a foundation could 
set up standards and then say, much as we did in the unemployment 
compensation laws, if you meet the standards we will help you to 
establish, (1) the proper kind of community approach and (2) as I 
put in here, the proper kind of institutions for the treatment of 
juveniles. 

Now, it seems to me extremely important in talking about the gangs, 
one of the big problems with gangs is that they get hold of firearms. 
It is a terrible pioblem, I imagine, in any large city and certainly in 
Philadelphia. 

I think the Federal Government could help there by implementation 
of the National Uniform Firearms Act, or some act, which, although 
it is a tremendous job, I think it is worth it, where guns are registered 
and every transfer is registered, and every ]^erson foimd with a gun 
not registered — I am speaking of small arms, not hunting imple- 
ments — every gun that is not registered, that person found with such 
a gun could be federally fined. 

I think it should be rigidly enforced. 

The people who give guns to children should be punished because 
that is costing lives, in Philadelphia and I imagine throughout the 
coimtry. 

In addition to that, the other thought I have with regard to Fed- 
eral legislation is again a money problem. But, Senator, I do believe 
unless we face up to the problem that solving the juvenile delinquency 
problem is going to be expensive, but it is in the form of an invest- 
ment which will pay off. Unless we recognize it is going to require 
money, we are not apt to do much. 

Now, in that connection, it seems to me that one of the serious 
problems, too, is in our educational system. One of the best ways to 
help our problem children is to find them early in life before their 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 121 

behavior patterns become inflexible. If you can find a child at the 
age of 7 or 8 when he is not in classrooms, he throws erasers, he does 
not listen to the teachers, he does not have an understanding of con- 
stituted authority, and you can give him corrective action at that 
time, you have a thousand percent greater possibility of truly re- 
habilitating that child than if you wait until he is 14 and steals an 
automobile. 

In that connection, I think we should help our scliools in providing 
adequate medical and psychiatric and diagnostic facilities, not treat- 
ment. I don't have that in mind at the moment. 

So we know where our problems are. Then we take our school 
counseling system, people socially trained in the schools where they 
are in daily contact with the masses of the children, and add to that 
staff in a way that it really can do a job. 

Today it is a hit-and-miss proposition in the sense that they simply 
don't have the time to treat all of the problem children, exceedingly 
little time to give to those who seemingly cause no trouble, although 
they may have difficult problems they don't give in to. 

I think as regards the school counseling program the Federal Gov- 
ernment should give consideration to Federal aid to education in this 
respect. I think from a preventive point of view that would be a 
Tremendous gain. 

So I recommend it. 

The Chairmax. It is a good recommendation. The junior Senator 
from New Jersey endorses the recommendation wholeheartedly. 

Mr. GoMBERo. Thank you, sir. 

Tlie gang problem which I referred to is quite a serious problem. I 
don't think it is trne entirely that all of our gangs are in the center of 
the city, in the area described yesterday between Poplar, Lehigh, and 
the two rivers, although that is a serious problem. 

One of the things we hope to be gained by this youth commission on 
the local level is that its trained personnel could innnediately go to any 
trouble spot, trouble by reason of gang activity, and try to work with 
those boys in such a way as to try to turn their activities to construc- 
tive things, or at least, recreational things, they are not criminal or 
delincjuency things. 

This has been tried in New York and they have had a fair measure 
of success. They have people working right with the gang. I sup- 
pose you have been informed about that, where they have territorial 
disputes. They will send an arbitrator in. The arbitration does not 
always work. 

There is an amusing story in the publication of the National Parole 
and Probation Association in which one lawyer went in to arbitrate 
such a dispute. 

The Chairman. By the way, they testified before our subcommittee 
on Friday last in AVashington. They made a wonderful record for us. 

Mr. GoMBERG. They certainly have a tremendous amount of expe- 
i'ience. 

In this particular case when the lawyer made his decision, arbitrat- 
ing between "2 gangs, 1 of the members of the gang drew a gun and 
started to Hre. The lawyer jumped under the t:ib]e iiiid did not come 
out until the smoke cleared. 



122 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

In regard to this gang situation we do have other areas in this city 
where gangs are problems and we do have areas of the city where the 
racial tensions are problems. 

The reason I mention this is last evening I came across this situa- 
tion which was phoned in to me: Last week, Friday, there was ap- 
prehended a boy who has given the statement that in that week up in 
the North Philadelphia section, some 40 boys got together in 5 cars in 
the North Philadelphia area and then drove up to the Oxford area, 
which is to a substantial degree settled by Jewish people, with the 
intent of finding some Jewish boys and beating them up. Some of 
them were apprehended. Of course, others will be, and the investi- 
gation is now in full swing. 

But take a situation like this, and it is a serious situation because if 
they were met b}^ something close to equal numbers, as is possible, 
someone could get seriously injured. 

Also, any such situation gives us great cause for concern. 

In such an area the youth commission could be very helpful because 
it could mobilize all the citizens' organizations thereafter, working 
out some constructive plans, something for them to do, not just talk 
to them, and get all of those boys and try to introduce them into some 
positive activity on Friday nights and what other nights they hap- 
pen to be out of the house, and also give them some training in 
Americanism. 

I think we have some fine private agencies who could do some ex- 
cellent jobs in that respect, such as the fellowship commission in the 
city. 

Mr. DiLWORTn. Those are not isolated instances, either. We have 
had the same experience in the Winfield area over a period of the 
last 2 years, and a year and a half ago we had what was known locally 
as the Olney situation where a group of children formed themselves 
into a Hitler movement and had armed bands with swastikas and 
everything and would beat up young Jewish boys. 

The thing finally culminated by their throwing a fire bomb into a 
crowded movie theater, both in a synagogue and a movie theater, 
which they considered to be primarily a place where Jewish people 
congregated. 

So it is a constant problem in the city. 

Immediately after the war, of course, when the Negro community 
felt it was being discriminated against in the housing situation, they 
had gangs of what they called "pushers." They would get on the 
Wahnit Street and Chestnut Street crowded cars, get on in front, 
push their way to the back, and beat up anybody who opposed them, 
and then push their way back to the front. 

The Chairman. Do you find that these problems arise out of slum 
areas more than out of the better residential areas? 

Mr. DiLWOKTii. Yes. We certainly are true believers in public 
housing here and what it does for the city. 

The Chairman. What is the housing situation here now ? 

Mr. DiLwoRTii. It is bad, sir. I don't want to get political, but 
we were very late getting started. 

You know, we had actually turned down here $21 million worth of 
funds in 1940 because the then administration didn't then believe 
in public housing. So we were late in getting started. We have de- 
veloped quite rapidly until this shutdown here. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 123 

We have bad areas. We have bad areas where we don't have run- 
iiiiio- water and alleys that are not as wide as this table. 

The Chairman. This subcommittee found right under the shadow 
of the dome of the Capitol some of the most awful conditions that I 
could imagine. I could not even imagine that such conditions could 
exist in this country. 

Mr. DiL WORTH. We have small sections here that I think are as 
bad as in any other city. They are not big sections, but small sec- 
tions, and they are really sore spots. And they spread out. They 
really are blighted areas. 

Mr. GoMBEKG. A member of the school board said to me — he was a 
superintendent in the south Philadelphia area where some of these 
critical housing conditions exist — it always amazed him that there 
were so few delinquents coming out of that section of the city, given 
those housing conditions, terrible conditions, and I agreed with him ; 
it was quite a tribute to the youth that you didn't have any more 
delinquency. 

The Chairman. I can understand that view, because we had a place 
called Dixon Court. We went down there to look at it. I just 
cannot imagine how anybody could come out of that place and be 
decent. 

You do find, though, do you not, that some of the youngsters from 
the well-to-do families get in trouble also ? 

Mr. GoMBERG. Surely. 

The Chairman. I mean it is not common only to the slum areas. 
You find delinquents among all classes ? 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I think in this age of tremendous tension — and 
you know what the travel and moving around is, more than it has ever 
been — there is bound to be a lot more than in ordinary times and it 
reaches into every income bracket. 

The Chairman. We are making an inquiry next week in New York 
into some of this indecent literature. Do you find that that has any 
influence in this area ? 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I don't know. I may be way overboard on that, 
but 1 don't think literature has ever hurt anyone. I must say I 
agree with Jimmy Walker. 

The Chairman. We have no fixed opinions about the matter, but 
we are trying to find the truth. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I think the individual family can certainly police 
that. 

The clergymen come in to us with these books. Every once in a 
while we do get an extreme one. They did come in one day with 
one of these books where the villain was pressing a point up against 
the eyeball of the rival. I think those should be kicked off the stands. 

The Chairman. Our staff has collected some pretty horrible litera- 
ture. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. Some of them are terj-ible. I think that is largely 
a matter of taste and community opinion ; at least that is my feeling. 

The Chairman. If you were to be called upon, Mr. Dilworth, to 
assign one principal cause, which I am frequently called upon to do — 
I guess people think I am an expert on this subject — if you were 
called upon to assign one principal cause for juvenile delinquency,, 
what would you say it was? 



124 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. DiLwoRTH. I don't think you can say one. I think it is four, 
the times in which we live, broken families, housing and slum con- 
ditions — and back of the broken families in 80 percent of the cases, 
3'ou have some fonn of alcohol problem. 

I would say in 80 percent of the broken families you have some 
kind of liquor problem. 

Mr. GoMBERG. AYe find that in the domestic relations court in 75 or 
80 percent of our broken-family cases, alcohol played a role in the 
breakup. The man may not be an alcoholic, but he is a drinker and 
tliat has had a serious effect, so it affects juvenile delinquency. I 
think that is an important element we ought to give some attention to. 

The Chairman. You do not find nuicli drinking among juveniles 
here, do you ? 

]\Ir. GoMBERG. I cannot answer that — — 

The Chairman. The testimony yesterday indicated it was quite 
prevalent, but when you take the juvenile population percentagewise, 
it does not seem much. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I think in the groups today that go through high 
school and universities, you have less drinking than ever before, cer- 
tainly less drinking than in our horrible bootleg college days. 

I would say this generation is a much better beliaved generation. 
I am talking about the high school and university group. 

But I think among your so-called gangs and that, there is a lot of 
drinking. Here the greatest source of evil in the drinking is these 
cheaner sherrys and ports that they can buy for as little as GO cents 
a gi'llon. They take that villainous stuff and they get some alcohol 
and even add to the strength of the sickening stuff and they really 
get on binges in those gang brackets. 

It was as a result of that kind of drink that that crowd went hay- 
wire last jVIarch. 

]\Ir. GoMBERG. They killed 2 and injured 5. We put it in the state- 
ment. 

]Mr. DiLWORTH. They went absolutely haywire on the streets with 
knives, running wild, stabbing people Avilly-nilly. They killed 2 and 
cut up 5 others. 

The Chairman. What happened to them? 

IVfr. GoMBERG. They were all sentenced to life. They, too, were sent 
to the criminal court. Our ofhce handled the prosecution. They 
were committed for life. 

The Chairman. Mr. (lomberg, have you had anv experience with 
the ('hildren's Bureau in Washington? 

Mr. GoMBERG. No, sir ; except some correspondence. 

Incidentally, I have read many of their publications. I am quite 
impressed with them. It seems to me they put out excellent publica- 
tions. Other than that, I have had no experience. 

The Chairmax. You do not knoAv too much about their activities 
except their ])ublicntions? 

Mr. (io:\rr,ERG. I really don't. 

The Chairman. This same goes for you? 

Mr. DiLWORTH. Mr. Gomberg has really handled singlehandedly our 
juvenile court. What I know is largely through weekly staff meet- 
ings with Mr. (Joml)erg and a general interest in it. 

The Chairman. Mi-. Gomberg, one of the great ])r()blems that we 
have found in our studies around the conntrv is that of missing fathers 



JUVENILE DELESTQUENCY 125 

who departed tlie jurisdiction. We have already introduced legisla- 
tion to correct that. 

Mr. GoMBERG. Yes, sir; I am familiar with that. 

The Chairman. Would you care to connnent on that problem in the 
Philadelphia area? 

Mr. (tomberg. It is a serious problem in the Philadelphia area. We 
have many of the fathers deserting their families, going to some other 
State, hopping from State to State if they can avoid supporting their 
families. 1 think the legislation that Senator Langer introduced is 
excellent in its purpose. I think it is fine. It is a serious problem 
here. 

We have many people on the relief rolls, and we have, more im- 
portantly than that even, a lot of children without adequate guidance. 
Their mothers have gone out to work. It does certainly affect the 
delinquency problem. I do not think there is any question about 
that. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. I think it is important to bring those parents in. 
We have suffered from a lack of manpower and lack of funds on that, 
but ]\Irs. Trommer, who handled the domestic relations work, along 
with Mrs. Gelb, has, thanks to the very fine cooperation of the three 
law schools in the city, gotten law students who come in. She has 
gotten an overall group of 50. She has about a half dozen of them 
each day. They really run down these records on these people and 
do the work of tracing them. 

As a result of that, we have been able to double the amount of 
parents we have been able to run down. 

Then the State department of public assistance has cooperated and 
been very helpful. They have assigned two investigators to us to 
run clown these husbands. 

As we said earlier in the hearing, our real problem is if they are out- 
side the State. The extradition processes are still awfully compli- 
cated, awfully cumbersome. 

The Chairman. Yes, we need some uniform laws in that field just 
like our fresh pursuit act and legislation of that type. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. That is right, sir. 

The Chairman. We are very grateful to you, Mr. Dilworth and 
Mr. Gomberg, for coming here today. You have made a real con- 
tribution. You have helped us tremendously. 

Mr. DiLWORTH. Thank you. 

I would say this, before leaving, that certainly Mr. Goff has done 
an outstanding job here in the city of getting this whole thing pre- 
pared. We have heard that from every side. 

I know in our office we certainly appreciate tremendously what he 
did to help us get prepared and in bringing before us the real questions 
that you are interested in. You certainly can be extremely proud of 
having that kind of staff. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. We are very proud of our 
staff. 

Might I ask if either of you has read our interim report to the 
Senate ? 

Mr. Gomberg. Unfortunately, I have not. 

The Chairman. I w^ll see that the staff supplies you with any num- 
ber of copies that you want. I wish you would examine that report 

46966 — 54 — —9 



126 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

and tell us what you think about it, because we are searching for 
the truth and we will welcome criticism. We think we are treating 
one of the Nation's No. 1 problems. We are trying to furnish a degree 
of leadership and direct the thoughts of communities to their respon- 
sibilities because that is where the real responsibility is, at the com- 
jnunity level, we think. 

Mr. DiLAvoRTii. It is a splendid job. 

The CHAiEarAN. Thank you very much, sir. 

]VIr. DiLWORTii. Thank you. 

]\Ir. BoBO. Judge Winnet. 

The CHAiinrAN. Judge Winnet, we welcome you here this morning. 
Will you be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give to this sub- 
committee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Judge WixNET. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JUDGE NOCIIEM S. WINNET, CHAIRMAN, CRIME 
PREVENTION ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA, AND FORMER 
JUDGE, PHILADELPHIA MUNICIPAL COURT 

The Chairman. Judge AVinnet, will you state your full name and 
address and association for the record. 

Judge Winnet. I am Nochem S. Winnet. I live at 8319 Seminole 
Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. I am chairman of the Crime Prevention 
Association, and have been for the |)ast 14 years. 

The Chairman. I knew that, and you have a right to be proud of 
your work. 

Judge Winnet. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. I am going to let counsel examine the judge. 

Mr. Bono. Judge Winnet, for 11 years I understand you were a 
judge in the municipal court and are very familiar with the problems 
of juvenile delinquency in the city of Philadelphia through your other 
associations. 

Judge Winnet. I am sort of familiar with it. 

Mr. Bono. Would you like to discuss it with us and to proceed in your 
own way to outline the problems, as you see them in Philadelphia 
today ? 

Judge Winnet. First of all, let me say this, that I think Philadel- 
phia is doing an excellent job and one great difl'erence that I would 
have with the statement of Mr. Gomberg and Mr. Dilworth would be 
that I am totally against any new connnissions or any new connnittees 
of any kind being formed in this city. I think we are well organized 
and we are e(|ui])ped to do a good job. 

The one thing they did ])oint out is that a lot of us do not have the 
funds to do it with. I think we have a good court. It is doing a good 
job, perhaps not doing the kind of job that some of us think ought to 
be done, but they are doing a good job. 

We have many agencies. We have a real concern in Philadelphia, 
and I think Philadelphia can be very well proud of the job it is doing. 

Secondly, may I say this as a preliminary statement, that I sort of 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 127 

object to a lot of the hysteria that is going around about the whole 
problem of juvenile delinquency, this feeling that there was a golden 
age behind us soniewdiere wdiere everything was right, that somehow 
the present methods of education or present parents are contrib- 
uting to a great extent to the problem of juvenile delinquency. 

Senator, I do not believe w^e had a golden age in the past. I think 
the past has given us many problems. We have had juvenile delin- 
quency for thousands of years. 

May I just quote from the Deuteronomy, the 21st chapter, where 
we are told wdiat to do with a rebellious son, and I think the recom- 
mendation is an indication that the problem must have been very 
serious in those days. 

i think the past has given us not only problems of crime, but has 
given us problems of young men w ho could not pass the Army exami- 
nation because of mental problems. 

Our asylums have been tilled up in the past. 

I do not think all of us ought to look at the past and think there' 
was some golden age, that somehow parents knew how to raise their 
children in those days and we do not know at the present time. 

That does not mean I do not believe we have a serious problem. It 
should give us great concern, but certainly no hysteria. 

1 heard the Senator ask the question, suppose somebody asked you 
what is the one cause. 

If somebody asked me that, I certainly would not answer it because 
there certainly is no one cause as far as I can tind in lOi^ years of 
sitting in thousands of cases and in my work with the various agencies 
in this community. 

I approach the problem perhaps a little different than some of the 
thinking on the subject. If I may make this preliminary statement 
about the whole problem, it is this : 

That there are two general causes of delinquency. One is a pre- 
disposing cause, a cause which arises out of the very character of the 
youth of the boy. It is his constitutional background, his makeup, 
his childhood experiences, and I think the Gluecks recognized that, 
and incidentally, I regard them as having done the finest job in the 
whole program. 

The Chairman. They were witnesses in our first hearing. 

Judge WiNNET. I know that. I have been in touch with them and 
I am proud of the work they have done, and my little part I have had 
in their work. 

The predisposing cause arises out of the very character, for example^ 
the adolescent age itself is an age of great emotional disturbance. 
Adolescent children have been troubesome throughout the ages. 

Now, those are all predisposing causes and every child, my child, is 
predisposed to delinquency like anybody else's child. 

Besides a predisposing cause you have what is called a precipitating 
cause, that is environmental and social factors, which combined with 
the precipitating cause, causes delinquency. 

The way we approach it. Senator is this : When we talk of preven- 
tion, we are thinking of trying to reach the predisposing causes. I 
think It was pointed out in the little I heard today that there the 
emi)hasis be on education, how parents should rear their children; 
the kind of homelife, as the Gluecks bring out, which is so important 
in early life. 



128 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

That is prevention work. 

Now, control work is working with the social factors in the com- 
munity. We Iviiow, for example, bad housing as the Senator men- 
tioned today, is a great factor, because certainly in areas of bad hous- 
ing in our community, the rate of delinquency may be 8 or 9 times, 
and 10 times, as high as the general rate. 

Lack of recreation. You see, those are the factors we can control. 
If we have good housing we are controlling the problem of delin- 
quency because we are controlling a social factor in the environment. 

The same way in the matter of recreation. 

Now, all of us in the association have been interested for many 
years in various controls. For example, when we start a group pro- 
gram somewhere in an area where there is no recreation, we do not 
do it because we think for 1 minute that we are going to prevent de- 
linquency, but what we are hoping for is a control, and we have rea- 
son to believe that where we operate, where we give children an 
opportunity to play and for some wholesome outlet, we do have a 
measure of control, and we do have less delinquency, but there is al- 
ways the predisposing factor which the Gluecks have emphasized so 
much, and the need for training and educating not only children, but 
parents and the children who will become parents later on, on how to 
bring up children. 

Another control factor, another environmental factor, is the in- 
adequate homelife. 

I heard today, for example, about the problem of missing fathers. 
Now, they may affect, of course, delinquency, but sometimes maybe 
a missing father might help the problem of delinquency because it 
is not every broken home that provides us with delinquents. Some- 
times it is even worse to have the home kept in contact itf the father 
is the kind of father who is wandering around and has no respon- 
sibility whatsoever. 

That is terribly important, because the mothers need support for 
their children rather than as a cause of delinquency that the father 
is not in the home. 

I regard it very important to locate these fathers and to make them 
live up to their responsibility of support at least, but I don't know 
that that is any factor. 

I would not know how to measure it. 

Let me also say just one further word, and if I am speaking too 
much, by all means stop me. 

The CiiAiRMAX. No, indeed. 

Judge "WixNET. Let me also enter two protests. One is about this 
general feeling; it is because of parents being delinquent that we have 
all til is problem. 

The Chairman. The President used the term adult failure. The 
Chair cannot help but believe that there is a lot of adult failure. 

Judge WixNET. Senator, let me say this : If it is adult failure that 
all of us are not doing our part in the community, I agree with that, 
but if we mean that an individual parent; that every time you find 
a delinquent you find an inadequate parent, I certainly cannot agree 
with it, because in the thousands of cases, and I speak only of my ex- 
perience, I have found, for example, many cases in which there are 
3 or 4 or 5 children and only 1 person has failed in life. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 129 

We have cases, records, in a book published on identical twins, 
where they are brought up in the same home and you cannot tell them 
apart, yet 1 becomes delinquent and 1 does not. 

Of course, that is again because of the matter of predisposition. 
There may have been something in early childhood which may have 
predisposed that child and some unhappy circumstances in the en- 
vironment which caused the delinquent conduct. 

So I do not think we ought to characterize all parents as failures be- 
cause the children have become delinquent. I have known of too many 
parents who have given their very best to their children and there has 
been failure. 

May I say one other word. There are two things that I always 
hear about, as I said, the failure of parents and the second thing is 
the matter of schools. 

I do not agree. Senator, that progressive education has contributed 
to the delinquency. Most of us get the ideas of progressive education 
through tlie comics we see, where we see a wonderful cartoon of chil- 
dren tearing up everything with no interference or discipline. That 
is not progressive education. 

I think progressive education should not be blamed for all its ills. 

The schools are doing a fine job. Certainly we have problems of 
discipline in schools. They had it in my days. I venture to suggest 
that maybe the Senator can look back to the days in his school where 
there were problems in school. 

I do not think we ought to have this wholesale condemnation of the 
schools. They are doing a grand job, there is discipline, there is fail- 
ure of discipline in some cases. 

I do not think we ought to generalize. 

Of course, the problem is serious. We have had an increase. There 
are a lot of factors that cause it. If I were to contribute one additional 
factor which I see in our milieu at the present time, it would be the 
atmosphere of total disrespect for authority for which we adults are 
responsible. 

When I think of children brought up in an age when the leading 
men in our society are being accused of being traitors, of committing 
treason, when there is disrespect for people in public office, is it any 
w^onder that our children are becoming disturbed and delinquent? 
They themselves don't have any respect for authority and officials 
when they see what is happening in adult life. 

That is bound to affect children. 

Of course, I am not going into, and I do not intend to go into, all 
the various social factors, the problem of the Negroes in our com- 
munity. Here they are. They are predisposed to delinquency like 
all children are. Yet they live in the worst housing. They have 
probably the least recreational opportunities. They suffer also from, 
let us say, discrimination in the sense that what chance does the or- 
dinary high school boy have for dreaming of a wonderful job. 

Sure, we teach him that everybody is equal, but yet he knows he 
cannot get the job, the kind of job he wants, and it is a frustrating 
experience. 

If you take their predisposition like any other child and all these 
various factors, these precipitating factors, I do not wonder that we 
have some of the Negro youth that are getting in trouble. 



130 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Xow, generally, I wanted to indicate my own feeling abont the 
general problem of delinquency. What we are trying to do in this 
community is to, first of all, make sure that we understand the prob- 
lem. We are trying to let people realize that it is not simple; that 
it is complicated ; that we have to work on the educational processes, 
we have to see to it that children are educated properly for family 
life, for living in society. 

Then we are trying, as our own agency is, for example, to set the 
example of emphasizing the kind of factors that must be emphasized 
so that children can be brought up properly, that is good housing, 
good recreation, lack of discrimination, good law enforcement, which 
is so important, because if children see how easy it is to get away 
with some crime, of course they are going to repeat. 

We have to have good law enforcement. 

Those are my general views on this problem of delinquency after 
man}' years on the bench and many years of association with agencies 
in this community that are trying to do a job. 

^ow, the reason we have failed is because we don't have the facili- 
ties, the money with which to do the kind of job we would like. 

I have said for years that here we have been attacking the problem 
witli popguns rather than training heavy artillery on it if we are 
really serious. 

The Chaieman. That is what this subcommittee wants to do. We 
want to bring up the heavy artillery as quickly as possible. 

Judge WiNNET. Every year I hear statements that crime costs us 
billions of dollars, but yet how much does the State spend in preven- 
tion and control of delinquency? Very little compared to the total 
bill that is being spent to take care of our delinquents and criminals 
once they get into trouble. 

We have to train the big guns in the sense that out of this committee 
might come an emphasis on the need for additional facilities so much 
to the good as it comes out of this committee, that we have to provide 
the funds so that agencies such as ours can do their work. 

The Chairman. In this whole field we need more adequate 
appropriations. 

Judge WixNET. I think Mr. Finnegan may have indicated to you 
our referral program under which some 5,000 boys and some girls 
were serviced, that is, having been in trouble we referred them to some 
particular community agency so they won't be lost, so they are tied 
into the community, with some church. 

Yet we do not liave the funds to employ the kind of staff we should 
have to follow it up, tlie kind of casework that ought to be done. 

The Chairman. You need more probation officers, for one thing. 

Judge WiNNET. No. I am talking now. Senator, if you please, of 
the agencies that need social workers to do the kind of job 

The Chairman. But you do need more probation officers? 

Judge WiNNET. That is another matter as far as the court is con- 
cerned. If the Senator is interested I certainly am willing to say 
something about the court itself. 

The Chairman. I wish you would. 

Judge WiNNET. I think the court is doing a good job. But how 
do you measure whether a job is good or bad? After all, because 
there is a lot of delinquency, you cannot blame that on the court 
because the court certainly cannot go out and function in an environ- 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 131 

nu'iit. Tliey have to take tlie child as they find him, as he is brought 
into court. 

The court does not have the infhience either on the predisposing 
cause or precipitating cause for the most part. 

I regard the faihire of the court in tlie high rate of recidivism, 
the number of children that come back to us after they have been with 
us. The rate runs as high, almost 5 out of 10, or 1 out of 2. It is a 
little less than that. 

The Chairman. Fifty percent ? 

fJudge WiNNET. That is right. I think it varies from 42 to 48 per- 
cent over the last 8 or 9 years. 

If Ave think of it in those terms the court ought to say "We are not 
doing a good job. Why ?" There are two reasons for that. 

First of all, what is the court to do with the boy that is before him? 
They can either put him on probation or commit him. If on proba- 
tion it must be to a real staff that will give him real supervision. 

After all, in probation all we do is take a boy and send him back 
to the same parents, the same street, the same environment, the same 
companions. The only additional thing we can supj)ly is a trained 
worker who will be continually in contact with the child and try to 
exert influence over him. 

The court does not have it. The court does not have the staff to do 
that. That is not the court's fault. They simply don't have the 
money to get the kinds of workers or pay them the kind of pay they 
should have. 

Now, the second reason is that they do not have either a number 
or variety of treatment resources in order to send them. We need, 
for example, forest camps. We have been for years trying to get 
that in the State, but we have not been able to get it. 

We need many kinds of institutions to which we could commit chil- 
dren. Then the court would be able to discharge its responsibility. 

Now, let me say a further word about the juvenile court here, too. 
The judges are overworked. The judges do not have the time to give 
to the cases. 

But one of the things the court could do is to get rid of the de- 
pendency cases they have. There is no reason why a court should 
sit in a dependency case. There the case is usually started by some 
social agency and in many counties in this State the court does not 
hear a dependency case because in most cases what does the court do ? 
It merely sits there as a glorified social worker to rubberstamp a rec- 
ommendation which has been made for a dependent child, either he 
should go to this agency or that agency, and impose the order on the 
county for the support of that child. 

There is no use taking up days and days of the court's time, every 
week of every year, in considering dependency cases. 

The court has final jurisdiction. If there is a dispute, if there is a 
conflict, of course, the court should hear it. 

I think the court ought to rid itself of all these dependency cases 
and let the social agency and let the various organizations take care 
of it that can take care of it. 

I think in that way it could be aided. I think a great deal could 
be accomplished by a committee if you would look into these de- 
pendency cases, because I am sure you will find in every metropolitan 
city that every juvenile court is overworked. 



132 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Most juvenile courts also take dependency cases. It is my belief you 
do not have to consider dependency cases in the juvenile court unless 
there is some dispute or conflict which requires it. 

The Chairman. We are very grateful for that observation, because 
the committee has found in every city it has been in, every major city, 
that the juvenile courts are overworked. The case load is far too 
heavy. 

But then I come back to this question of probation officers, which is 
very important to me. Judge Bolitha Laws, the chief judge of the 
district courts in Washington, a very, very able lawyer and jurist, told 
us the other day, last Friday, that we had 7,000 probation officers in the 
country at large, and we needed 40,000. 

Judge WiNNET. I am not at all surprised, because certainly our 
court could use them. If we had them I am quite sure that the court 
could do a better job and we would not have the recidivism that we do 
have in the community, because there is our failure. 

Certainly if a chilcl appears before us, a judge ought to be able to 
understand it, not that he can always prevent him from coming back 
again, but, nevertheless, I think the rate is very high when almost 1 
out of 2 children come back to us after they have been with us. 

We have not simply been able to either diagnose properly or provide 
the proper remedies. 

The Chaieman. Would you say that that rate exists in other big 
cities, about that average ? Or would you not know ? 

Judge WiNNET. It is very difficult, because we do not have uniform 
statistics. As a matter of fact, only last week Mr, Finnegan and I 
were discussing it, trying to find some basis of judging other courts, 
but we have not reached any opinion whether they do better or worse. 

The thing is, I think, it represents our own failure, and that is why 
I am concerned with it. 

I do know of some other courts which have a better record, but cer- 
tainly not enough to let me say some courts do better than we do. All 
I know is that the juvenile court ought to be able to do it if it got 
the funds to employ the kind of workers it should have, and if it had 
a greater variety of treatment sources. 

A boy gets in difficulty; he indicates a controlled environment of 
some kind. You do not want to send him to Wliite Hill or Hunting- 
ton. Just think how wonderful it would be to have a forest camp 
to send him to where he could get some good training, where he would 
be under a controlled environment which would be bound to be helpful 
to liim. 

Tlie Chairman. You have been vei*y helpful to this subcommittee. 
Judge. 

Are you familiar with the iterim report of this subcommittee to the 
Senate? 

Judge WiNNET. Senator, I have just gotten it from the New York 
Times, the general report. That is about all I can say to you. I have 
never seen the actual report, but I am familiar with it, having read 
about it in the New York Times at the time it was released. 

The Chairman. I am going to instruct the staff to see that you. are 
furnished with a copy of that report. I hope at your convenience 
you will study it and as a result of that study, make any reconunenda- 
tions you care to make as to our future course of action and procedure. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 133 

Judge WiNNET. Senator, I will be delighted, and I am grateful for 
the opportunity. 

Our association stands ready to help you at any time. If there is 
anything we can do, we will be glad to do it. 

The Chairman. You have been very helpful. As we study this 
i-ecord you have made here, I know from it we will be able to take 
much of value so that when we make our final report to the Nation we 
will be able to give the Nation something of real value. 

Judge WiNNET. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Is Mr. Alessandroni here? 

Mr. Alessandroni. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Will you please be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Alessandroni. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER E. ALESSANDRONI, EXECUTIVE DIREC- 
TOR, THE PHILADELPHIA HOUSING AUTHORITY 

The Chairman. Mr. Alessandroni, will you give your full name and 
address and association, for the purposes of the record? 

Mr. Alessandroni. Walter E. Alessandroni. I appear as the exec- 
utive director of the Philadelphia Housing Authority, with offices at 
42 South 15th Street. 

The Chairman. You have a prepared statement? 

Mr. Alessandroni. I do. Senator. I think it would save time if I 
presented it for later perusal by the committee. I would just like to 
say very briefly that our experience in Philadelphia with some 40,000 
tenants — — 

The Chairman. Now, your statement, Mr. Alessandroni, will be 
incorporated in the record at this point. Let it be exhibit No. 5. 

Then, of course, you can summarize it in your own manner. 

Proceed as you wish. 

Mr. Alessandroni. Thank you. 

(The statement referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 5," and reads 
as follows:) 

Statement by Walter E. Alessandroni, Executive Director, the Philadelphia 

Housing Authority 

delinquency rate cut in half by iMPBoyED conditions for youth in 

PHILADELPHIA'S PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS 

Action to strengthen the responsibility of youth and to reduce delinquency in 
and around its developments has been taken continuously by the Philadelphia 
Housing Authority. Valuable experience has been gained in 14 years of opera- 
tion and principles have been observed which appear to be helpful. The Housing 
Authority is now managing over 9,500 homes on 20 locations, containing about 
40,000 residents. 

The rate of arrests per thousand during 1953 among the 4,139 boys between the 
ages of 7 and IT was well under half that of the city rate and in most cases was 
less than half that of the surrounding police district in which the development 
was located. This same ratio has been true during previous years. The rate of 
arrests of boys age 7 to 17 was 18.6 per thousand in 1953, compared to a city 
average of 37.4. The actual number of arrests of boys in housing developments 
droi)ped from 82 in 1952 to 77 in 1953. 



134 • JtrV'ENILE DELINQUENCY 

/. Direct icork to aid boys 

A report on each boy arrested is referred to the central office of the Housing 
Authority by means of a special arrangement with the Crime Prevention Associ- 
ation and the juvenile division of the Department of Police. The information 
is forwarded to the manager. He or a member of his stalf calls at the home to 
discuss with the parents and the boy, if possible, the opportunities for activities 
at the community center or in the neighborhood. No mention is made of the 
ari-est, which, however, is often brought up by the parents. This positive 
approach is made to win the interest and cooperation of both the parents and 
boy. The manager tries to size up the situation, to encourage, and to offer sug- 
gestions rather than to deprecate or overcome. In any case, management per- 
sonnel are generally not trained to do highly specialized casework and have too 
roany other responsibilities. A manager is expected, however, to have some 
knowledge of community resources and to be able to make referrals tactfully 
and correctly. 

II. A positive total climate 

Public housing has learned that a positive climate of human relations is 
necessary to carry out its objectives as stated in the National Housing Act of 
1949, "a decent, safe, and sanitary home in a decent environment." While the 
Authority's resources within itself are limited, the management personnel makes 
steady efforts to develop a positive climate for good homemaking and citizenship 
in cooperation with community organizations, both private and public. 

1. Community centers are planned in cooperation with responsible welfare 
and service agencies. ( See exhibit D. ) 

2. Authority personnel may aid in coordinating resident activities, but does 
not have staff to plan or lead them directly. 

3. Resident activities are generally conducted by resident adult leaders who 
are held responsible. 

4. Some professional leadership to guide programs is supplied by public and 
private agencies. (See exhibit A.) 

5. These facilities supplement limited space within homes but do not in any 
sense supplant what should be the parental supervision. 

G. Community centers in developments are all open to neighbors around each 
development, who participate in varying degrees. 

7. Managers know that the neighborhood around each development will pro- 
foundly influence the morale of its residents and, tlierefore, take some initiative 
in stimulating neighborhood improvement programs. 

8. Equipment, indoor space, outdoor play areas, kindergartens, and child-care 
centers for children of working mothers, etc., all encourage higher standards for 
larger nuralter of families than make immediate use of them. 

In the 12 community buildings on public housing developments, there was a 
total attendance during 1953 of over 3(j3,000 persons, a 10 percent increase over 
the preceding year. There has been relatively little vandalism, compared with 
many other public or private institutions. Halloween parties, as well as Christ- 
mas and other special activities, have been widely organized for a number of 
years. These have aided in keeping property destruction at a minimum. A list 
of types and attendance for various activities together with agencies providing 
outside leadership are attached. (See exhibits B and C.) 

While some youth programs are of the more highly organized type, such as 
scouting, in other cases a more flexible program is developed with facilities at 
hand and according to the interests and desires of the boys and potential adult 
leadership. Teen-age dances have been held successfully in most of the 12 
centers and are generally run by the teen-agers themselves with participation of 
a few adults. In all resident councils, committees, clubs, and interest groups 
there has Iteen emphasis on the participants steering their own programs and 
taking maximum responsibility. 

In addition to well-designed physical structures and budgets for operation, 
thei'e is in our experience a need for able and understanding professional leader- 
ship which can build a sense of community involving all age groups, as well as 
programs. 

///. Delinquevcy high in bad housing 

Over two-thirds of the families placed by public housing last year reported 
serious overcrowding in their previous dwellings. An immediate result of their 
occupancy of a new home was that they obtained about 50 percent more floor 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 135 

space, as well as adequate sanitary, cooking, and heating facilities. In one slum 
area recently demolished by the Authority there were found to be shocking 
conditions of overcrowding as well as a hish proportion of absence of basic 
facilities. In a 2-block area, there were 35 rooms slept in by '.i or more people 
and these were small rooms. Few dwellings had a separate living room since 
nearly all rooms were used for sleeping. The average family lived in 2 rooms. 
A high delinquency rate and bad housing conditions show strong correlation, 
although a direct causative effect may not be complete since both may be related 
in part to other factors. 

IV. Urban renewal has three major parts 

In considering a program of strengthening our cities and their citizenship, 
there are three aspects which must be worked upon together. The financial 
problem of cities is well known, with its necessity for recapturing property 
values and tax reveiuies in blighted areas so that the city may meet its rising 
costs of services and avoid baidvruptcy. The physical planning and replanning 
of land and buildings is beginning to receive attention for reasons of simple 
physical health as well as city finances. 

Equally important in the long run is an effective drive to strengthen the struc- 
tures of human relations, that is, to lessen the destructive elements and to build 
positive attitudes about homes, neighborhoods and citizenship. 

Public housing has only a small sector of these three fronts. In its area of 
operation it is working to meet its responsibilities adequately in the best in- 
terests of the community and Nation. The principles stated above outline 
our efforts in Philadelphia. They have produced results, good not only for the 
young people in and around the developments, but for the city as a whole. All 
programs of urban renewal whether they involve building clearance and rebuild- 
ing, or rehabilitation and addition of services, must in our opinion keep all three 
phases of strengthening our cities constantly in mind. 

Problems of juvenile delinquency, as we have observed them, relate clearly 
to extremely bad housing conditions, especially overcrowding, lack of community 
facilities, leadership and budget, to inmigration and high mobility along with 
segregation and social rejection, as well as widespread tensions and economic 
strains and the problems of physical and mental health within some families. 
Success in reducing these problems will include, in our opinion, a greater partici- 
pation by parents and neighborhood leaders in plannng programs, and a many- 
sided effort to improve a total climate about youth which will have some of the 
same elements of participation, responsibility, and direction that we have 
experienced in the areas with which we are most familiar. 

Attachments : Exhibit A, Agencies Supplying Leadership in Public Housing 
Developments ; Exhibit B, 1953 Attendance at Various Types of Community 
Activities in Public Housing Developments ; Exhibit C, Conununity Activities in 
Each Housing Development. 

Exhibit A 

Agencies svpphjing leadership in public housing developments in Philadelphia 
Agency Program 

Board of education 3 kindergartens, 2 day-care centers. 

Department of health, division of child 5 health clinics. 

hygiene. 
Free Library of Philadelphia 2 branch libraries, 4 extension li- 
braries, 1 bookmobile. 
Methodist Deaconess Home Leadership for group activities in 

1 project. 

Bible Club Movement Leadership for Bible story clubs in 

2 projects. 

Department of recreation Leadership for summer playground 

programs on 10 projects, part- 
time leadership September 
through June on 2 projects. 

Crime Prevention Association Leadership for boys club activities 

at 1 project. 

The greater number of group activities are sponsored and supervised by resi- 
dents of our housing developments. Scout activities are noteworthy and are in 
operation as follows: Boy Scout troops on 8 projects. Cub Scout troops on 4 
projects. Girl Scout troops on 6 projects, Brownie Scouts on 4 projects. 



136 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 



Exhibit B 

195S attendance at various types of community activities in Public Housing 
developments in Philadelphia 



Type of activity 


1953 
attendance 


Type of activity 


1953 
attendance 


Preschool play group, 3 to 6 years 

Kindergarten, 5 to 6 years 


1.613 

28, 308 

30, 832 

2,634 

69,428 

22, 852 

9,877 

5,600 

3, 164 

3,949 

1,566 

9,780 

10, 596 

2,402 

4,561 

1,234 

19, 250 

3,681 

5,346 

3,287 
7,697 
11,580 


Organized athletics— Continued 

Football _ 


3,448 


Dav care, 2^^ to 12 years.. 


Table tennis and other games 

Special events. 


11,448 


Ballet class _ - 


42,069 


Playground . 


Over 18 years adult education: 

First aid 






899 


Bov Scouts - - -- - 


Sewing . 


199 


Girl Scouts 


Project newspaper 


87 


Cub Scouts 


Music (adults) 


869 


Brownie Scouts . - 


Recreational and culture 


1,223 




Men's clubs 


688 


Bovs and girls clubs, 7 to 12 years . - 


Civil defense .. 


1,394 


Boys and girls clubs, 13 to 18 years 


Veterans of Foreign Wars 


529 


Sunday school . - . 


Women's clubs 


2,555 






1,952 


Teen-age clubs.. _ _.. 


Scout troop committees 


2,023 


Teen-age canteens . 


Community council and executive 
committees 






1,185 


Music (youth) .. 


Libraries . .. 


25, 012 




Clinics 


8,836 


Baseball 


Total 




Softball 


363, 653 


Basketball... ._ 









JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 



137 



Ml 

a 

a 

o 




c 
_c 

r 
c 

■c 
a 

c 

■c 

u 
C 

PC 


c 


■c 
tn C 

03 C 


biCi 
03 




e 

^ to 

a^ 03 




C 

c 




d c 

00 




o 







6 d 6 d o 
OOQOQ 


■a 

a 
<a 

m 

a 

03 
0. 


a a 

o! Z 


o 





c 

a 
C 
a. 


agency. 
Department of 

public health. 
Free library. 


f 

C 
C 


% c 
EG 

03 




1 
a 


Is 












X 














X 










><< 


X 










;X X X 










































































ix 










M 




X >< 


X^ X 








X 










X! 






X 






iX X X 


|X 






ill 




M 


(^ 












1^ 








IX 




'KXXX 


X 






\x 


M 




















>< X 


X X 




























X 






\x 














1 OJ 

1"^ 








X 
















!^X 








\XXX 




X 








X X 










League 
Island 
Homes 
































































■X 






James 
W.John- 
son 
Homes 






M 


X X 


X X 








X 










X 


X 


X 






\x 


X! 


























































X 








X 






X 


X 


6o 








































XXXX 
























■a M 
is c "^ 

5^w 






><tx1X M 


X X 








X 








XX 








XX 


XXX 


X X 




,o o o 




X 










X X 






><X 










X 














X 


X 




X 






































































X 




>> 
■< 


o 

i. 

Oh 


i2 


a 
> 


"o: 


V 
o 


= 

5 


£ 

V 

C 

pa 


"3 
V 

o 


'Z 

"3 

5 


c 
> 

C3 


aj xi 
Ui 3 
3 "3 
■^ b.<„ 

•« -Sg 

C .G Sj 

a vy c 

3 O >> 3 
t. O o o 

fc^- 


03 
X) 

03 
C 


li 

o5 tf 


j 

"o 
c 

S 


3 
. o 

X: 
3 
O 


8 

c 
PQ 


3 
o 

a: 

.2 
c 

1 


c 

5 


c 

'c 

3 


j: 
it 


5 


c 
c 

o: 
O 
■3 
C 
03 

c 
o 

> 


"o 
"c 


E 

§ 

£ 

o 


1 

,3 


> 

o: 


"c 

c 
,c 

> 

r 


o 

s 


•3 

a 

3 

c 

>> 


1 
> 

03 
O 


p>» 

o 

> 


v 

M 

<! 


to 

c 


to 
o 


o 

IN 


o 

CO 


o 

to 


o 

p 


o 


o 


o 


to 


o 


o 

o 


o 



O 


c 


o 

to 


2 


o 

o 


o 

00 


to 
o 


d 


to 
o 


o 


o 



o 

to 


?3 
o 


0( 

o 


OC 

o 

00 


i 


o 


o 
P 


d 


d 


o 

P 


d 
ft 



138 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 



■s 

11 


s 

(D « OJ 


o 




6 6 6 6a 
PQQPO 


6 6c 

PQO 


c 











c 

c 




OS 

C 


C3 












X 




><1 






























































>^ 


X 








X 
































X 


Pass- 
yunk 
Homes 










X 






X 






><! 












X 


o <^ 

o> 


























X 












X 


X ^ S: 

■^ Tf g3 

1% 




















X 














M 






2t3S 












































James 
W.John- 
son 
Homes 


X ^ 




X 






><< 
















X 


X 














































03 tx 

PS-' 










XXX 


X 




X ><4 








X 






1 = s 

» o s 


X 














t^ 


X 


X 












X 


II i 


















X 






X 












X 


o o 


























X 












X 


> 


2 

c 

c 
c 

c 




3 


c 

a: 


T. 




I 

a. 
E 


Q. 

. a 
2 


a 

8 

a 
o 

S S[v. 




■ 4. tu d 

1 ii 1 
sli-'iiil 


c d c ^ -S 

^^'BII-S^ 
[J S "- 3.S-E 

IS « S 


ii 

03 tr 

Bill 




-< 


e 
5 


c 
p 


c 

p 


1 


c 


c 


C 


c 


C 


c 


c 
P 




c 

p 


c 
Q 


c 

p 


e 


c 


c 

p 


c 


c 





JUVKNILE DELINQUENCY 139 

Mr. Alessandroni. Our 40,000 residents indicates pretty clearly to 
us that good housing facilities are certainly one of the things that act 
as a deterrent to juvenile delinquency. 

We don't pretend to be experts in the field of juvenile delinquency, 
hut we do have 4,139 boys between the ages of 7 and 17, and our rec- 
ords show that the ratio of delinquency in that age group is one-half 
of the city average and when compared wdth the other surrounding 
police districts, is less than one-half. 

We have a system in which reports are made to us by the Crime 
Prevention Association and the juvenile division of the department 
of police. 

On the basis of that information, our manager visits the home of 
that child without indicating the reason, to indicate to the parents and 
to the youngster what facilities we have to offer. 

As a result of that, they usually disclose the arrest. But we have 
found that two-thirds of our residents come from very deplorable 
housing conditions. 

As to the facilities we have to offer, last year there w^ere some 
365,000 participants in our various activities in our community, so 
that our purpose here this morning is to offer this to you. Senator, 
and to your committee, for its later perusal, and to say that our ex- 

Eerience over the past 14 years has inescapably indicated that poor 
ousing is certainly one of tlie important factors that tend to create 
a high ratio of juvenile delinquency. 

The Chairman. I am sure that if all the members of the subcom- 
mittee were present this morning, they would agree with you on that 
observation. You may be assured, sir, that your formal statement will 
be carefully studied by every member of the subconmiittee, by the 
staff, and I am sure it will be reflected in some of the things that we 
have to say to the Congress as time goes on. 

Mr. Alessandroni. I might say, sir, also, that our board is appre- 
ciative of the fact that the committee picked Philadelphia to have this 
general discussion, because I think out of it will come a great many 
conclusions that will be helpful to all. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. 

I understand that Mr. Shipherd and Mr. McCracken are to appear 
together. 

Just as a matter of precaution, because some of the testimony may 
affect specific people in specific instances, we are swearing all the 
witnesses. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the trath, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Shipherd. I do. 

Mr. McCracken. I do. 



140 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY F. SHIPHERD, CHAIRMAN. SOCIAL SERV- 
ICES COMMITTEE, GREATER PHILADELPHIA MOVEMENT, AND 
ROBERT T. McCRACKEN, COCHAIRMAN, GREATER PHILADEL- 
PHIA MOVEMENT, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Will you please state your names, addresses, and 
associations, for the record. 

Mr. McCracken. My name is Robert T. McCracken, member of the 
bar, with offices at 1421 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

I appear here, sir, as a cochairman of what is known in Philadelphia 
as the (jreater Philadelphia Movement, which is an organization of 
some 27 or 28 citizens organized about 5 years ago, devoted to all 
mattei's which are beneficial to the advancement and well being of the 
city, as we pick them out. not all matters, but a number of matters. 

The Chair:man. I think you even include some areas of South 
Jersey, do you not? 

Mr. McCracken. No, sir; that is the Greater Philadelphia-South 
Jersey Chamber of Commerce. 

The Chairman. You stay entirely on this side of the river, then? 

Mr. McCracken. Yes, sir. 

We are a voluntary group entirely. I know that organization very 
well. It is an excellent organization, but it is not our organization. 

We have devoted ourselves to a number of matters, such as the 
adoption of the recent charter of the city of Philadelphia, a study at 
the present time of housing conditions to which Mr. Alessandroni 
has just referred, the i^hysical welfare, the port, the new bridges, the 
port authority, and so forth. 

About a year ago at the instance of a number of civic agencies, 
health and welfare council, Philadelphia Bar Association, and vari- 
ous otliers, we instituted a study of juvenile delinquency which is 
becomin_g very acute in this and other cities. 

AVe have a social service committee of our organization of which 
Mr. Henry F. Shipherd is the chairman. I am really here to merely 
introchice him. 

We have been carrying this matter on now for a number of months 
with professional assistance. We have the cooperation of the muni- 
cipal court, of which Judge Winnet was a former member, as the 
committee knows. 

I think partly as a result of our initiation that court has appointed 
a conmiission to go into all tlie })hases of juvenile delinquency under 
the aegis of the court. 

And perhaps because I had something to do with the institution 
of it, they appointed me a member of that commission, and I have 
been sitting with tliat commission from time to time. 

It has only gotten started, Senator; it has been going on about 2 
months, I guess, and it is divided into various subcommittees, those 
dealing with the home, those dealing with the school, those dealing 
with commitment, with probation, and so on, all subcommittees. 
They are studying that work. 

Mr. Finnegaii. who aj)]ieared before the committee yesterday, is the 
chairman of one of those subcommittees. 

We have tried to pick out men familiar with the various problems 
here. Mr. Shipherd is in charge of the matters, so far as our move- 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 141 

ment is concerned. I am merely here to state to the committee that 
1 am one of the cochairmen — there are three cochairmen of the Greater 
Pliiladelphia Movement dealing- with all these matters — and we are 
intensely interested in this subject at the present time. 

I shall be ^lad to answer any questions you wouhl ask, but Mr. 
Shij)herd is far more familiar with this phase of the matter than I am. 

The Chairman. It is encouraging to the committee to know that 
in this fine old historic city you are moving ahead in the right direc- 
tion. 

It is not surprising that Philadelphia should do that. 

Mr. McCracken. We think we are. We have had a bit of renais- 
sance in Philadelphia and we are trying to take advantage of that 
renaissance. 

Mr. Shipherd. I have a short statement. I think I would like to 
read it. 

My name is Henry F. Shipherd, and I am here as chairman of the 
social services committee of the Greater Philadelphia Movement. 

This movement was asked by the Philadelphia Bar Association, the 
health and welfare council, and by representatives of the board of 
education and the Philadelphia Council of Churches, to concern itself 
as a representative citizen group with the problems facing the munici- 
l^al court of Philadelphia, in its attempt to more adequately handle 
the increasingly serious problems relating to juvenile delinquency in 
Philadelphia. 

It was felt by these agencies that since all of them practiced before 
the courts and in the course of their work with juvenile problems, that 
it would be difficult for any one of them to present an entirely unbiased 
or complete picture of the needs in this field. 

All of these agencies, however, offered the services of their top pro- 
fessional executives to assist GPM. 

The social services committee of GPM, therefore, expanded its com- 
mittee membership for the purposes of this study and has developed 
its plans for a study of the preventive and corrective facilities of the 
municipal court with the full cooperation of the best juvenile aid 
professionals in the city. 

We are working closely w^ith President Judge Hazel H. Brown to 
gain the support and cooperation of all of the judges of the municipal 
court because we are convinced that few persons are in as good a posi- 
tion to know of the day-to-day problems relating to juvenile delin- 
quency as are these judges; and none should be more interested in im- 
proving wherever possible the quality and quantity of their services 
to the public, 

GPM recognizes that the judges and their staffs are well aware of 
most of the needs of this court, in the field of juvenile delinquency. 
We are concerned that as citizens of this community we have not prop- 
erly informed oureelves of these needs and, therefore, have not given 
to the court the kind of public support which is essential if it is to 
adequately deal with a problem of this size and scope. 

We have been advised of the court's need for a deficiency appropria- 
tion to secure additional staff for this calendar year. We should like 
to be in a position to support this request to city council for additional 
funds. 

46966—54 10 



142 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

However, we would need to secure firsthand information about the 
increase in the vohime, caseloads, and the like. 

In short, we would need to have direct information in order to as- 
sure city council that we know what we are talking about. 

We should like also to be in a position to support the court in in- 
creasing the maximum salaries, with appropriate increments. We 
consider that additional staff assigned by the court to the youth study 
center is necessary if the center is to become the diagnostic clinic and 
treatment center for wliich it was intended. 

We further believe that it should be integrated more closely with 
the court. 

A major concern of our social services committee will be a survey of 
the welfare facilities available to the court, with a view to mobilizing 
support for new and expanded facilities to meet the increasing need. 

So we look forward to working with the court in a spirit of con- 
fidence and mutual trust in our common concern to strengthen the 
preventive and corrective facilities relating to the juvenile offender. 

I would like to say that has been our whole attitude and approach. 
We do not intend to come in as a group of citizens, we are going to 
start a lot of trouble, we are going to dig up a lot of dirt, and get 
everybody concerned about it and end up having the court, the judges 
and people having to handle this, so mad, that we cannot get anything 
done. 

We have been working with a number of judges for some months. 
We have found — not to our surprise, but perhaps to the surprise of 
some of the professionals working in the fiekl — that with a little 
urging the judges are quite willing to admit that there are serious 
deficiencies in the court. 

But they seem to stem primarily from the lack of sufficient funds 
to liii-e enough probation officers, as you suggested. Senator, to have 
qualifications high enough to attract the best people, and then pay 
them to come and do the job we need for our chilclren. 

The other side of the picture seems to be that once you have the 
probation officers, and you have qualified psychiatric help and service, 
then you would not have any place to put the kids. 

The lack of psychiatric facilities; there are not sufficient facilities. 
Our youth study center is a beautiful building which was erected a 
few yeai-s ago, but it is already overcrowded and should be three 
times the size it is. That was not any fault in the thinking and 
planning of the judges who were involved. The fault lay in the 
fact that the city council at that time was unwilling to appropriate 
sufficient funds to build the building the size it ought to be. 

In a certain sense, it was a waste of our funds, because it was only a 
start. 

That is where the citizens have to come in. 

But we think the other agencies involved in the Greater Phila- 
delphia movement might tackle this situation because if you want 
to look at the membership rather closely, you will find among the 
members tliere are very heavy taxpayei's. I do not know of any more 
effective way than to get the heavy taxpayers to go to the city council 
and say, "We need funds to do this job well," and they might have 
to say, "If you have to raise our taxes to do it, then we will have to 
do it, because the cost is far greater this way than letting it ride 
alonff." 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 143 

As you have said to other people who have been here today, we 
will need Federal help in this case. We need city, State, and Federal 
money to handle a problem of this size. 

We believe that the judges in the municipal court will be the hap- 
piest people in the whole picture if we can work with them and help 
them get the kind of financial support that they need to do the job. 

The Chairman. I agree with you that you are going to need some 
Federal aid in this problem. 

Mr. McCracken. I am afraid we are. 

The Chairman. As I said earlier in the morning, only recently I 
voted for a very substantial Federal grant-in-aid for new highway 
construction. Now, if we can afford to construct new highways, we 
can afford to do someting about our youngsters in this country at 
tlie Federal level. I guess you agree with that ? 

Mr. McCracken. We certainly do, sir. 

The Chairman. Your committee is very like this subcommittee. 
We did not set out to run at cross purposes with any group. I re- 
member when we were debating the original resolution on the floor of 
the Senate there was great concern expressed in some areas by some 
Senators. They thought we were going to invade States rights, invade 
the rights of local communities. 

That is not our purpose at all. Our purpose is to try to center our 
targets so that we can all work together and all pull for the same 
great cause that wx are engaged in. 

Mr. McCracken. I hope you feel you can report in Philadelphia 
the citizens are on the alert and are going to do something about it. 

The Chairman. I think I said something to that effect over the 
radio — I was glad to see that Philadelphia was alert and that your 
citizens are conscious of the scope and the vital effect of this effort 
we are putting in. 

Mr. McCracken. We are not only interested in it from that stand- 
point, but we are willing to spend some of the money that the move- 
ment has for appropriate disbursements to carry this thing out on a 
profesional level, retaining the right kinds of investigators and so on. 
That is what we are doing at the present time. 

The Chairman. The Chair desires to commend the bar association 
of this great city, Mr. McCracken. You have always had a great bar 
in Philadelphia. 

Mr. McCracken. We are proud of that bar. 

The Chairman. I think counsel has some questions he would like 
to ask Mr, Shipherd. 

Mr. BoBO. Specifically, Mr. Shipherd, could you go into something 
that the Greater Philadelphia movement has done — we have heard 
that maybe you have made a study of the juvenile courts — and any 
recommendations you might have had? 

Mr. Shipherd. We felt we had no right to go in, even at the request 
of tlie major agencies of the city, without informing ourselves a 
little more throroughly. So we retained a specialist in this field 
working just really on the surface and making a rather quick survey 
over a period of a couple of months, who established the fact that the 
reports that have been coming to us were generally quite true. 

In some cases the conditions were more serious than otherwise. 

It was based on his report that we decided as an agency of citizens 
representing citizen groups in this area, that we could most properly 



144 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

concentrate on those U\o places, one, in <ietting the funds to implement 
the staffs of the municipal court, and two, in getting sufficient physical 
facilities. 

It was based on this study that we made on which we have already 
spent some money that we felt there were, as Judge Winnet said, a: 
great many agencies dealing with children before and after they got 
into trouble. 

We did not Avnnt to get into that field. 

We asked, "What is the greatest single need here?" And it seems; 
to be a lack of sufficient funds to provide facilities and the personnel 
to handle this size job. 

I think that the general approach which sometimes is made is that 
the judges themselves are not sympathetic or aware, that they rushi 
the cases through the court and do not handle them right. 

I think as soon as you relieve the presure on them and give them the- 
proper stalT, you will find the judges responding. 

Mr. BoBO. We had submitted to us this morning a report made by 
Mr. Gomberg of the district attorney's office. Are you familiar with 
that? 

Mr. SiiiniERD. Yes, Although that report came out a couple of 
months after we started our work, we have found it a very solid and 
substantial document and one which has helped to guide, our delibera- 
tions and plans. 

Mr. BoBO. It follows along the same lines as your report disclosed ? 

Mr. Shipherd. Yes. The Gomberg report stresses attitudes in the 
court a great deal and they are important and they are serious to those 
vho are dealing with the court. 

We felt that was not particularly our province; that if we could get 
at the base of the trouble and get sufficient funds and buildings, that 
then the other agencies could work out the attitudes. 

The Chairman. Mr. Shipherd, are you familiar with our interim 
report to the Senate? 

Mr. Shipherd. I was afraid you were going to ask me that. I have 
to confess I am not familiar with it, sir. 

The Chairman. I hope the staff will send you copies of it. I hope- 
you will study it with a view to making any recommendations you care 
to make, in respect to that report or in respect to our future procedures, 
rlie futiu'c conduct of this subcommittee. 

]\rr. ^fcCRACKEN. I want to assure you, Mr. Chairman, after Mr. 
Shipherd is through reading it, I am going to borrow it from him. 

Tlie Chairman. Fine, Mr. McCracken. 

I want to thank you very much on behalf of the subcommittee for 
your coming here. We will be standing by for your advice and counsel 
in the future. 

Mr. McCraciken. Thank you very much, sir. 

The CiiAnniAN. The Chair would like to announce at this point that 
the next witness this morning will be the distinguished mayor of the 
city of Philadelphia. He has not arrived yet. He has broken an- 
other appointment to ai)pear before the subcommittee, and in order 
to give him time to get here, the Chair will recess now for 10 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will be in order. 

The subcommittee has been swearing witnesses at this point, but has 
decided they are going to make an exception in the present case. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 145 

We are very proud of the fact that ^ve liave with us this morning the 
distinguished mayor of the great city of l*hihidelphia. 

Mayor Clark, we welcome you here this morning. I know you are 
going to make a great contribution to the efforts whicli we are putting 
forth to correct an evil in this country which has gotten to be rather 
shocking. 

You may proceed in your own manner to tell this subcommittee 
what you think we should do to further the cause in which we are 
engaged. 

STATEMENT OF HON. JOSEPH CLARK, JR., MAYOR OF 
PHILADELPHIA 

Mayor Clark. Senator Hendrickson and members of the staff of 
the subcommittee, I am most grateful to you for the courtesy you have 
afforded me in the hearing this morning. 

I want to apologize for not having gotten down here earlier. As 
you probably know, I have recently returned from vacation and yester- 
day I had the privilege of going to Washington to testify before one of 
the committees of your colleagues in connection with the Housing 
Act. 

I would like, even if a little belatedly, to welcome you to Phila- 
delphia, and assure you we are most happy to have you here, engaged 
as you are in an investigation which I think is of the utmost impor- 
tance, not only to Philadelphia, but to our urban communities all over 
the United States. 

I am sure that your subcommittee can be of great help to the city ad- 
ministration in connection with your findings on this vitally important 
problem of youthful or juvenile delinquency. 

I hope that you have felt that you have been afforded cooperation 
by the members of the city administration and we will be most grate- 
ful to you if you w^ould make available to us for pretty intensive study, 
the transcript of the testimony wdiicli is being taken here, and any 
recommendations which your committee may make as a result of the 
time you have spent here. 

The Chairman. You may be assured. Mayor, that you will have a 
copy of the transcript. 

Mayor Clark. Thank you, sir. 

I understand from what one of my secretaries has told you, a key 
member of your staff might be able to come back next week and help 
some of our people in outlining in general what the thinking of the 
committee and its staff is as a result of this study. That will be helpful 
to us. 

We do have, I know^, a serious problem in connection with juvenile 
delinquency here in Philadelphia, a problem which I guess is common 
pretty nearly to all the large cities in the country. 

The Chairman. They follow pretty much the same pattern. 

Mayor Clark. We have been taking wdthin the administration, and 
■with the cooperation of a number of very well meaning, and I think, 
quite effective civic groups, steps which seem to us to be about all that 
€an be done under the circumstances. 

But I have a feeling that perhaps we were wrong. I look forward to 
having some concrete suggestions from your committee which will help 
us. If you find any derelictions of duty or any fields which you feel 



146 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

"we have not given tlie proper and appropriate consideration to, or 
situations where you think our law-enforcement agencies are not 
properly staffed, we shall be most grateful to you if you will call them 
to our attention. 

One of the things I am happiest about, if I may say so, sir, is that 
the pei-sonnel of this senatorial committee is such that I have every 
confidence that we are going to get a hard-hitting objective report 
aimed at remedying the evils which you may find and making con- 
structive suggestions. 

I know you personally, sir, and your colleagues, and I know you are 
not going to get into headlines, but achievement. That is why I am 
happy to have you here and to offer you even at this late date any 
cooperation we can. 

Tliank you for letting me come down here. 

The Chairman. I want to assure you that we are delighted to be 
in Philadelphia. Philadelphia is almost my home. I have always 
been very jiroud of this great city. I know the whole subcommittee 
welcomed the opportunity to come to Philadelphia. 

I do not suppose you have seen our interim report as yet ? 

Mayor Clark. No, sir ; I have not. 

The Chairman. I am going to see that the staff furnishes you with 
a copy. I hope when you get some leisure time — and I know mayors 
are busy persons these days — you will look the report over and let ua 
have the benefit of any recommendations you may care to offer. 

]\Iayor Clark. I certainly will, sir. 

The Chairman. We are trying to do a constructive job. We are 
not seeking headlines, anything but that; but we do want to do what I 
call the Xo. 1 job for the Nation because these children of ours are the- 
greatest resources we have in our country, indeed, in the world. 

Thank you very much. Mayor. 

Mayor Clark. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Counsel informs the Chair that the distinguished' 
mayor was the last witness for this morning, so the subcommittee will 
stand in recess until 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

(Tliereupon, at 11 : 50 a. m., the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 o'clock, same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

Tlie subcommittee reconvened at 2 o'clock p. m., upon the expiration 
of tlie recess. 

The Chairman. The hour has arrived for this session of the sub- 
committee to be in order. 

This afternoon we have a number of distinguished witnesses. Tlie 
first witnesses I understand will appear together. There will be 
three witnesses. 

Mr. Peter Williams, Mr. Robert Callaghan, and Mr. Raymond 
S])ieser, will you please come forward? 

Will you all be sworn together ? 

I do not know that you are going to testify about any specific per- 
sons or set of facts, but for the sake of the record, I think you should 
be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 147 

Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing- but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Williams. I do. 

Mr. Callaghan. I do. 

Mr. Spieser. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PETER WILLIAMS, PRESIDENT, HEALTH AND WEL- 
FARE COUNCIL OF PHILADELPHIA, ACCOMPANIED BY ROBERT 
CALLAGHAN, CHAIRMAN, PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT COMMITTEE 
OF HEALTH AND WELFARE COUNCIL, AND CHAIRMAN OF THE 
BOARD, PHILADELPHIA HUMAN RELATIONS COMMISSION; AND 
RAYMOND SPIESER, CHAIRMAN, CHILDREN'S DIVISION, HEALTH 
AND WELFARE COUNCIL, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Williams, will you state the names and 
addresses of j^our colleagues and yourself, also your associations ? 

Mr. Williams. My name is Peter Williams. My home is Willis- 
town Township, Chester County. I work in Philadelphia and I am 
president of the Health and Welfare Council of Philadelphia. It 
includes Montgomery County and Delaware County. 

Robert Callaghan is on my right. 

Mr. Callag^vn. My address is 6607 Morris Park Road, Philadel- 
phia. I am chairman of the Philadelphia District Committee of 
Health and Welfare Council under Peter Williams. 

Mr. SriESER. I am Raymond Spieser, 2005 Delancy Place, Philadel- 
phia, chairman of the children's division, health and welfare council. 

The Chairman. If all my colleagues were here, I know they would 
authorize me to welcome you before the subcommittee this afternoon. 

Will you proceed to present the story, as you see it, on juvenile de- 
liquency in the city of Philadelphia? 

Mr. Williams. There is A^ery little, sir, that we can tell you of our 
direct connection with juvenile delinquency. My comments will be 
quite brief. I think perhaps Mr. Callaghan and Mr. Spieser will be 
more pointed in their remarks. 

I simply would like to outline the scope of the council's activities, 
and particularly in the two counties outside of Philadelphia, Delaware 
County and Montgomery County. 

The health and welfare council is a planning body composed of 
delegates of and agencies serving these three counties. There are 285 
agencies which belong to the council: 58 of these are child care, 
children's agencies, and some 65 are recreational agencies. 

The area which the council covers and the scope of its planning, 
and ao-ain I emphasize it is not direct service, but it is planning, a 
coordinating function, is about 800 square miles. 

The population of that area is about 3 million people, about a half 
million in each of the outlying counties, and 2 million in Philadelphia. 

It has been estimated in reliable figures that the amount spent on 
health and welfare services in this area is approximately 60 per capita, 
or a total of $140 million a year. Of that about $4 per capita, or 
approximately $10 million is spent on children annually. 

Recreation would account for another $3 per capita, or about $T 
million. 



148 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The way the council operates, we are divided geographically into 
three groups. The Philadelphia district committee, of which Mr. 
Callaghan is chairman, is by far the largest and most active. There 
are two other district committees, the Montgomery County commit- 
tee, and Delaware County committee. 

Then we have five functional divisions. They cut across geogi'aphic 
lines. Four of those five are concerned in one way or another with 
the problem which is the subject of your inquiry. 

We have the children's division, of which Mr, Spieser is chairman. 
We have a health division. We have a recreation division, and a 
family division. 

The last one, the aged division, is not connected with children by 
anv definition. 

In addition to those working bodies, we have two other services 
which I think I should mention. They work as well, I should say. 

One is the red feather information and referral service, which is 
an information service, just as its name connotes. It operates 24 
hours a day, 7 days a week, and averages over 600 inquiries a month. 
A person seeking health and welfare help and not knowing where to 
turn calls that number, which is manned around the clock, and gets 
help in the case of a distraught mother or lost child, or a father whose 
family is breaking up, who would not know where to turn to, but he 
can start at this point. 

Then there is also the research service which we provide under a 
very able staflp to help us find the facts and develop the facts or 
necessary data to make the recommendations which we feel is one of 
our principal jobs to do. 

I shall not touch on the Philadelphia County, as I have said, that is 
Mr. Callaghan's province. 

But Delaware County I would like to mention just in passing is 
a soit of semirural area. 

The largest city is Chester, and Chester supports the council and 
we have worked with Cliester there, too. It has staff — two full-time 
members of the health and welfare council stalF members belong to 
the Chester Council and are constantly at work down there. 

Perhaps I can best describe it by suggesting one illustration of 
the point where we are particularly proud of the fairly considerable 
part that this Delaware Council Committee had in establishing this 
program in Delaware County. 

Today thei-e exists down there a fine juvenile court and probation 
service under the guidance of President Judge Henry Sweeny. He 
gives eidiglitened leadership and has a ])rogressive modern philosophy 
instead of a punitive attitude and he holds to the professional 
standards of staff service. 

Along with that, about 3 years ago with the help of a lot of different 
interests in the area, the county commissioners, primarily Commis- 
sioner Jolm Douglierty, took over the care of neglected and dependent 
children from the voluntary agencies down there and they have estab- 
lished a program which is a model for Pennsylvania and has been 
discussed many times in this area at various forums. 

He brought in one of the best qualified social workers from a private 
agency, Charlotte Hammill, to run that program, and it is going 
very well and is a great source of pride to the people in Delaware 
County as well as up here. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 149 

Another item I would like to mention is the work of the district 
counci] on vokmteers down there wldch has provided volunteer work 
for juveniles. They do part-time work just the same as adult volun- 
teers, but they do it in hospitals and day-care centei-s. Recreation 
facilities, and institutions for the handicapped and that kind of con- 
structive responsible work we feel goes a long way toward keeping 
them active and developing their sense of conununity responsibility. 

That applies, of course, to those of the 98 percent who are not de- 
linquent among the juveniles. 

The CiiAiRMAx. You would say from your experience with this 
problem that it is a community problem primarily ? 

]Mr. WiLLiA3is. Yes, sir ; quite definitely. 

Montgomery County has a problem all of its own which is a little 
bit different from Delaware County because of the greatly increased 
population having put a tremendous burden on the existing facilities. 
There is a change in character in the need. 

The problem of the health and welfare district committee there, 
under the staff leadership of Carroll White, has been to try to pull 
together the existing agencies. He has set up a series of monthly 
meetings. They have been going on for a year now, and will con- 
tinue indefinitely. They are meetings of the representatives of the 
YMCA, YWCA, the Boy Scouts, and all the child care and youth 
service agencies, to have them discuss mutual problems and outline 
their programs and see where the gaps are and see where they can 
fill it in. 

Xow, the committee's principal tool out in Montgomery County, in 
Delaware County, and in Philadelphia County, too, is to bring to- 
gether the board members and the citizens from all sections of the 
community so that sound planning is achieved around the needs which 
are common to all. 

I would like to say one word more about another division of the 
council's work, which is the recreation division. You heard some- 
thing of that yesterday, I believe, from Mr. Eosenbaum of the 
"\Aniarton Center. 

The Chairman. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Williams. He illustrated far better than I possibly could the 
part of the work that is being done — what he was speaking of was, 
of course, the direct ser^dce agency. Ours is the planning, the co- 
ordinating. 

We are, we hope, a good catalyst to pull together these various 
agencies, individuals, public and private groups, who are all con- 
cerned with the same problem, but unless someone takes the initiative 
to pull them together and get them together to work together, there 
will be a lot of wasted time and wasted effort. 

The Chairman. You do not have to hope, sir; you are just what 
you say. 

Mr. Williams. The population in these 3 counties increased over 
12 percent from 1940 to 1950. But the population of under 5 years 
in that period increased 60 percent while the population for the age 
group from 15 to 19 was dropping, I think, to around 19 percent. 
That immediately portends a tremendous problem in the next few 
years of an increased adolescent population. 



150 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

So we are going to be faced with the tremendous need for increased 
recreation and group services during those years because of this 
population pressure. 

There are today more than 80 recreation and group work services 
in tliese 3 counties. They all serve youth and most of them serve 
the entire family. 

The Chairmax. Do you find that these agencies' efforts are 
coordinated ? 

Mr. WiLLTA3is. That is part of our job, sir. I think they are. I 
do not know of any drastic evidence of lack of coordination where 
they are running counter to one another. There is so much more to 
be done than they, or twice that number, could do, that there is plenty 
of room for scratching. 

The CiiAiR^EAX. Coordination is an important item. Overlapping 
and duplication is also an important item to eliminate. We have so 
much of the duplication and overlapping in Washington, that I am 
always sensitive to that sort of waste. 

I hope that the efforts of these 90 agencies are not causing any over- 
lapping and duplication. 

JNIr. Williams. There is less chance of their doing overlapping and 
duplication because of the council's structure, because they have a 
forum where they can meet and discuss. 

The first person they think of when there is a community problem 
is the staff consultant. There is a professional staff' consultant for 
each division. In this instance, it is Mr. Stumpp. We are a sort of 
clearinghouse so that there is one place you can go to find out what 
is being done in the whole area. 

The Chairman. I am conscious of the good work you are doing 
because I was honored to be a speaker before your organization not 
so long ago. 

Mr. Williams. That was the Pennsylvania Citizens Association, 
which is a statewide organization, and which is quite comparable on 
a statewide basis to the work which the health and welfare council 
does in this three-coimty area down here. 

The Chairman. I remember that. I remember })articularly your 
presence on that day. 

Mr. Williams. Yes, sir. 

These 80 recreation group work services provide a supervised pro- 
gram. These agencies have three api)r<)aches which I would like to 
mention in closing. 

First, the su])ervised activities of groups to meet the everyday and 
normal social needs of cliildren and youth. That is what we would 
describe as the basic first line of defense or prevention of delinquency. 

Then there is a specialized work with the delinquent gangs and 
groups Avith known behavior, but not delinquent problems plus in- 
dividual counseling and referral to special treatment agencies. 

Now, the gaugs to which I refer are mostly in the depressed areas. 
Occasionally they show up elsewhere, both in the city and in the 
suburbs, but they are brief outbreaks. 

The second category is work of intensive and individualized ap- 
proach, which is both treatment for those youths who have shown by 
their behavior they need special help, as well as turning them back 
into more constructive attitudes. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 151 

Finally, these ii<;encies increasingly are trying to help the whole 
family by having family recreation activities, that is, by helping the 
parents to do a better job with their children. 

I think that concludes my remarks. Thank you, sir. 
The Chairman. Mr. Williams, have you read the interim report 
of this subcommittee ? 

Mr. Williams. I have not read it in toto. I received it last we^k. 

I have had the pleasure of reading some parts of it, and I hope to 
complete it. It is quite an interesting report. 

The Chairman. When you have completed it, would you let us 
have the benefit of your recommendations, any suggestions you have 
to make, concerning the future progress of our efforts ? 

Mr, Williams. I shall be very happy to do so. 

The Chairman. We feel on this subcommittee that we have a No. 1 
problem at the national level. I know that all my colleagues share 
that opinion. 

Of course, to meet our situation squarely we need the help of all 
the citizens. 

As these hearings at the local level develop, I become more and 
more convinced that all of us, each and every one of us, whether we 
be public ofRcials or not, has to do a little more than we have been 
doing in the interest of the youth of America. I hope you share that 
view. 

Mr. Williams. I think we do, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bobo, have you any questions ? 

Mr. BoBO. I have no questions of Mr. Williams. 

The Chairman. It is good to be with you again and it is nice to 
have you here today to present this story of your activities. 

Mr, Williams. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Mr. Callaghan. 

Mr. Callaghan. Mr. Williams and Mr. Spieser and I are volun- 
teers in this work, and as such, we are strictly amateurs. 

The Chairman. We of this subcommittee are amateurs, too, I can 
assure you. 

Mr. Callaghan. We have a professional M'ho runs the show in 
Philadelphia, Mr. Sydney B. Markey. He is our director. If you 
do not mind, I would like him to pull a little closer to us as we go 
along here. I constantly lean on him and I cannot do without him. 
It is his job to prevent that overlapping that we are talking about. 

I was interested in the remark that Senator Hennings made yes- 
terday when he said he was familiar with the good work done by the 
Big Brothers, YMCA, and Boy Scouts— incidentally, they are three 
of our member agencies, we have 185— the work they do with the 
young people, and his statement that with all of that we are not getting 
down to the grassroots or down to the pavement with these boys, I 
think that is true. 

The Chairman. I think that is because we do not work hard 
enough. 

Mr. Callaghan. I do not think that is the complete answer. I 
doubt if any organization, however efficient, will ever get down to 
the grassroots because there is a limit to the influence you can exert 
on a boy unless you actually live with him. That is why I believe 
Archbishop OTIara has stressed that the keystone of success in this 



152 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

work has to be in the family life, and the Catholic Church is trying 
to resuscitate family life in a program going on throughout the 
country now. 

Of course, if you live with the boy, you can have the best of inten- 
tions and yet neglect him. You can go around doing many things 
like I do, and neglect the boy while you are doing it. 

There is nobody who can take the father's place at this point. 

Even with this limitation there is much that ovu* organization can 
do, much we can do to improve the environment of potential juvenile 
delinquents. 1 am not one of those who believe that all juvenile 
delinquency is environmental. Regardless of our circumstances, there 
is a basic personal responsibility for what we do which we cannot 
escape. That applies to anybody of any age who knows the differ- 
ence between right and wrong. 

Nevertheless, the improvement of environment can play an impor- 
tant part in eliminating juvenile delinquency. A boy who is hungry 
is more apt to steal than a boy who is not. There is no question about 
that. 

Therefore, we have to improve economic conditions, generally, of- 
those who are worse off than we are, and we have to improve housing,, 
and we haA^e to improve living conditions. 

I might say in connection with housing that I was distressed tO' 
learn recently what Congress is doing to public housing right now,, 
and I hope they will not stick to it. 

Basically, though, the part that an organization like the health and 
welfare council can play in this role of juvenile delinquency is in 
recreation, because that is a tangible, and all sorts of statistics have 
shown that proper recreation cuts down juvenile delinquency. 

It really goes back to the old proverb that the devil finds work for 
idle hands to do, or as Father Flannigan says, of Boys Town, there 
is no such thing as a bad boy. 

It is a question of properly directing his energy. 

Now, to promote recreation which we have to do to combat juvenile 
delinquincy, there are two bases, one is recreational facilities, and 
the othei" is program. That is where the health and welfare council 
comes into tlie i)icture liere because we have 185 agencies and we must 
help, try to coordinate programs and facilities between public and 
private recreation, and in Pliiladelphia it is complex, the structure, 
because our public recreation is twofold. 

I guess you are familiar with the fact that the Philadelphia School 
District, which is in charge of all the public schools in this city, is a 
separate political entity from the city itself. Consequently, we have 
to deal with two separate public bodies, school recreation and city 
recreation. 

Within the city recreation there is a qitasi-indcpendent grouj) known 
as the Fairmount Park Association, which handles the work in Fair- 
mount Park. There has to be coordination across the board. 

We feel we play a vital role in carrying that out. 

If I can just give you an instance of the way tliat can work, there- 
was one case in Philadelpliia several years ago where there was a 
stabbing among girls at a high school or junior high school, I forget 
which. At that point I should mention that we have divided the- 
health and welfare council. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 153 

I do not know Avliether you can see that map from that angle. 

The Chairman. Yes, I can. 

Mr. Callaghan. We have 2 million people in Philadelphia. We 
have divided the health and welfare council operation in this State 
into areas. 

You were speaking about the responsibility of the community. 
Philadelphia is really a group of separate communities and we are 
trying to bring the communities right back to the neighborhood. 
The closer a person lives to the source of trouble, the more coopera- 
tion we can get. 

There you will see a northeast area. We have an office up there, 
and staff. We use the citizens from northeast to work on a cooperative 
basis with that staff. 

The same with northwest, which takes in Germantown. 

The Chairman. What is the area in red between northeast and 
northwest? 

Mr. Callaghan. That is a recently opened area office. It is not 
quite an area office. It is a section we have opened in Olney. It is 
unusual in that it takes in 30,000 people whereas, roughlv, we take in 
usually between 300,000 or 400,000, with an office. 

It is an effort to promote a community program in Olney itself. 
That is a homogeneous section, almost a city in itself. W^e are work- 
ing on problems involved in that. 

Northeast looks away from Olney that way and northwest looks 
away from Olney that way. Nobody was looking this way. 

We are planning in part to give Olney residents that recognition. 

Then there is North Central, West Philadelphia, and Southern 
Philadelphia. 

This incident I speak of occurred in West Philadelphia. There 
the area committee went to work, the volunteer citizens, with the staff 
in that section. This stabbing pointed up the girl gangs and every- 
thing serious that could flow from it. 

The first thing they did was to get an earlier completion of a public 
recreation center. That meant working on the city recreation depart- 
ment to step up its operation to get that center opened. 

Then they developed an afterschool program, an hour's program 
after school. That meant dealing with the board of education which 
is a separate entity from the city. 

You can see this coordination because the board of education had to 
pay that staff person to stay after school. 

The Chairman. Do you treat with Mr. Taber in that connection ? 

Mr. Callaghan. Yes, quite a bit. He has been on our board for 
many years. He had to resign recently to keep his health; he was 
doing too many things. 

The Chairman. He made a very impressive appearance in Wash- 
ington before this subcommittee last Friday. 

Mr. Callaghan. He is absolutely invaluable in this work. 

The Chairman. The Chair concurs. 

Mr. Callaghan. Thank you, sir. We are proud of Mr. Taber. 

Then an additional worker was put on by the crime prevention as- 
sociation to work with girl gangs. They never had one to do that 
before. 



154 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

You heard from Mr. Fiiinegan j^esterday. That is one of our op- 
erating agencies. Somehow or otlier, they scrape that money up to* 
get another worker. 

There are three groups we had to cooperate with, the area committee,, 
the city on setting up the facilities, the board of education on the 
afterschool program. 

Then the crime prevention association put a worker in there and 
then this area committee developed the tying in of family counselor 
service wdth various services on counseling that the school supplied. 

Then activity was cleared up with YMCA and YWCA and the- 
churches in that neighborhood to develop programs. 

I Mant to quote this because I think it is important. 

These steps that met the problem came as a result of work by parents,, 
teachers, youth, agency workers, church leaders, police officials, and 
so forth. The council provided the medimn through which they 
planned to meet their neighborhood problem. 

This is a community problem, sir. You have emphasized that and 
we concur 100 percent. It is our job to get the community to work 
on it. 

If there are any questions, I shall be glad to try to answer them. 

The Chairman. This information has been very encouraging. I 
can see that a marvelous job is being done through your organization 
in this field. 

Now, you mentioned the girl gangs. We had considerable testi- 
mo7iy yesterday on the boy gangs. What contacts have you had witli 
tlio girl gangs? 

^Ir. Callaghan. Mr. Finnegan can speak witii more authority on 
this tlian I can. We believe the promptness with Mdiich this program 
went into action really licked that. There has been careful, vigilant 
observation ever since, but there has been no incident of that kind 
since. That is where we think the role of community effort properly- 
organized and properly geared can play a vital part. 

The Chairman. You feel you have eliminated that virtually ? 

Mr. Callaghan. I w^oulcl never use the word "eliminated." I am 
too cautious. But I believe we have stopped it. 

The Chairman. Short of eternal vigilance you have eliminated it? 

The Chair recognizes Mr. Markey. 

STATEMENT OF SYDNEY B. MARKEY, DIRECTOR, PHILADELPHIA 
DISTRICT HEALTH AND WELFARE COUNCIL 

Mr. JMarkey. Girls with idle hands, just like boys, can get into 
difficulty unless there is a program provided. In this particular in- 
stance that Mr. Callaglian quoted in a junior high in West Philadel- 
phia, because all these agencies began to pitch in and provide some 
things for these girls, that particular situation was stopped. That 
does not mean that gills elsewliei'e with problems of adolescence are 
not getting into difficulty. 

The Chairman. Of course not. Thank you, sir. 

]Mr. Bobo, have you any questions ? 

]\Ir. BoBO. Yes, I have, arising out of the testimony this morning. 

Would you have any comment to make, Mr. Callaghan? We had 
testimony this morning that some sort of youth commission with a 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 155 

paid full time director should organize all the activities of city, public, 
private institutions, to do seemingly what you have said there. 

Do you think that your organization fully covers that field? 

Mr. Callaghan. No, I think there would be room for such an or- 
ganization such as was mentioned this morning. I understand that 
reference was made to the official State youth organization in New 
York State. Am I correct? 

Mr. BoBO. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Committee, or commission ? 

Mr. Callaghan. I think an agency like that, because it has money, 
can by the proper use of that money help organize like ourselves, 
gear themselves to proper standards because unless you do, you do not 
get the money. I do not think that would be overlapping. I think 
that would be an adjunct. 

You know the community chest has to do something like that when 
it gives out mone};' to the various councils. It says, unless you meet 
this standard you cannot have this money. 

Of course, there are some agencies that can operate anyway. 

I think properly administered a State program like that can add 
to our cause and would not cause overlapjDing. 

Mr. BoBO. I think also you are familiar with the human relations 
commission established in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Callaghan. Yes, I have heard of the human relations 
commission. 

Mr. BoBO. I believe you are chairman of it ? 

Mr. Callaghan. Yes. 

Mr. BoBO. Can you give us some idea of that? We have had testi- 
mony as to some areas. We have had testimony from two mothers 
yesterday as to the tensions that develop. 

Mr. Callaghan. Yes. Of course, the human relations conunission 
is not directly concerned with juvenile delinquency overall. It is 
concerned with the symptoms of juvenile delinquency that manifest 
themselves in interracial and interreligious conflicts. 

We do not think it is our job on the human relations commission 
to handle juvenile delinquency. It is all these people's jobs you have 
been hearing from right along, but we do have a vital role to play 
where the symptoms are interracial conflicts and interreligious con- 
flicts, because we are set up under the charter to combat these 
influences. 

Now in certain fields — and I do not want to take up too much of 
your time, you might get me started here— in certain fields in which 
we have interracial problems we have laws. In the city of Philadel- 
phia we have a fair-employment-practice ordinance. It operates only 
within the geographical limits of Philadelphia and prohibits any em- 
ployer from discriminating in employment or promotion on the 
ground of race, creed, or color. 

It has nothing to do with hiring or a quota system. The employer 
hires the best man qualified for the job. What we say is if you find 
a man of a minority race who is qualified in every respect, except that 
he is a member of a minority race, then we think he is qualified. 

We have had wonderful cooperation from employers. 

That ties in with what I said before about improving economic 
conditions. You give a man a job and you are on your way to lickino- 
juvenile delinquency. "^ '^ 



156 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

We also have a law in Pennsylvania wliich prohibits discrimination 
in public accommodations. To the extent that that operates in 
Philadelphia we work on that. 

Now. in the field of housing — not public housing, but private hous- 
ing — and in the fields of cultural neighborhood tensions that arise 
just because people of different cultures come together may tend to 
clash, we have no law on the books with respect to that, and we work 
on a volunteer basis and we have professional staff people there who 
taiow how to operate. They have done some wonderful work in 
eliminating these tensions. 

Incidentally, the Human Relations Commission is a city agency, 
and it works very closely with the Health and Welfare Council, which 
is a voluntary agency. The Human Relations Commission constantly 
draws on the Health and Welfare Council's know-how and the open- 
ing of the Olney office up there was the result of a joint program 
by the Human Relations Commission and the Health and Welfare 
Council. 

I frequently get into a position where I am writing letters to my- 
self. Somebody else writes the letter, I sign it, and receive it, and 
Mr. Markey acknowledges it. 

The Chairman. Mr. Callaghan, have you had any contacts with 
the Children's Bureau in Washington in your operations? 

Mr. Callaghan. Yes, in our operations we have. Mr. Markey is 
much more familiar with that. But we are on record with your com- 
mittee I believe that we think one thing that could be done specifically 
on a national level is to strengthen the Children's Bureau because of 
the way it can help with our programs in the community. 

The Chairman. Strengthening it by giving it more authority and 
more power? 

Mr. Callaghan. And more money. 

The Chairman. I was coming to the money question. 

Mr. Callaghan. I beat you to the gun. 

The Chairman. You did, indeed. 

We of this subcommittee recognize the fact that they need to have 
their appropriations increased to do the terrific job that they have 
before them. 

Mr. CalluVghan. We can assure you, sir, that the money they use 
and the work they do is well spent in Philadelphia. At least we are 
on record to that extent. 

The Chairman. How much money do you get in Philadelphia from 
that source ? 

Mr. IMarkey. That is a very difficult figure to supply. I think Com- 
missioner Wise and some of the public assistance programs can an- 
swer that. It trickles down in so many ways it is difficult to lay your 
fincfer on it. I am sure Harrisburg has the figure. 

The Chairman. For purposes of juvenile delinquency? 

Mr. Markey. We will be glad to get that figure and furnish it for 
the committee. 

The Chairman. Furnish those figures for the record. 

Mr. Markey. Fine. 

(The information referred to was subsequently received and reads 
as follows:) 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 157 

IIeaith and Wkt-fare Cottncil, 
Philadelphia 7, Pa., April 22, 1954. 
Hon. Robert C. Henprickson, 

Chainnan, Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, 
Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Senator Hendrickson : We welcome the opportunity to furnish the 
following information regarding Federal and other tax funds currently used in 
Philadelphia for work with dependent, neglected, and delinquent children. You 
will recall requesting such information during testimony of our representatives 
before the subcommittee at its Philadelphia hearing on juvenile delinquency, 
held April 15. 1954. 

A clear division of source of agency funds, distinguishing between Federal, 
State, and local tax dollars and voluntary dollars is most difBcult to establish. 
However, for the point which our representatives were making, namely, the 
need for the freeing of voluntary dollars for work with antisocial youth through 
tax dollars carrying more fully the costs of caring for public wards assigned to 
voluntary agencies, these financial statistics are pertinent (all figures given 
are for the last fiscal year available). 

1. Aid to dependent children (a State-administered program) 

Federal $5, 144, 2B0 

State - - . 3, 912, 131 

Total 9, 056, 361 

2. Philadelphia City Department of Public Welfare 

All from' local tax funds and spent for dependent, neglected and de- 
linquent children. The Department received one special Federal 
grant for $15,000 which the United States Children's Bureau ap- 
proved for a nonrecurring research demonstration project (ap- 
proximately) $5, 000, 000 

5. Muniripnl Court, Juvenile Division 

Youth Study Center $525, 730 

Total court budget (it can be assumed that several hundred thousand 
dollars are for services to dependent, neglected, and delinquent 
youth) 1, T31, 8S2 

Therefore it is approximated, for purpose of this compilation, as the 

amount of local tax dollars expended by the court 1, 000, OOO 

Jf. Child-guidance clinics 

Several voluntary supported clinics give services to antisocial youth. Among 
these are : 

Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic 

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania 

Child Study Center, Institute for Mental Hygiene, Pennsylvania Hospital 

St. Christopher's Hospital 
These four organizations are known to receive Federal funds. Moneys come 
from sources such as the Mental Health Act and the Public Health Services. 
Usually for a stated and limited purpose, these funds play a small part in the 
total expenditure. For example : 

Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic 

Mental Health Act (Federal) $20,200 

Clinic development program (State and Federal matched) 24,000 

Voluntary (local) 103, 923 

Total 208, 123 

5. Pnpil personnel and counseling, school district of Philadelphia 
All from local tax funds and spent for school-aged children with be- 
havior prol)lems and served by public and parochial schools (ap- 
proximately) $1, 500, 000 

{a) Organizations such as: 

Crime Prevention Association, local voluntary funds, $131,133. 

Big Brothers Association, local voluntary funds, $115,894. 

Expended mnrp than $250,000 annually for services which are directed to 

youth in trouble. 
46966 — 54 11 



158 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

(&) When added to the Community Chest agencies in the field of children's 
services and to other voluntary sectarian child-welfare programs, the local 
voluntary funds expended for dependent, neglected, and delinquent children 
would exceed a $2 million figure. 

7. Summary 

Except for the Federal funds used in the aid to dependent children's program, 
local services are supported in the main by local tax and voluntary funds. 

While the tabulations given are not exhaustive, they do indicate that Federal 
assistance to local tax resources can play a meaningful role in a better apportion- 
ment of the total job carried by local tax and voluntary services for dependent, 
neglected, and delinquent children. Specifically : 

(a) The State can assist the city by assuming financial responsibility for 
mentally i-etarded children now being cared for by the city, although legally 
a State responsibility. 

(6) The city can assist voluntary agencies by paying for the full costs of 
public wards served by voluntary agencies. In one of the larger voluntary 
agencies, for every 100 children who are "a public responsibility" and for 
whom the agency receives some payment from the city, it must contribute 
apprf)ximately $42,000 in voluntary funds to cover the cost of service. 

(c) The Community Chest funds used for the voluntary agencies described 
in the preceding paragraph could, upon being freed, be redeployed in more- 
penetrating and preventive .services usable with antisocial youth. 
Should you desire any additional information, we shall be glad to furnish it^ 
Very truly yours, 

Sydney B. Markey, Director. 

The Chairman. We know that the Children's Bureau itself does 
not get enough money so quite obviously you do not get what you need. 

Mr. Callaghan. We figure if they get more money we will, too. 

The Chairman. Mr. Spieser. 

Mr. Spieser. The children's division is one of the 4 principal func- 
tional divisions of the health and welfare council like the recreation 
division and the division for the aged. Its actual connection with 
juvenile delinquency is in one voice a real one, and in another one 
an ephemeral one because the 61 separate agencies, both public and 
private, in this area who have combined to make up the children's 
division of the council have in their charges sixteen or eighteen thou- 
sand children, the overwhelming majority of whom are of an age that 
we do not consider to be within the class of juvenile delinquency even 
though they be delinquent. I might say at the outset that our per- 
centage of delinquency of children in the care of all of our agencies, 
is no higher than the percentage of delinquency of children who are 
not in our care. 

We are a planning group, not a functional group. Our principal 
objective is to improve child care in this area by getting together 
those agencies that have children in charge, exchanging information 
between ourselves, and planning so that we can avoid duplication 
of the sort that you indicated was objectionable. 

I think we have succeeded in that to a great degree. 

Nevertheless, there are problems which are insurmountable at the 
moment, but slowly time wears them away. 

P'or example, sir, we find among our 61 agencies there are numbers 
of agencies who have long and very illustrious histories of child-care 
work for many, many years. 

It i.s very difficult when these agencies run by private boards, doing 
a particular kind of job, are told the need for that kind of job is not 
nearly so great as the need for another kind of job, to change the meth- 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 159 

od of operation of an agency that has been in existence this number of 
years. 

Of course, facilities are never completely adequate. We do feel 
there is enough brick and mortar already erected to handle the chil- 
dren's problems in this city if we can reshuffle in some way the work 
of the agencies so that an agency here might do this type of job and 
the agency there might do that type of job instead of both agencies 
trying to do a complete job over the entire field. 

But slowly we do that, and we do that purely on a voluntary basis, 
because agencies working together have begun to see the wisdom of 
examining the roles that they are playing in the child-care field ; and 
when they realize they have"^ to take a look at themselves every once 
in a while, they engage in study programs with us and come out very 
often with a different definition of function. 

We have had a very salutary example of that just this year with the 
Southern Home, which is changing its functions. 

Now, coincident with that is one of our major problems. To our 
61 agencies are awarded the dependent and neglected children of this 
committee. As of December 31, 1953, in the cit}'- of Philadelphia 
alone, we had 11,500 such children in our agencies. Now they are 
awarded to us through the juvenile court and the law requires the 
county to support those children. 

Now the county does so by giving us each week X dollars for a child 
if he is in a foster home and X dollars for a child if he is in an in- 
stitution. Those dollars are not sufficient to cover our actual cost 
of maintaining those children either in the foster home or in the in- 
stitution. 

Now, we agree that public charity ought to supplement the amount 
that the State gives to make up that gap. We do not think that private 
funds should be free of any of that responsibility, but we have dis- 
covered in our study of children that there are children who present 
more difficult problems than other children. Children who are dis- 
turbed, children who have not straightened out early in life, may well 
become delinquent. These children need specialized care and special- 
ized service, which, of necessity, costs more money than to keep the 
normal Johnny. 

Now- if private funds which are used to maintain all of these agencies 
are being expended in toto to take care of the normal Johnn3^s when 
the State really has the primary responsibility by law to i^ay those 
costs, private funds are so tied up that we cannot do the specialized 
job on the disturbed Johnny that we think our function is to do. 

We feel that private charity ought to take care of this group of 
children who need the specialized attention, but our funds are all tied 
up doing the job that the public fund by law should be doing. 

If we could get our private funds freed from doing the State job of 
taking care of neglected and dependent children we could then expand 
our activities to take care of the disturbed child through private funds. 

Unfortunately today all of our private funds go to supplement the 
small amount that the State gives us and we do not have room for ex- 
pansion of the very real part of the program we want to do and really 
needs to be done. 

The Chairman. This is a new angle. This is a new approach. 
This is the first testimony we have had before this subcommittee in 
this field. Why is it that this situation is as you describe ? 



160 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. Spieser. Let me try to put it concretely to you. 

In 1951 our juvenile court upon petition filed by the children's divi- 
sion agencies fixed the board rate that was paid to these agencies for 
institutional placement or privately owned placement at an amount 
much less than we asked for. 

Naturally, the city's budget is such that it is difficult to raise a suf- 
ficient amount. We actually polled all the agencies and determined 
what the cost per week per child is. 

The State law says your county is supposed to give the neglected and 
dependent children these services and we said this is what they actually 
cost. Having gotten those figures together we were awarded $3 a week, 
or $4 a week less than we felt was necessary, than we know is neces- 
sary, because none of our agencies is making any money ; they are all 
charitable agencies. 

As a result we have to draw on the Community Chest and private 
capital funds to make up for each child that is awarded to us for 
normal care. That takes all our money. 

When we get a boy who comes along who needs treatment in a center 
where a psychiatrist or psychologist might be needed, we do not have 
the money to provide that service. 

On the other hand, if we would get full measure of what we pay out 
for the normal child, we would be delighted to spend the money we 
get from the chest and from capital funds to take care of the fringe 
problem which is growing larger each day, the child that needs the 
specialized care. 

It is one of our objectives and one way in which I think through the 
Children's Bureau in Washington you could be of great assistance to 
us is to make the State carry its more proper share of its responsibility, 
not take on a new one because the law today says "State, you are to pay 
for all of this," but all we are asking is that they pay for a little more 
than they are doing. We will make up some of it, but let us free chest 
funds for use in a field that we think is in dire need of great support. 

Now, sir, I shall be happy to answer any questions that I can that 
you would like to put to me. 

We do not, as you can readily see, have intimate connection with 
the delinquency problem. Most of our children are younger. We do 
have a committee on adolescence composed of those agencies which 
have adolescent children in charge. It works regularly, tries to plan 
for further community development for adolescent facilities. 

Once we get past that we get into the recreational field. 

The Chairman. That is a very important field. 

Mr. Spieser. Quite, but it is another division of the Health and 
AVelfare Council, and I am not qualified to talk about it. 

Now I have been given a note by my good lady Friday who points 
out to me that I have used the word "State fund" when really the 
responsibility is the county. It is the county fund that I was talking 
about. I was trying to distinguish between private moneys and public 
moneys. 

The responsibility for the care of neglected and dependent children 
by hiAv should be public money. It is by statute. Instead of using 
just public money we are devoting most all of our private money to 
carrying out that job and cannot go out and explore further in this 
field. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 161 

The Chairman. You have made that situation quite clear to the 
subcommittee. It is an interesting observation because we had not 
had this question raised before, to my knowledge, in any of our 
hearings. 

I am going to turn you gentlemen over to our counsel now. I do 
not know if he has any questions to ask. 

Mr. BoBo. I do not think so. I think they have put their points 
very clearly to us. 

The Chairman. We are indeed grateful for your presence and 
appearance here today. I am very conscious of the fine work you are 
going. 

It was because of your association with this work that I came to the 
Bellevue-Stratford a few weeks ago now and talked on this subject. 
I think all of us need more dedication to this worthy cause. 

Mr. Spieser. I hope we have not sounded as though we were blow- 
ing our horn and not giving you very much to put your teeth into 
for the purpose of your committee. 

The Chairsian. You have not because you have given us a picture 
which we can carry to other areas of the country. 

Mr. Williams. The thing I would like to leave with you. Senator, 
if I may, is that I think it sums up in perhaps a very brief word what 
we are all talking about here; we are conscious particularly because 
we are planners and therefore see a broader picture than any single 
agency ; we are conscious of the vastness of the need and vastness of 
the problem. We see that we can do only a limited job with our 
present staffs. 

To do the bigger job which needs to be done we must have more 
men and women, more qualified professional workers, many more, 
and you come right down to that horrible thing called money. We do 
not have enough of it. The city does not have enough of it. The 
chest does not have enough of it. And the Federal Government does 
not have enough of it. But if some way or other there can be devised 
a way that the need is explained, and we are trying to undertake that 
here in Philadelphia, to know how^ great the need is, some of that 
money is coming out of their pockets, we hope a little bit more will 
be coming out of the Federal Government's pocket and in some way 
it will help us solve our problems in Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. As the Chair has observed on many occasions we 
spend enough of that terrible thing called money on our armaments 
and defense and all that sort of thing, but we do not seem to realize 
that the most important defense item that we have, the greatest se- 
curity item we have in the country, is the youth of the country. We 
just have to learn that lesson. 

Organizations like yours are helping to teach that lesson. We are 
awfully proud to be here in Philadelphia and hear your story today. 

Mr. Williams. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Francis Bosworth. 

We have been making a practice of swearing all the witnesses ex- 
cept the mayor today, so I will ask you to be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Bosworth. I do. 



162 JIA^ENILE DELENQUENCY 

TESTIMONY OF FRANCIS BOSWORTH, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, 
FRIENDS NEIGHBORHOOD GUILD, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Will you first state your full name and address 
and association, for the purpose of the record. 

Mr. BoswoRTH. Francis Bosworth, director of the Friends Neigh- 
borhood Guild, Quaker settlement, under the Community Chest. 

The Chairman. I take it you have a prepared statement? 

Mr. BoswoRTii. Yes. I wanted to tell you a couple of stories as a 
prelude to that. 

One mother came to us to say that she had come up from the South. 
She had 4 boys, the oldest was 13. Her husband was ill. He had 
a brain tumor. She said how much it meant that her youngsters had 
a jolace to go and men to talk to and she appreciated that we were 
helping her bring up her kids. 

I asked her if she worked nights. She said, "Well, I have 4 hungry 
kids and a sick husband, so I work 8 hours in the mattress factory 
every day and I am a track watcher for the Reading Eailroad 8 hours 
every ni^ht." 

I explained to her that aid to dependent children would help her 
with those children. She said, "No. My boys will pretty soon be 
able to help me, and I don't want them to eat any charity bread. I will 
take care of them, but I want you to know what it means that there is 
someone here in the neighborhood that cares about my youngsters 
when I am not there." 

That is a prelude to my statement which is essentially that our job 
is the strengthening of family life. That is our job as social workers 
in the community. 

The Chairman. That is probably the biggest job we have to do. 

Mr. BoswoRTH. Delinquency youth is a fever chart of our society, 
the symptom of a social disease, but not a disease itself. The child 
belongs to his family and the primary responsibility for his upbring- 
ing and discipline belongs with his parents. 

If the family is weak we nuist work to strengthen it. There are a 
few "bad jDarents," people who do not care for their children, or for 
the res]5onsibility they assumed when they brought children into the 
world, but this group is but a small fraction of a percent. 

However, it does not mean that all of the others know how to be 
good parents. The props of economic and social necessity that ex- 
isted for the parents of my generation have disappeared. Children 
learned the discipline of work because everyone in the family had to 
work. The chores of the home and the farm had to be done before 
the day of readymade clothes, electric dishwashers, and the deep 
freeze. Sons were apprenticed to the father or to the friend of the 
family and even the laborer brought his boy around to the boss for a 
summer job. 

Our environment was friendly and known to the family for several 
generations. We lived in the same neighborhood, the same town, the 
family doctor delivered several generations of babies and saw some 
of them through their last illness. Generations were baptized and 
buried from the same church. 

All of this helped the family to do its job and gave parents a social 
and economic setting in which to bring up their children. Most of 
these are gone today. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 163 

We are now the most transient nation on earth. There have been 
mass movements of population from the country and small towns to 
the city from the South to the North, from the East and Middle West 
to the "Pacific coast. Many of our children actually live in houses on 
wheels. 

Millions of our people are housed in our inner cities which are 
rapidly rotting at the core and they are prey to the old inhabitants 
of these neighborhoods with whom they must share bathrooms, yet 
have nothing in common. 

The Chairman. I might add that many of our people just live on 
wheels. 

Mr. BoswoRTH. That is right. 

I might add that 1 out of every 4 married women are now in the 
labor force. This is not because they wish to leave their homes, but 
they wish to insure a better life for their families and, in many cases, 
these women are the total support of their family. Today's neighbor- 
hoods lack both leadership and companionship. The majority of 
schoolteachers and social workers live elsewhere and only come down 
in the neighborhood in their worldng hours. Even the majority of 
clergymen no longer live in these neighborhoods ; we have preachers, 
but not pastors. 

I am a Protestant, but I wish to pay tribute to the Catholic Church. 
A Catholic priest is first of all a pastor to his people, he lives among 
them and is available to them. He is also a good neighbor and is 
concerned for the welfare of his total neighborhood. 

Mothers are holding families together while their husbands are in 
the service, and there is no age when a child does not need his father. 
The shadow of military service is over every young man and this 
changes the long discussions of what a young man might do in life. 
It makes parents and youth decide to "put things off until you come 
out of the service." 

All of these factors are well known to the members of this commit- 
tee, as well as those of us who work with people, but the vital point I 
wish to make is : Never before in recorded time have parents carried 
such a heavy load of responsibility unassisted. 

We who work in this field must be ever watchful that we do noth- 
ing to weaken this family relationship. When a boy is beginning to 
get in bad company or in some kind of delinquency our first approach 
must be to the parents. We must do everything to help them to handle 
the situation before we do anything with the boy and whatever we do 
must never weaken his respect for his family. 

We represent resources and auxiliary services to the family and any 
role we take in the problems of youth should be in partnership with 
the family. Only when the family does not exist or parental influence 
is completely demoralized or bad should we go further. 

Moreover, social workers and recreation workers are not officers 
of the law and should not presume to move into the area of law 
enforcement. Likewise, the job of the police and the courts is the 
protection of people and property and the humane reeducation of 
persons who have committed crimes. They should not be asked to 
confuse this role and become welfare and recreation workers. 

I also wish that we could spend more of our resources to prevent 
delinquency among young girls. Everyone is all out for the 
delinquent boy. 



164 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

I should like to summarize the points which I believe should be 
highlighted by this committee. Some may involve Federal legisla- 
tion; others may point to State and local control. Perhaps others 
can be better achieved voluntarily as a result of the prestige a recom- 
mendation from this committee will carry. 

1. Backing the president's housing program, including his re- 
quest for low-rent public housing. 

2. Strengthen and tighten the reciprocal agreement of States for 
the apprehension and prosecution of runaway fathers. 

3. Urge strict control of the registration of guns and heavy penal- 
ties for violators. 

4. Urge mandatory penalties for adults who violate the liquor laws 
with a permanent loss of license to those who sell to minors. 

5. A constructive Federal program for transient and runaway 
youth. 

6. Federal aid to education with scholarship aid for youth which 
would allow them to finish high school. 

Perhaps we need a new and revitalized national youth administra- 
tion, probably a new Federal youth commission, which would not only 
give direct aid to youth, but would be a clearinghouse for the study 
of problems of youth. 

While we are confused as to the causes of delinquency we are even 
less in agreement as to the definition of delinquency itself. 

7. Use your prestige to call in national advertisers and purveyors 
of mass media, TV, radio, newpapers, and magazines, to develop pro- 
grams to strengthen family life and help people to be better parents. 

The big audience programs could use spot announcements to sup- 
port many welfare services. They might well use some of these to 
support the family. 

There could be many one-sentence statements such as "If your teen- 
age daughter is out tonight have you met her escort, did you tell him 
what time you expect her to be home?" 

"If your son has a date tonight, do you know if he went to the 
girl's home, or met her on a street corner ?" 

Many such suggestions as this could be given out in the teenage 
shows. Disc jockies might well carry more impact with teenagers 
than teachers and social workers; Ed Sullivan and Bob Hope could 
be welcome aids to confused parents. 

I believe this could be carried out under some kind of special 
advisory committee which would cost the Federal Government nothing 
and be welcomed by every one. 

With this statement I am depositing a copy of a pamphlet. We Can 
Agree, which was prepared by the Parents' Council of Secondary 
Schools of Germantown and Mt. Airy here in Philadelphia. This ia 
a grassroots movement and could well be copied elsewhere. 

The Chairman. It is an unfortunate word, is it not ? 

Mr. BoswoRTH. Is is. 

The Chairman. Without objection, that pamphlet will be made a 
part of the record. Let it be exhibit No. 6. 

(The material referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 6," and reads as 
follows:) 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 165 

We Can Agree 

(Prepared by the Parents' Council of Secondary Schools of Germantown and 

Mt. Airy, Philadelphia) 

PREFACE 

As yonng people mature, they desire more freedom. While they do not mind 
direction, they do resent blind orders without reason. They want, and are 
entitled to have things discussed and explained to them. 

Parents are willing and eager for their children to give vent to their desires to 
socialize. At the same time they are concerned for their safety, health, and 
reputation. 

This pamphlet is offered as a guide for safe and healthful teenage social 
activities. The principles it contains are based on the result of a parent and 
student survey of teenage social problems. The Parents' Council of Secondary 
Schools believes this pamphlet can serve its purpose best within the families 
which adopt it through mutual agreement. 

Is your family one who can say, "We can agree"? 

WE CAN AGREE 

1. Home entertainment 

(a) It is important that parents be at home and available at all times when 
young people entertain. • 

(6) Parents and young folks together should plan entertainment in advance. 
Boredom and confusion lead to mischief. 

(c) Limit the number of guests to a group which can be easily accommodated 
in the home. 

(d) Do not admit party crashers. Help prevent this rude custom. 

(e) Expect proper behavior. Reprimand an unruly guest in pi-ivate. 

(/) Establish definite hours appropriate to the age group. See to it that the 
party terminates at the appointed time. 

2. Suggested hours for termination of social activities 
Junior high age : 

(a) Formals, 11 : 30 p. m. 
(6) Informals 10 : 30 p. m. 

(c) Home parties 11 p. m. 

(d) General dating 10 : 30 p. m. 
Senior high age : 

(a) Formals, 1 a. m. 

(b) Informals. 12 midnight. 

(c) Home parties, 12: 30 a. m. 

(d) General dating, 12 midnight. 

A definite interval of time between end of social engagement and arrival at 
home should be agreed upon between parents and young people. 

Late meandering is a dangerous habit and tends to creat an undesirable 
reputation. 

3. General dating. 

(a) Appropriate dress is a "must" for all occasions. 

(&) Parents and young folks should have a common understanding as to 
where and with whom time is to be spent. 

(c) Follow rules of etiquette. This is essential for social maturity.* 

id) Girl and her parents should agree on a definite time for return. Boy 
should inquire before leaving on date. 

4. Driving. 

(a) Parents' consent should be conditioned by teenager's proof of ability to 
control himself and car. 

(&) Trained instruction is advised and urged. This avoids emotional conflict 
within the home. 

(c) Some responsibility toward maintenance and appearance of the shared 
car should be accepted by the teenager. 

A healthy respect for danger is a good foundation for the embryo driver. 
Reckless driving can jeopardize lives and the economic welfare of an entire 
family. 



166 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

5. Drinking. 

(a) No one has the right to serve any alcoholic beverages to other people's 
children. 

(ft) Public opinion stamps as improper the serving of beer or liquor to any 
high school boy or girl who is a guest in your home. 

(c) Serving drinks to them is not only undesirable and unhealthy but totally 
unnecessary. It creates a situation they are too young to handle with poise and 
good judgment. 

(d) Pennsylvania State law prohibits sale of liquor to minors (under 21 
years) and forbids serving them in any public place. 

C. FnmU]i cooperation. 

(«) Be sincere in the open discussion of friends and activities. Keep an 
open mind, and be willing to modify or n^serve an opinion.^ 

( h ) Discuss freely financial needs and management of money. Plan a budget 
together. 

(c) Family plans should be so organized that individual members can be 
reached in case of emergency or change of plans. 

Parents' Council of Secondary Schools 

Abington Friends School, Jenkintown, Pa. 

Abington Township Schools, Abington, Pa. 

Chestnut Hill Academy, Philadelphia 18, Pa. 

Germantown Academy, Philadelphia 44, Pa. 

Gerniaiitown Friends School, Philadelphia 44, Pa. 

Jenkintown Junior and Senior High Schools, Jenkintown, Pa. 

Ravenliill Academy. I'hiladelphin 44, Pa. 

Springfield I'ownship High School, I'hiladelphia 18, Pa. 

Springside School, Philadelphia 18, Pa. 

Stevens School, Phihtdeli)liia 44, Pa. 

William Penn Charter School, Phila(leU)hia 44, Pa. 



A Clipping From Parents' Bulletin — Germantown Friends School, Januart- 

February 1954 

The following questionnaire has been compiled by the Parents' Council of Sec- 
ondary Schools and is being circulated by parent associations of member schools. 
Give it a whirl. You will undoubtedly find sensitive areas. 

How do you rate as the parent of a dating daughtert 

1. Do you arrange to meet your daughter's escorts? 

2. Do you check on where and with whom time will be spent? 

3. Do you see that she is properly attired for the occasion, and ready when 
called for? 

4. Do you set a definite time for arrival at home? 

5. Does she know that she must set the moral standards? 

6. Do you chaperone your daughter's parties? 

7. Have you advised your daughter that it is no disgrace: 
(a) to leave a party where alcoholic beverages are served? 
(6) to leave a party where the behavior is undesirable? 

(c) not to ride with a reckless driver? 

8. Do you encourage double dating?* 

9. Do you discourage long drives for snacks after dates? 

How do you rate as the parent of a dating son? 

1. Have you trained him to respect the "ladies first" concept? 

2. Does he know that he must assume the role of guardian of his date's repu- 
tation and safety? 

3. Do you check on where and with whom time is to be spent? 

4. Do you see that he is properly attired for the occasion, and that he calls 
for his date at the appointed time? 



^ SuKKPstod rpferencps : (a) Where Are Your Manners? by Barbara Valentine Hertz, 
published by Science Research Association, Inc., 57 West Grand Ave., Chicago 10. Price 
40 cents, (b) How To Live With Parents, by Gladys Gardner Jenkins and Joy Neuman, 
published by Science Research Association, Inc., 57 West Grand Ave., Chicago 10. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 167 

5. Have you trainod him to inquire as to the time his date is expected home? 

6. If your son is a driver, do you forhid overloading of the car, and insist upon 
careful driving? 

7. Do you chaperone your son's parties? 

8. Have you advised your son tliat it is no disgrace? 

(a) to leave a party where alcoliolic l)everages are served? 
(6) to leave a party where tlie behavior is undesirable? 
(c) not to ride with a reckless driver? 

9. Do you encourage double dating? 

10. Do you discourage long drives for snacks after dates? 

Mr. BoswoRTH. All but a small percentage of our youth turn out to 
be fine citizens and all but a small percentage of our parents wish to 
be good parents. 

Such a program as outlined above can do much to counteract the bad 
example we are setting for our youth. We cannot blame youth for 
refusing to assume responsibility and resisting the adult world when 
they see how we act. They see us, the parents and elders, fearful and 
mistrusting of one another, hurling charges and countercharges, 
waging war in every part of the world, and creatinjr weapons of de- 
struction more terrible than anything predicted in tlie llevelation of 
John. 

Our youth will be tomorrow's parents and they should feel that 
citizen groups and government is back of them because all of us 
believe in them. If our j)rograms are based on our belief in tlie innate 
goodness of people we will not only be successful, but we will be 
confirming our democratic strength. 

I end as I began, by saying the antisocial and aggressive behavior 
of youth is a fever chart, tlie symptoms of a disease which is in us, 
the elders. If we wish youth to respect the laws and social structure 
of our adult world, they must see that we know how to live in our 
world as mature people. I have never known a youth to become a 
delinquent if he lived in a family in which he was secure in the love 
of his parents for one another. 

I am equally sure that youth would not become antisocial if they 
lived in a society in wliich adults had mutual faith and respect for 
one another. 

Thank you. 

The Chairman. You have given us a very powerful and potent 
statement. I commend you for it. It will be a guide to this sub- 
committee as it sets about the task of writing its final report to the 
Nation. 

Mr. BoswoRTii. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Does counsel have any questions ? 

Mr. Bono. I would like to ask you, Mr. Bosworth, could you com- 
ment briefly on the housing situation in Philadelphia, as you have 
viewed it? 

Mr. Bosworth. We have 11 depressed areas of the city which pretty 
much correspond to the crime map you saw on the wall here yesterday. 
It is out of those neighborhoods that the vast majority of our juvenile 
delinquency is coming. 

I am a commissioner of our rent control. We still have rent control 
in Philadelphia. Over and again it is the question of multiple dwell- 
ings, old houses converted into use of 4 and .5 and even 9 families 
paying up to $2.5 a room a month with no utilities. 



168 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

These kids are brought up in these families, sleeping in the same 
rooms with the parents, teen-age boys and girls using the same bed- 
room. 

For instance, I liad a mother who said, "I have to go to work, and 
when I come back at 8 o'clock at night— I work in south Jersey — 
when I come back at 8 o'clock at night my teen-age daughter is not 
home. I have to get my sleep to get up in the morning. I bring the 
food in the house. I don't Imow what else to do. Her father has 
disappeared. He has run away on us. I don't know what to do about 
this girl. "WHiat can I do?" 

There are other people living in the house ; she does not even know 
them. 

Certainly housing is one of the most acute problems. It is the one 
problem, the canvas on which all other social problems are painted. 

The Chairman. You have in your guild a self-help housing pro- 
gram ; do you not ? 

ISIr. BoswORTii. Yes ; we do. I think it is an interesting thing. We 
have the first 53 families in, but we are housing some of the people 
who will be in the second part. These people make a 10-percent down- 
payment in their own labor. It is what we call sweat equity. In that 
wav they have a pride of ownership. 

What is more, even if the people in our neighborhood lose their 
television sets and so on because they cannot make the payments — 
after all. they had the money and it is gone — but the memory of the 
backaches are so important that I do not think any of these people 
are p"oing to give up these houses. 

What is more, we have never had any kind of, I would say, aggres- 
sive behavior on the part of any child in this program. It is right 
down in the heart of the sixth police precinct. 

What we have said is that middle-class people who want to make 
something of their lives do not need to go west, they do not need to 
conquer the wilderness, they can lease their suburbs and come right 
down in the heart of the city and settle and work and give leadership 
to our neighborhood. Twenty such families have come down ana 
joined us. 

The Chairman. That is a very encouraging observation. We are 
deeply indebted to you, Mr. Bosworth, for coming here this afternoori. 

]\Ir. BoswoRTii. Likewise, I have heard you mention girl gangs and 
I am })leased })ecause juvenile delinquency is so usually tied up with 
boys. The problems of girls are very acute. They do not destroy 
property as boys do, and, consequently don't often hit the newspapers. 
They destroy lives, including their own, and yet it is the most un- 
popuLar cause that I know of in social work. Nobody wants to help 
a girl tliat is down. Her problem is so largely economic that we do 
need a deep concern and care for the girl who is in trouble. 

The Chairman. The Chair agrees with Mr. Bosworth. 

Thank you very much, sir. 

Mr. Bosworth. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Dr. Reinemann? 

Doctor, we have been swearing all witnesses because some of the 
testimony has been involving specific people and instances. We just 
thought we ought to have the witnesses sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 169 

Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Dr. Reinemann. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. JOHN 0. EEINEMANN, DIRECTOR OF PROBATION, 
PHILADELPHIA MUNICIPAL COURT 

The Chairman. Doctor, will you first give your full name and ad- 
dress and association, for the record? 

Dr. Reinemann. Mv name is John O. Reinemann, living at 21 West 
Phil-Ellena Street, Philadelphia 19. 

I am director of probation of the municipal court of Philadelphia. 

The Chairjman. Doctor, do you have a prepared statement? 

Dr. Reinemann. I have a brief statement to present. 

The Chairman. You just proceed in your own manner. 

Make yourself completely comfortable and at home and proceed 
in your own manner. 

Dr. Reinemann. Thank you, sir. 

I would like to state in the beginning that I would like to read some 
of the ideas I have on the causation and then will address myself to 
the problem as it is seen by tlie probation officer who has direct contact 
with the child charged with delinquency, and if it meets with your 
approval I shall proceed. 

The Chairman. First, I will pose this question for you : Do you 
have sufficient probation officers? 

Dr. Reinemann. No, sir. I shall come to this problem. 

In the search for the causes of the growing problem of juvenile 
delinquency, confusion and emotionalism, too, have played an un- 
wholesome part. Everything from the alleged teaching of communism 
in public schools to children's food allergies has been advanced as 
reasons for juvenile misconduct. 

No doubt, many explanations lying somewhere between such fan- 
tastic extremes have genuine value. There exists, however, a dan- 
gerous tendency of laymen as well as certain experts to single out one 
specific contributing factor, to the exclusion of all others, and thus 
to create a convenient scapegoat on which to blame the entire social ill. 

Case studies have proven that almost invariably a combination of 
circumstances, a multiple causation, produces the delinquent behavior 
of a child. Otherwise, to use an example, it would be impossible to 
explain why the majority of young people refrain from delinquent 
activities in spite of continuous reading of comic books, indiscriminate 
attendance at motion pictures, frequent watching of television per- 
formances, many of which deal abundantly with crime, horror, and 
violence, and in the case of the so-called funnies, often are filled with 
sadism and sex lure. This is not said in defense of the misuse of these 
media of entertainment, nor is this the place to speculate on their 
possibly damaging influence upon the artistic taste and the literary 
interest of our young generation. 

On the other hand, a boy who, as a result of an unhealthy family 
life has become emotionally unstable may very well be found suscepti- 
ble to influences generated by the worst features of these mass media 
and in his delinquent acts may imitate in reality what he has seen and 
heard on the screens or read in the comics. 



170 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Often it is impossible to discover in the individual case situation the 
reasons for a child's aberrations. No X-ray machine is likely to be 
invented that could penetrate man's mind, although it is onlj' fair to 
acknowledge the tremendous progress that has been made during the 
past three decades in the development of psychological tests and psy- 
chiatric diagnoses Avhich enal)le tlie trained practitioner to fathom the 
depth of human conduct motivations. 

Looking at the sum total of delinquency cases and their causation 
"sve may discern a number of reasons or contributing factors that, 
although not necessarily applying to all situations, are found to exist 
with greatest frequency. 

These reasons may be divided into three categories. First, there 
are the traditional causes. In spite of the fact they were mentioned 
30 or 40 years ago in the first books written by sociologists and psy- 
chologists on juvenile delinquency, they have not in any way suffered 
* in the validity and truth. 

I refer to the broken homes and to the blighted areas. Supplement- 
ing the statement which my predecessor at this place has made, Mr. 
Bosworth, I should like to tell the committee that from geographical 
studies of residences of juvenile delinquency, based on recent census 
tracts, it has been found, and this is a very simple figure to remember, 
that there lives in one-twelfth of the city territory one- fourth of our 
population, and one-half of our delinquent children are living in that 
very area. 

I think if you correlate these three figures they take on a great deal 
of significance. 

The Chairman. You are referring specifically to the city of Phil- 
adelphia? 

Dr. Eeinemann. Certainly, I do, sir, but I think there are parallels 
to be found in other metropolitan areas. 

The Chairman. I am sure you are right about that. 

Dr. Reinemann. Second, war and international tensions which have 
prevailed during the last 15 years have created what might be called 
delinquent youths in a delinquent world. 

The uncertainty of the future, the expected draft into military 
service, the threatening possibility of another war, and its predicted 
horror and widely pulalicized destructiveness combine to produce in 
some adolescents a "last fling" attitude, similar to what we saw in 
World AVar II. 

I think to this we can, at least partly, attribute the growing in- 
stances of hotrod driving, or vandalism, of the use of illegal pur- 
chased or homemade guns in gang fights. 

The war economy has been referred to, namely, the fact that one- 
fourth of our mothers of school-age children are gainfully employed 
in industry and commerce. 

I, too, want to stress that I don't think that the large majority of 
these mothers are doing it for their own pleasure or to have more 
spending money for their own, but it is due to the high cost of living 
and the need of maintaining standards of their family life. 

The Chairman. Doctor, we cannot do anything about that, can we 2 
That is a problem we cannot solve. 

Dr. Reinemann. I agree, but I feel it is necessary to stress that it 
is too easy to blame the mother, and let it go at that. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 171 

The Chaikvian. It is a problem without a solution. 

Dr. Reinemann, It is. 

Thirdly, there is reflected in the national crime and delinquency 
picture an attitude which is all too prevalent among many of our 
adult and young citizens, that of disrespect for law and constituted 
authority. Dictators of all eras commanded respect for authority 
and whatever they deigned to call law, through fear, threat, and terror. 

Democratic nations are built upon the voluntary consent of their 
citizens to give themselves laws through their chosen representatives, 
to establish authority through free elections, and to entrust into the 
hands of their elected or duly appointed officials the enforcement of 
laws for the protection and the well being of society as a whole. 

But these high-sounding principles upon which our Nation was 
founded are frequently forgotten in the everyday attitude of all too 
many toward law and law enforcement. 

The child in his most formative period of development is easily 
influenced by such things as his parents' reaction to a police officer s 
admonition to observe traffic rules, their remarks about government 
in general, or about individual public officials — their observance or 
violation of legal statutes. 

For the child the behavior of his father and mother, who in this 
stage of his life are the most important representatives of the adult 
world, is the example to be emulated. Contempt or ridicule of law 
and its enforcement or outright boasting of one's ability to "beat the 
law" as practiced by adults are bound to engender like attitudes in 
the child. They are potent factors in producing juvenile lawlessness. 

So much for the causation. Let me address myself to the specific 
problem which I see as the director of the probation staff attached 
to the municipal court of Philadelphia, which among other jurisdic- 
tions has jurisdiction of an exclusive nature over cases of children 
charged with delinquency in addition to dependency. 

The Chairman. Except in the case of murder, I understand. 

Dr. Reinemann. Except in the case of murder, which in our State 
is always going to the criminal court for adults. 

These are some of the facts that confront the probation officer : In 
1953, 8,322 cases of juvenile delinquency were handled by the munici- 
pal court. This figure represented 2.1 percent of all children 7 to 17 
years of age living in the city, and if related only to the group 14 to 
17 years of age — the age group most frequently contributing to 
juvenile delinquency, 4.3 percent of all Philadelphia children of that 
age group. 

The total for 1953 was 34.3 percent higher than in 1950. Court 
dispositions resulting in probation increased by 50 percent from 1945 
to 1953. 

Although I am happy to see that the judges placed this confidence 
in the probation staff and using probation to a larger extent from 
year to year, it certainly poses problems to which I will refer in a 
moment. 

I also would like to say, anticipating the question as to girl de- 
linquents, that between 1940 and 1953 girl delinquency in percentage 
figures lias increased 50 percent while in 1940 out of lOO delinquents, 
90 were boys and 10 were girls. 

Today the ratio is 85 versus 15. So the girl delinquency has in- 
creased from 10 to 15, of the whole delinquency picture. 



172 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. Do you have any breakdown, Doctor, of the girl 
delinquents, I mean the type of offense ? 

Dr. Eeinemann. Yes. Girl delinquency mostly consists of some 
form of sex offenses which might be called incorrigibility or im- 
morality, but most of it goes back to some kind of sex delinquency, 
but also there is a growing problem so far as truancy of girls is con- 
cerned which we did not have before. 

These are the bright spots as seen by the probation officer In 
Philadelphia : 

In the municipal court, which includes the juvenile court, he i& 
selected for his highly responsible job by merit only, after the success- 
ful passing of a competitive examination administered by a com- 
mittee of leading experts in the fields of public administration, 
sociology, psycholog}^, and law, from the University of Pennsylvania, 
Temple University, and the Philadelphia bar. He is free of political 
pressure and enjoys tenure. A salary increment system has now been 
provided for him. 

I am again proud to mention that because I feel I had something 
to do with achieving this which had been waited for for many years. 

The Chairman. What is the compensation ? 

Dr. Reinemann. We divide the probation officers into three types, 
or groups, according to their degree of responsibility. Probation 
officer 1 receives a base salary of $3,270, which will eventually go up 
in 5 iincrements to $4,108. 

Probation officers with higher responsibility have a salary range 
from $3,423 to $4,300, and supervisory personnel from $3,750 to 
$4,710. 

The Chairman. That is not very high for the responsibility they 
have. 

Dr. Reinemann. It is not, I agree, but it is a great step forward 
compared to what we had before. 

We continue to strive for higher salaries. 

In this daily work the probation officer experiences the fruitful 
cooperation that exists in this city between the court, the private 
child placing agencies, the juvenile aid bureau of the police depart- 
ment, the youth study center, the counseling and attendance services 
of the school system, and the department of public Avelfare. 

There are, however, unmet needs in the services on the city and 
State levels. The probation officer's current caseload is too high. 
Probation is bound to be a failure if — as happens not infrequently — 
it is resorted to by default only, that is, due to lack of institutional 
facilities, especially for deeply emotionally disturbed boys and girls, 
mentally deficient children and certain groups of defective delin- 
quents. There is hope that the current statewide study of training 
and correctional schools will bring about a more complete and ade- 
quate coverage of the diversified needs for children requiring place- 
ment. May I specifically submit these two practical and not too 
costly proposals which I have advocated for several years. They 
are not too costly and, therefore, I hope that they will be carried into 
practice sometime in the future. 

No. 1, forestry camps for the adolescent and young adult female 
offender should be established in this Commonwealth, following the 
example of several other States, like California, Minnesota, Michigan,, 
and other States as well as the Federal correctional system. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 173 

For instance, the Federal Prison Bureau maintains near the Natural 
Bridge in Virginia a very fine forestry camp for the young adult 
offender which as I understand has proved very satisfactory and help- 
ful for the rehabilitation of these young lawbreakers because these 
camps use the device of group living under experienced leadership in 
the open air and the performance of work benefiting the community 
through reforestation and similar projects for the reclamation of 
human lives as well as natural resources. 

No 2, hostels, or after-care centers are vitally needed for the juvenile 
about to be released from a training school or other institution who 
should not return to his own inadequate home, which frequently was 
the primary cause for his drift into delinquenc}^ 

Anybody who works in the courts or institutions will realize this is 
one of our main dilemmas, to release a boy or girl after a successful 
lime in the institution, after all efforts made by institutional persomiel, 
devoted people, to rehabilitate tliese youngsters and then send them 
back into the very same environment from which they came and from 
which their delinquency to a large extent originated. 

In such a center the juvenile would reside under a minimum of 
supervision by devoted and understanding house parents, and the 
maximum of family atmosphere that is possible in a setting of this 
kind. 

From there he would go to school or work in the local community. 

May I tell you in your own State of New Jersey one of these experi- 
ments has been made successfully at Highfielcl, the project on the 
estate of General Lindbergh which he dedicated to the State of New 
Jersey and which is now run by your own very fine State department 
of institutions and agencies. 

The Chairmax. We think we have the best. 

Dr. Reinemann. I could not quite agree with that, but, of course, I 
appreciate very much this fine experiment which has been made in. 
this particular area. 

The Chairman. Commissioner Bates has been a very able 
administrator. 

Dr. Reinemann. So is his deputy. Colonel Bixby. 

The Chairman. I think the two of them are hard to equal. 

Dr. Reinemann. Mr. Goff is also working in your State. 

Finally, anticipating your question, this being a senatorial subcom- 
mittee, regarding action on the Federal level, I would like to submit 
the following. This is a repetition of what has been said before. 

(1) The services of the United States Children's Bureau, which as a 
consultant and advisory agency, has provided pioneering leadership to 
States and local communities in the prevention and control of juvenile 
delinquency, should further be strengthened. 

(2) Using the grants-to-States program of the National Mental 
Health Act of 1946, State governments should be stimulated and en- 
couraged through additional congressional appropriations to develop 
adequate mental health progi-ams with specific emphasis on prevention 
and treatment of emotional disturbances of children which so fi'e- 
quently erupt into serious manifestations of delinquency. 

(3) Mindful that slum conditions are still one of the greatest con- 
tributors to social ills, such as immorality alcoholism, delinquency, and 

46966 — 54 12 



174 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

crime, a public housing progTam should be carried out on a much vaster 
scale than is at present done or envisaged. 

(4) And, finally, knowing of the deep interest which your com- 
mittee and your colleague, Senator Langer, have, in the question of 
support by husbands who have left the State, a uniform support law 
should be enacted by the District of Columbia bringing it into line 
with the 46 States and 2 Territories that have such legislation on their 
statute books. 

This, I feel, has been a very interesting movement which within 
4 or 5 years has caught the imagination and the practical realization 
in 46 State legislatures, making it possible to catch these runaway 
husbands and fathers in practically the whole United States through 
uniform support legislation. 

In our practical experience we have found that unfortuuately the 
District of Columbia has not joined the list. I submit, sir, that some- 
thing could be done by Congress to fill this one gap. 

The Chairman. There are many things that the Congress needs 
to do for the District of Columbia, I can assure you. 

Dr. Reinemann. These laws have proven adequate and helpful in 
forcing husbands and fathers who have deserted into other States to 
support their wife and children and thus to prevent further break- 
down of these families and possible dependency and delinquency of 
their children. 

To give you an illustration of the extensive use made of this legis- 
lation, in our own city of Philadelphia in 1953, 686 cases were proc- 
essed in the domestic relations division of the Municipal Court of 
Philadelphia in which Pennsylvania was the initiating State, and 
254 cases in which Pennsylvania was the responding State. 

In other words, where the husband and father is living here while 
his wife and children are residing in 1 of the other 46 States and 
2 Territories. 

That concludes my statement, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

You mentioned uniform laws at one place there. Dr. Reinemann. 
The Chair here has felt for a long while if we could get uniform laws 
througliout the 48 States to treat with this subject of juvenile de- 
linquency we would make a very forward step. 

It will be of great value to the Nation. Would you care to comment 
on that? 

Dr. Reixejiann. Do I understand you correctly, Senator that this 
would require Federal legislation? 

The Chairman. No, State legislation, but uniform legislation. 

Dr. Reinemann. I would very much approve of that. I don't think 
Federal legislation is necessary, but uniform State legislation would 
certainly be of great benefit. 

The Chairman. Congress is not going to invade the rights of States 
in this field. We do hope we can furnish the leadership which will 
encourage the State legislatures of the 48 States to make more uniform 
the laws that cover this very important field. 

Dr. Reinemann. This might include also other areas of family laws 
such as divorce legislation and other family matters of support as 
well as custody and guardianship. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 175 

The Chairman. You mentioned the Langer bill. The Senator from 
[New Jersey is a sponsor of that bill. The subcommittee is really the 
sponsor of that bill. 

I hope we pass it at this session of the Congress. 
Dr. Reinemann. Thank you, sir. 
The Chairman. ]SIr. Bobo, do you have any questions ? 
Mr. BoBO. I have 1 or 2 questions. 

Dr. Eeinemann, could you give us the number of probation officers 
which you have on your staff at the present time? 

Dr. Reinemann. Yes, sir. I will confine my remarks to those who 

are actually concerned with and assigned to the handling of juveniles. 

We have in the juvenile division 42 probation officers, and in the 

men's and women's divisions, which also handle older boys and older 

girls, a total of 23. This does not include supervisory personnel. 

So we have a total of about 05 to 70. 

However, I would like to say that 23 of them are also assigned to 
the handling of wayward minors above 18 years of age and to certain 
cases of criminal offenders who are adults like alcoholics, cases of 
prostitution, and so forth. 

If you would put it in the form of actual people working in the 
juvenile field, the juvenile field only, it is 42, and it should also be 
taken into consideration that the Juvenile Court of Pennsylvania, 
especially Philadelphia, includes cases of dependency and neglect. 

The Chairman. We have had a lot of testimony over the country 
and also in Washington the other day about the inadequacy of the 
number of probation officers. 

What do you feel would be an adequate number for your staff, or do 
you feel the number you have now is adequate in handling juveniles? 
Dr. Reinemann. As I already said in the very beginning in answer 
to the question of the Senator, t do not feel that our staff is adequate 
so far as numbers are concerned. The caseload in our juvenile division 
is at present 91.7 which is by far too high, using the optimum provided 
as a standard by the United States Children's Bureau of 50. 

So I certainly would hope our city council will see fit in the next 
appropriation for 1955 to give us additional money so that we can 
at least increase our staff by 25 percent. It would not be enough, but 
at least we should certainly then have the possibility of approaching 
that goal which all of our officers would like to reach of a more ade- 
quate coverage of our children entrusted to our care. 

Mr. BoBO. In addition to the regular probation work the probation 
officer is also provided at a prehearing investigation ? 

Dr. Reinemann. Yes; he is assigned to both investigation before 
the juvenile-court hearing and probation after the child is placed on 
probation, the same officer. 

Mr. BoBO. You provide him to the extent of the pretrial investiga- 
tion? 

Dr. Reinemann. Everything in the case that comes before the juve- 
nile court is investigated from the social angle and also he receives 
a medical examination including psychiatric diagnosis. 

Mr. BoBO. Your probation officers have a requirement that they 
must pass a competitive examination. Are there other requirements 
you have set up as educational requirements, experience requirements? 



;[7g JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Dr Reinemann. The admission to the examination is a minimum of 
a bachelor's degree. Due to the salaries which I have mentioned, we 
cannot at this point have higher requirements. Many of them, how- 
ever, have master's degrees in the fields of either psychology or 

sociology. . . ^re- 

in addition to that I am conducting m my own statt an in-service 
training program after they have entered the service. 

The Chairman. Judge Laws, who is one of our great and distm- 
o-uished jurists in this country, made the statement before this sub- 
committee last Friday in Washington that we had some 7,000 proba- 
tion officers throughout the country. He said we actually needed 

40,000. 

Dr. Reinemann. I certainly can agree with thxit statement. 

The Chairman. You agree'with the judge? 

Dr. Reinemann. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. I could not help but agree with the judge. 

Thank you very much, Dr. Reinemann. You have been quite help- 
ful. I know that the subcommittee staff will be calling on you from 
time to time for advice and counsel. 

I might ask, have you read our interim report? 

Dr. Reinemann. Not yet. I just received the news from the Chil- 
dren's Bureau that it is available. I shall write to Washington at 
once. 

The Chairman. We should like to have comments from you as to 
what you think about the report. If your comment must be critical 
we would like it to be critical. 

Dr. Reinemann. I shall be delighted to submit any comments I can, 

I should like to say that I was very happy to listen to your statement 
before the Pennsylvania Citizens Association a few months ago here 
in Philadelphia, especially as to the causation of juvenile delinquency. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Dr. Reinemann. Your 
formal statement will be incorporated in the record at this point. Let 
it be exhibit No. 7. 

(The statement referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 7," and reads 

as follows:) 

Juvenile Delinquency and the Community 

By John Otto Reinemann, Ph. D., director of probation, 
Municipal Court of Phihidelphia 

The reaction to the current publicity on juvenile delinquency in the United 
States has unfortunately been characterized by a somewhat hysterical attitude 
both to its extent and to its causation. Yet, only through an unbiased and 
scientific approach to this problem — as to so many others in the national arena — 
can we hope to attack it with any measure of success. Let us examine the record 
objectively. 

THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM' 

Throughout the country a very considerable increase of cases of juvenile 
tielinquency known to police authorities and juvenile courts has been reported 
during recent years. According to the United States Children's Bureau, there 
has been a nationwide rise of juvenile-court cases amounting to 29 percent 
between 1948 and 1952, while the total number of children, 10 to 17 years old 
(i. e., the age group in which delinquency is most likely to occur) increased no 
more than 6 percent during this period. In Philadelphia, the alltime high of 
9,238 cases in the last year of World War II was followed by a marked decline 
in 1946 and 1947, a leveling off in the statistical curve in 1948 and 1949, and a 
further decrease in the first 9 months of 1950. However, the general downward 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 177 

trend of the postwar period came to an abrupt halt in the hitter part of 1950, 
shortly after hostilities in Korea had started. Since then a continuous increase 
has been recorded, amounting to 8,322 cases in 1953, i. e., 34.3 percent more than 
in 1950. 

Comparing this figure with the total number of children of juvenile court age — 
namely 7 to 17 years — living in the city of Philadelphia, we obtain a delinquency 
ratio of 2.1 percent. If we conflue our statistical comparison to the group, 14 
through 17 years of age, which is most frequently represented in delinquency 
incidences, the rate is 4.3 percent of the total child population of this age range. 
These two sets of statistical figures should govern our thoughts and actions. 
It would be just as imprudent to ignore the juvenile delinquency phenomenon 
because it appears to be small in realtive figures, it would be unfair to 
exaggerate the extent of youth crime beyond its actual scope and to make it 
appear as if the entire young American generation had forsaken all moral 
standards. In the face of sensationalism and bewilderment we must retain our 
sense of proportion and at the same time be deeply concerned about the future 
development of the 350,000 boys and girls under IS years of age who — -it is 
estimated — are annually brought to the attention of juvenile courts throughout 
the country on delinquency charges. 

A particularly disturbing factor is that juveniles are now involved in serious 
violations of law to a much greater extent than ever before. The reports of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation show that in 1951 automobile thefts by young 
people under 18 years of age were up more than half from the 1948 level ; robbery 
increased 25 percent, burglary 15 percent, and assault 10 percent. There also 
seems to be a shift in the age level, in that a growing number of children are 
getting into trouble at an earlier time of their lives. Although the majority 
of boys and girls who come before juvenile courts for delinquent behavior are 
between 15 and 17 years of age, approximately 35 percent of them were arrested 
before on one or more occasions ; in a sample study of 500 delinquent boys — 
mentioned in the excellent pamphlet Some Facts About Juvenile Delinquency, 
published by the Children's Bureau of the United States Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare — it was revealed that the age at which the largest 
number first appeared in court was between 11 and 13 years and that nine-tenths 
of these same children have had marked difficulties in adjusting to normal 
social life before they were 11 years old. 

THE CAUSES OF JUVENILE CEIME 

In the search for the causes of the growing problem of juvenile delinquency, 
confusion, and emotionalism, too, have played an unwholesome part. Everything 
from the alleged teaching of communism in public schools to children's food 
allergies has been advanced as reasons for juvenile misconduct. No doubt, many 
explanations lying somewhere between such fantastic extremes have genuine 
value. There exists, however, a dangerous tendency of laymen as well as certain 
experts to single out one specific contributing factor, to the exclusion of all others, 
and thus to create a convenient scapegoat on which to blame the entire social ill. 

Case studies have proven that almost invariably a combination of circum- 
stances — a multiple causation — produces the delinquent behavior of a child. 
Otherwise — to use an example — it would be impossible to explain why the 
majority of young people refrain from delinquent activities in spite of continuous 
reading of comic books, indiscriminate attendance at motion pictures, frequent 
watching of television performances, many of which deal abundantly with crime, 
horror, and violence, and in the case of so-called funnies, often are filled with 
sadism and sex lure. ( This is not said in defense of the misuse of these media of 
entertainment, nor is this the place to speculate on their possibly damaging 
influence upon the artistic taste and the literary interest of our young genera- 
tion.) On the other hand, a boy who as a result of an unhealthy family life has 
become emotionally unstable may very well be found susceptible to influences 
generated by the worst features of these mass media and in his delinquent acts 
may imitate in reality what he had seen and heard on the screens or read in the 
comics. 

Often it is impossible to discover in the individual case situation the reasons 
for a child's aberations. No X-ray machine is likely to be invented that could 
penetrate man's mind, although it is only fair to acknowledge the tremendous 
progress that has been made during the past 3 decades in the development of 
psychological tests and psychiatric diagnoses which enable the trained practi- 
tioner to fathom the depth of human conduct motivations. 



178 JirV'ENILE DELINQUENCY 

Looking at the sum total of delinquency cases and their causation we may 
discern a number of reasons for contributing factors that — although not neces- 
sarilj' applying to all situations — are found to exist with greatest frequency. 

These reasons may be divided into three categories : First, there are the tradi- 
tional causes — the broken home, the slums, and racial discrimination — which 
were cited in the early sociological books dealing with the juvenile-delinquency 
problem. The 30- or 40-year-old patina of their discovery does not make them 
less important and true today. 

It is estimated that in this country 6 million children are living in homes 
broken by death, divorce, or desertion. Need we again warn against generaliza- 
tions? The large majority of children who are victims of conditions that caused 
the broken home are brought up well, often under the most difficult circumstances 
by the valiant efforts of — let us say — a widowed or deserted mother. But it is 
true, too, that about 50 percent of delinquent children before the juvenile court 
of Philadelphia (and equally so before courts throughout the land) come from 
broken homes. 

Slums of our cities and in rural areas continue to produce crime and de- 
linquency. Using again Philadelphia as an example, we know that in an area 
that covers one-twelfth of the territory of the whole city and is lowest in stand- 
ards of housing and sanitation, there live one-fourth of the total population and 
one-half of all children refei'red to court for delinquency. Wherever there was 
slum clearance, a remarkable reduction of juvenile delinquency could be ob- 
served, as reports from public low-rent housing projects in many cities indicate. 

Children from racial minority groups are more frequently represented in the 
delinquency statistics than their general proportion in the population. In spite 
of great and encouraging advances on all fronts of intei'group relations and inter- 
cultural understanding, discrimination, and segregation still exist and are re- 
sponsible for frustration, warped attitudes, rebellious feelings, delinquency, and 
crime. 

Second, war and international tensions which have prevailed during the last 1-5 
years have created what may be called delinquent youths in a delinquent world. 
The uncertainty of the future, the expected draft into military service, the 
threatening possibility of another war and its predicted and widely publicized 
destructiveness, combine to produce in some adolescents a last-fling attitude. 
To this we can — at least partly— attribute the growing instances of hot-rod driv- 
ing, of vandalism, of the use of illegally purchased or homemade guns in gang 
fights. 

Another result of war and defense economy is the high number of working 
mothers. According to the Women's Bureau of the United States Department 
of Labor, almost 1 out of every 4 mothers with children under 18 years of age 
were gainfully employed in business or industry in 1952. In most instances, as 
shown by surveys, these women were prompted to seek jobs by the high cost 
of living and the need for additional income in order to maintain the family's 
living standard. The result obviously was diminished supervision of the children 
in the home, which had its particularly telling effect on many girls. Female 
juvenile delinquency has increased all over the country. While, for instance, 
in Philadelphia the proportion of girls in the total delinquency picture in 1939 
was 10 percent, the ratio of girls' cases to boys' cases in 19.53 was 15 to 85, i. e., 
girls' delinquency rose by 50 percent during this period. 

Thirdly, there is reflected in the national crime and dolinqnenry picture an 
attitude which is all too prevalent among many of our adult and young citizens, 
that of disrespect for law and constituted authority. Dictators of all eras 
commanded respect for authority and whatever they deigned to call law, through 
fear, threat, and terror. Democratic nations are built upon the voluntary consent 
of their citizens to give themselves laws through their chosen representatives. 
to establish authority through free elections, and to entrust into the hands of 
their elected or duly appointed officials the enforcement of laws for the protection 
and the wellheing of society as a whole. But these high-sounding principles 
upon which our Nation was founded are frequently forgotten in the everyday 
attitude of all too many toward law and law enforcement. The child in his 
most formative period of development is easily influenced by such things as his 
parents' reaction to a police officer's admonition to observe traffic rules, their 
remarks about government in general or about individual public officials, their 
observance or violation of legal statutes. For the child the behavior of his father 
and mother, who in this stage of his life are the most important representatives 
of the adult world, is the example to be emulated. Contempt or ridicule of law 
and its enforcement or outright boasting of one's ability to beat the law, as 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 179 

practiced by adults are bound to engender like attitudes in the child. They are 
potent factors in producing juvenile lawlessness. 

ATTACK ON THE PROBI-EM 

Just as the reason for juvenile delinquency has been found in a conibinatioD 
of .several contributing factors (and the list of such contributing factors, cited 
above, cannot claim to be exhaustive), so must the attack upon the problem be 
a multiple one. We pointed to the danger of the scapegoat approach to the 
causation of youthful misconduct; the same danger exists in respect to the 
many proposed remedies for the evil. We are constantly bombarded with such 
suggestions and admonitions as "stop coddling the young criminal," "punish the 
neglectful parents," "institute evening curfews." "teach more religion," "censor 
the comic books," etc. No doubt, much good advice is offered by well-intentioned 
and serious-minded people ; what is needed, however, is a concerted and concen- 
trated assault upon all the forces that are at the root of the juvenile delinquency 
cancer. 

This attack must be twofold, a curative one in the cases of juveniles who 
already have committed unlawful acts, and a preventive one, in order to fore- 
stall the spreading of delinquent attitudes among children who have not yet 
gotten into trouble. The first is a primarily individual approach ; the second 
is largely one of community action. 

A treatment program for juvenile delinquents requires the existence of the 
following services : In the police department there should be specially trained 
officers for the handling of juvenile cases ; in larger cities, a special unit should 
be set up exclusively for such cases. Policewomen should be employed for the 
handling of girls in trouble. 

After a child is arrested, he is taken to a place of detention and there it is 
determined whether he should be kept in custody pending the juvenile court 
hearing or may be released into the home of his parents. The period of de- 
tention should be utilized for social and psychological study of the child's 
potentialities and weaknesses so that a full picture of the child's personality 
be gained. Unfortunately, too many of our delinquent children throughout the 
country are still held in jails, but due to citizens' awareness, more and more 
communities are building special detention homes for juveniles. 

The role of the juvenile court in delinquency treatment lies in the effective 
combination of its functions of law enforcement and social welfare work. These 
two functions are not incompatible. Noncriminal procedure, including informal 
court hearings, can well impress the child and his parents with the dignity of 
the law through the personality of an able judge who combines firmness with 
social understanding. 

One of the most important prerequisites for a well-functioning juvenile court 
Is a staff" of probation officers who are selected on merit only, are well trained 
and adequately paid, have the security of tenure and are not burdened with an 
excessive caseload. One of their main functions is to make a thorough case 
study before the juvenile court hearing and thus to apprise the judge of the 
personality characteristics and the environmental background of the child. Pro- 
bation officers are further responsible for the supervision of juveniles placed 
on probation by the court ; this assignment is performed through contacts with 
the child and his family in the parental home and through the use of community 
resources especially in the educational and recreational fields for the benefit of 
the boys' and girls' healthful development. There further should he available to 
the court a diagnostic clinic, consisting of physicians, psychologists, and 
psychiatrists. 

Foster home care, until now almost exclusively used for dependent and 
neglected children, should be open for children who though technically delin- 
quent, have not yet become too deeply ingrained in antisocial habits and can be 
salvaged through interested and able foster parents. 

Every State should have a coordinated program of institutional facilities 
serving the diversified needs of children committed to them by the various 
juvenile courts in the counties. No institution should be so large that the child 
merely becomes a number. Training schools ought to be staffed with men and 
women who are well prepared for their job and who can bring into the institution 
a spirit of understanding and of willingness to help the juvenile toward his 
adjustment to a normal life in the free community. Their pay and working 
conditions should be such that qualified and devoted people are attracted. 
Counseling, as well as psychiatric services, should be available in the institutions. 



180 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

From the very beginning, the intramural program should be geared toward the 
child's release into his home community. In order to achieve this, more and 
more institutional representatives now work with the parents In whose custody 
the child eventually will return, so that the family is prepared to receive the 
•child and to continue the rehabilitative work started in the institution. But 
there are still numerous homes which in their inadequacy were the primary 
<?ause for the child's drifting into delinquencies and to which the child should 
not return. There is a great need for hostels or after-care centers with a 
minimum of supervision into which boys, after institutional placement, are 
released and which provide as much of a family atmosphere as possible ; while 
residing there they would go to school or to work in the community. 

For the adolescent and young adult offender, several States of the Union have 
fjuccessfully established forestry camps ; they use the device of group living 
tinder expert leadership in the open air and the performance of work benefiting 
the community through reforestation and similar projects for the reclamation 
of human lives as well as of natural resources. 

From the foregoing outline it can be seen that any intelligent approach to the 
problem of treating the juvenile delinquent requires a coordinated effort on the 
various levels of government. INIany steps in the right direction have been 
taken. Much, however, still remains to be done everywhere. 

In the broader field of prevention of juvenile misbehavior that may lead into 
forms of more serious delinquency and possibly later adult criminality, numer- 
ous public and private agencies can contribute their share to this truly noble task. 

Large classes in our schools make it impossible for the teacher to devote 
much time and interest to the pupil, who, through unruly behavior, lack of 
attention and poor scholastic work, might indicate an emotional disturbance 
and the need for special assistance in his adjustment to school and community 
life. If it is impossible to have smaller classes, where the teacher can concen- 
trate more on the Individual pupil, school social services should be provided 
through which attendance officers and counselors can supply needed social case- 
work help to the child and his family. The adjustment of curricula for the 
physically handicapped child and the establishment of special schools, or, at 
least, special classes for the mentally retarded child, are increasingly recog- 
nized as important features of a modern program of public education. It has 
been a truism to state that delinquency, in a large percentage of cases, starts 
out with truancy or school misbehavior ; these warning signals should be heeded 
at an early time so that deeper involvements of children in antisocial attitudes 
and activities may be avoided. 

Recreation, though not a panacea, will help to direct unspent energies of 
young people into useful channels of activity. More and more city administra- 
tions realize their ol)ligation to provide cultural and physical recreation pro- 
grams as part of public services. They supplement the valuable leisure time 
activities as offered by such private agencies as settlement houses, neighbor- 
hood centers and boys' clubs. How useful and constructive projects can prevent 
mischievous behavior, has, for instance, been proven during the past few years 
at the Halloween season. Many neighborhood and civic organizations have 
organized recreational programs on these evenings and thus helped with con- 
siderable success to keep youngsters out of serious mischief. As a special 
feature, window-painting contests, stinmlated the artistic and competitive spirit 
of high-school students, and in a new kind of "trick or treat" activity that was 
sponsored by church and other groups, children in nearly 1,200 communities 
collected clothes and money for the United Nations' Children's Emergency Fund. 

Keeyiing in mind that slum conditions (as mentioned before) are still one 
of the greatest contributors to social ills, such as immorality, alcoholism, 
delinquency, and crime, a public-housing program should be carried out on a 
much vaster scale than is at present done or envisaged. 

Throughout the country there is a decided lack of mental health and child 
guidance clinics. Intensive psychiatric help to many a disturbed child would f^o 
far toward preventing delinquent behavior. Due to the want of such clinics 
and the long waiting lists of those in existence, needed services are often not 
available until it is too late. Some States have successfully used traveling 
psychological clinics in order to reach smaller towns and rural areas on stated 
dates. 

Clinics of this kind staffed with psychiatrists, psychologists, and social 
workers, together with family service and marriage counseling agencies, would 
be able to straighten out many difficult family situations, marital misunder- 
standings, and condition in homes that could not be called broken in the ordinary 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 181 

sociological sense of the word, but are "psychologically broken" because of 
their morally unhealthy climate. In a well-rounded program of family counsel- 
ing and casework service, there lies one of the most potent tools for preventing a 
child from becoming insecure, rebellious, and eventually antisocial. 

Much good would come from a citizenship program, both on the juvenile and 
adult education level, that would stress the importance of neighborly living 
together, free of religious and racial prejudice. 

A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE 

In view of the climbing birthrate immediately after World War II, it is 
expected that in 1960 there will be 40 percent more children between the ages 
of 10 and 17 years than there were in 1952. Shall we complacently expect a 40 
percent rise in our juvenile delinquency rate within the next 6 years, if, for no 
other reason, solely as a result of the population increase? Would it not be 
more economical from a financial point of view and certainly more desirable 
from a social and moral point of view, to do our best now in providing treatment 
as well as prevention programs to stem the tide of juvenile delinquency? 

If there is one desirable upshot of the current publicity on juvenile delin- 
quency, it is that many citizens now seem to be convinced that something must 
be done about this social ill, that, in other words, the community has at last 
become "delinquency-conscious." Those of us who are seriously concerned about 
this matter, should utilize to the fullest the public interest that has been 
aroused. The community must realize that only through the bending of all 
its efforts, including the making of financial sacrifices, will there be a chance 
of removing from our national shield the blemish of an ever growing number of 
young laAvbreakers. Only then will we be able to give guidance and direction 
to those young people who already have had brushes with the law or who are 
in danger of falling into antisocial habits, and to help them to become citizens 
who will contribute their full share to the future development of this country 
as a great democratic Nation. 



Wanted in Pennsylvania : Forestry Camps for the Rehabilitation of 

Delinquents 

By John Otto Reinemann, Director of Probation, Municipal Court of Philadelphia 

(Note. — This article appears simultaneously in The Prison Journal and The 
Quarterly, publication of the Pennsylvania Association on Probation and Parole. ) 

The principle of study and classification of the offender, so that his special 
needs can be detected and (if possible) met, has made great strides in recent 
years. However, the translation into practice of this principle is seriously 
hampered and often nulified if not sufficiently variegated institutional facilities 
are available. Pennsylvania is at present lacking a diversified'program of penal 
and correctional institutions. The i-ecommendations of the Ashe committee 
which were endorsed by Governor Martin and implemented by the 1945 legisla- 
ture, would, if carried out, greatly advance the penal and correctional system of 
our State. 

One type of facility which in other parts of the country has successfully func- 
tioned for many years, has until now been overlooked in our Commonwealth. 
It is the forestry camp. 

THE CALIFORNIA EXPERIENCE 

California has pioneered in the establishment of forestry camps and ranches 
for delinquent boys. There are now in operation about 15 such camps in Cali- 
foi'nia, either State-administered, i. e. directly under the youth authority, or 
under county auspices with financial subsidies from the State. Cooperating 
agencies are the State board of forests and the department of natural resources. 
Some of the county camps are under the direct supervision of the chief probation 
officer, with the camp supervisors rating as assistant probation officers ; in other 
counties a board of directors, comprising judges, including the juvenile court 
judge, a probation officer and a member of the board of county supervisors, is 
responsible. 

The buildings are similar to the CCO camp structures. In some instances, 
the boys themselves helped to erect the buildings. 



182 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The boys are committed to the camps by the juvenile court or placed there by 
the youth authority. Accordintr to O. H. Close, member of the California Youth 
Authority, writinir on California Camps for Delinquents in the Yearbook for 1945 
of the National Probation Association (pp. 136 sqq.), "the cases for placement 
in camps are carefully selected ; feebleminded boys, boys with faulty sex habits, 
arsonists and serious delinquent types are excluded". 

The ases are from 12 to 18; in some counties, special junior camps for the 12 
to 1.5 year group are established. The population ranges from 30 to 100. The 
monthly per cajnta cost in 104.") varied between $60 and .$100 a month. The 
public school system assigns teachers. The county or State forest authorities 
furnish supervisors for the work of the boys ; these activities consist of foresta- 
tion or I'eforestation, soil erosion control, biiildlng and maintenance of roads, 
trails and breaks for fire prevention, and emergency fire fighting. Medical care 
-and religious services are provided for. 

The length of stay varies. In the 5 camps, operated in Los Angeles County, 
it iisually does not exceed 26 weeks : after release into the community the boys 
remain under the supervision of probation oflScers. 

The amount of failures in the Los Angeles County camps, measured in terms 
of need for jilacement in correctional training schools, is 10 percent. A similar 
fiigure is reported from the Log Cabin Ranch, operated by the San Francisco juve- 
nile court. 

THE FEDERAL EXPERIMENT 

In more recent years, the United States Department of Justice has developed a 
similar program for juvenile Federal offenders in the Natural I>ridge Camp. 
The 1946 report of the Federal Bureau of Prisons states that "the notable progress 
of the camp in its second year of operation provides further justification for the 
€stal)lishment of such a demonstration project. Primarily the camp is a logical 
product of our increasing conviction that the traditional training-school program 
fails to meet fully the needs of many youths. The camp is located in a healthful 
mountainous section of western Virginia, in the Jefferson National Forest. For 
many of the youngsters the program offers a genuinely new experience in out- 
<loor living: it provides the opportunity for them to pit their normal adolescent 
aggression against tlie forces of nature. The pioneering aspect of the camp pro- 
gram has been of particular importance. The camp itself, an abandoned CCC 
project, was in poor repair at the time of occupancy, and the boys have shared 
with the stafl: in the creative experience of building and remodeling to bring the 
housing and other facilities up to satisfactory standards. There is plenty of this 
work still to be done. Other camp projects provide experience and training which 
is scarcely less valuable. The boys work on forestry projects such as trail 
building, roadside stabilization, telephone-line maintenance, pulpwood produc- 
tion, fire suppression and the like. * * * Organized recreational and group social 
activities also have their place in the program. * * * There is boy participation 
on camp committees which woi'k with staff members for the improvement of all 
aspects of camp Iffe. * * * The heart of the program lies in the relationship be- 
tween individual staff members and boys, and in the fundamentally democratic 
organization of camp life. Men selected as counselors have been chosen primarily 
for their ability to lead youngsters and to understand their problems. Each 
■coun.selor acts as an adviser and leader to a team of 10 boys. * * ♦" 

A CHALUENGE FOB PENNSYLVANIA 

Pennsylvania, with its large and beautiful forests, would have many sites 
for such camps. At the peak period of the CCC program, in October 1935, 
100 CCC camps were in operation under the jurisdiction of the department of 
forests and waters ; in 1937, 49 CCC camps were located in forests or State game 
lands. (Source: The Pennsylvania Manual, 1937, p. 113.) Many of these loca- 
tions would well serve the purpose of forestry camps for boys committed by the 
juvenile courts. 

What type of boy would benefit from a stay in a forestry camp? What 
delinquency situation would be met most adequately by this rehabilitative 
mea.sure? Its range of operation would lie between the following categories of 
cases. On the one hand, there are cases in wliich probation cannot succeed due 
to the continuous adverse influences of home environment or the youngster's 
pronounced emotional disturbances which defy the best efforts of a probation 
officer. On the other side, there are cases which, though requiring a somewhat 
controlled placement situation and intensive supervision, are not apt to benefit 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 183 

from commitment to training or correctional schools with a large inmate 
population and a strict impersonal disciplinary regime. 

One could think, for instance, of the boy who is referred to the juvenile court 
by his parents on account of his incorrigibility ; or, the youngster spoiled at home 
who is in danger of becoming a loafer; older boys without home and family and 
stranded in one of our cities ; boys of school age referred to the court for truancy, 
who have reached their educational limits for academic training; those at 
present placed on probation, with misgivings, only because institutional facilities 
are lacking; those older boys at present committed to houses of correction or 
workhouses for short-term placement, again due to dearth of proper institutional 
facilities. These are just a few examples of what might be called situations 
of medium delinquency. 

The advantages found in the forestry camp program, from the veiwpoint of 
meetii^g the individual's needs, are: (1) forestry camps are small units which 
make it possible to give the individual boy adequate and personal suiiervision ; 
(2) forestry camps have no external institutional characteristics; (3) forestry 
camps are operated on the minimum security principle; (4) they provide work 
in the open air; (5) they teach team spirit and resourcefulness; (6) they 
create in the boy a feeling of doing a constructive tangible job which benefits the 
community; (7) It can also l)e expected that there would be less, if any, social 
stigma attached to forestry camp commitments. 

Viewed from the community standpoint, forestry camps are of advantage, 
because, (1) they do not require costly buildings; (2) their per capita cost is 
reasonably low ; (3) they help in conserving, improving and protecting the State's 
natural resources ; (4) they pay dividends in terms of rehabilitated young citizens. 

Many practitioners in the field, judges, probation officers, educators, psychia- 
trists, and social vrorkers, have expressed their belief that such a program would 
be of great value in Pennsylvania. A beginning should be made with cam]>s 
lor boys of juvenile court age (at the time of admission) ; to divide such camps 
in junior and senior camps, as in California, seems to be advisable. At a later 
time, the idea might be expanded to include youthful offenders of IS years and 
over. To what extent the mentally deficient boy of the higher moron level can 
profit from such placement, has to be explored further. This article does not 
attempt to cover all details; its purpose is to stimulate thinking along these 
lines and to call for practical measures. 

The penal affairs committee of the Public Charities Association of Pennsyl- 
vania, through its secretary, Leon T. Stern, has included forestry camps in its 
recommendations to the committee on delinquency of the Joint State Government 
Commission, headed by State representative, Mrs. Jeanette M. Dye, at the 
committee's hearing in Harrisburg on February 11, 194S. The proposal reads, 
in part: 

"Such forestry camps should be year-around projects and would therefore 
require permanent but not costly buildings, camp equipment and facilities for 
education and training. This program could be used for a considerable number 
of youtlis, and would save the State expense in its building program since it 
would not be so expensive as building piisons and reformatories for the group 
that coiild be sent to forestry camps. The foresti'y camp service should be 
under the joint supervision of the department of forests and waters and the 
department of welfare, the department of forests and waters taking charge of 
the projects and work assignments and the department of welfare suiiervising 
the youths including their housing and training. * * * We recommend that the 
Joint State Government Commission request the legislature to make a limited 
appropriation for setting up experimental forestry camps for the training of 
youthful offenders under the supervision of the department of welfare in co- 
operation with the department of forests and waters. " 

If, as the first State in the East, Pennsylvania would establish forestry camps 
for the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents, it would indeed perform a truly 
"trail-blazing" job. 

The Chairman. In our hearings yesterday we had considerable 
testimony about minors drinking in the taverns of Philadelphia. The 
United Tavern Owners Association of Philadelphia is represented 
here today. I think they want to be heard on this subject. It has 
been decided that they should have that privilege. 

Mr. O'Keefe. My name is O'Keefe. I represent the United Tavern 
Owners Association. I have gotten together here three men today. 



184 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

One is from the Philadelphia association, 1 from the State associa- 
tion, and 1 from the national association. 

They will make comments that I think will be helpful to the 
committee. 

The Chairman. Fine. 

We have been swearing all witnesses. If you will all be sworn to- 
gether, it will save time. 

Mr. Bono. Mr. Cavanaugh, of the Philadelphia Ketail Liquor 
Dealers' Association, is also present. 

The Chairman. Do you all solemnly swear that the testimony you 
will give to this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of 
the United States Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God. 

Mr. O'Keefe. I do. 

Mr. Cavanaugh. I do. 

Mr. Cahill. I do. 

Mr. Aman. I do. 

Mr. Radeloff. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DEEW J. T. O'KEEFE, COUNSEL, UNITED TAVERN 
OWNERS ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Mr. O'Keefe. Mr. Aman, the secretary of the Tavern Owners As- 
sociation of Philadelphia, has a prepared statement he would like to 
make and these other two gentlemen have comments on that statement. 

The Chairman. Will you state your full name, address, and your 
association, for the record ? 

TESTIMONY OF CARL AMAN, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, UNITED 
TAVERN OWNERS ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA, PHILADEL- 
PHIA, PA. 

Mr. Aman. My name is Carl Aman, 6907 Oakley Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

1 am executive secretary of the United Tavern Owners Association 
of Philadelphia, Pa. At the outset,.! want to extend to this commit- 
tee, on behalf of the association, my appreciation for this opportunity 
to be of help in combating juvenile delinquency in the United States. 

I represent a business association of 1,100 tavern owners in Phila- 
delphia who have, as one of their major objectives, the fostering of 
good relationships between tavern owners, the law-enforcement au- 
thorities charged with the enforcement of the laws and regulations 
which govern our business, and the general public who, in the last 
analysis, are tlie persons we have to thank for our business. We are 
conscious of the responsibility we have of conducting law-abiding es- 
tablishments which will be done with the general approval of these 
enforcement officials and the general public. We have engaged for 
years in an educational campaign to our members and, through the 
trade papers, to all licensees in Pennsylvania, urging a strict abidance 
of the laws and regulations governing our business in order that our 
business may enjoy the respect that the vast majority of liquor licensees 
feel they are entitled to by their efforts to conduct law-abiding 
establishments. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 185 

At this point I would also like to say that I am on the board of 
directors of the Pennsylvania Retail Liquor Dealers Association and 
a director of the National License Beverage Association who are also 
endeavoring, as is our local association, to daily combat these prob- 
lems that the committee is interested in. 

We resent as much as anyone, if not more so, the infinitesimal 
minority of tavern owners who, by their actions, have shown their 
total disregard for law, and the good will of the public and the 
welfare of our children. We are too frequently unjustly accused of 
belonging to an industry that cares only for profit and not for the 
good and welfare of the community of which we are citizens. Most 
of us are men with families who want their children raised in a com- 
munity they can be proud of and one in which they can receive the 
benefits which are the heritage of all children born and raised in this 
great Nation of ours. As parents in this community, we are aware 
of our obligations and duties to our children and to the community 
and have always entered into community undertakings whole- 
heartedly for the betterment of our own children and of all children 
in the community. 

We view with alarm the growth of juvenile delinquency just as 
much as any other group of businessmen in our community. We re- 
sent perhaps more so than anyone else the part played in this growth 
by the small minority of persons in our business who, through their 
unconscionable method of conducting their establishments, are bring- 
ing discredit and public censure on all of us. Places that cleliberately 
flout the law by catering to minors should be eliminated from our in- 
dustry. We have in the past, and again reiterate our offer to cooperate 
with the enforcement officials and recognized agencies and community 
groups in any effort to correct this condition or any of the other un- 
desirable conditions that affect our business and community. Unfor- 
tunately, our offers of cooperation have too often been rebuffed by 
these groups with the remark that we should clean up bacl conditions 
ourselves. We are, without the help of public officials, powerless to 
do any kind of adequate job. The objectionable type of entertainment 
used by some of the licensed establishments in Philadelphia has been 
brought to the attention of responsible officials and has been met with 
the remark that they and their departments are not censors of public 
morals. 

In a case that happened over a year ago, the police raided a licensed 
establishment and found minors drinking in this establishment. At 
a hearing conducted by one of our local magistrates the following day, 
the accused bartender was held under bail for court and the minors 
involved were fined a very nominal sum. According to reports pub- 
lished in the daily press, the assistant district attorney protested the 
imposition of the fines on the minors and the policemen in the station 
house where the hearing was held took up a collection to pay the fines 
imposed on the minors. While we would not attempt to defend the 
actions of this bartender or the owner of this place, the actions of the 
assistant district attorney and the policemen involved are also open 
to censure. 

Under the laws of Pennsylvania, any minor Avho falsifies his age 
to purchase alcoholic beverages commits a misdemeanor and is liable 
to fine and imprisonment. In their zeal to convict the owners and 



186 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

employees, tliis section of the penal code is ignored by the prose- 
cuting authorities. It is our opinion that too much emphasis cannot 
be placed on the importance of making minors aware of this section 
of the penal code. We are anxious to see severe penalties imposed on 
those tavern owners who deliberately cater to and serve minors. 
Severe penalties, however, are just not justified in cases where the 
owner of the licensed establishment and his employees are honstly 
trying to obey the law but are induced to serve a minor by deliberate 
subterfuge and false proof of age to induce that service by the minor. 
It seems to us that teenagers who flout our laws are, at least to a 
great extent, a product of our way of life. It seems that many people 
today are not fully conscious of their responsibilities as citizens or 
parents and use every means at their disposal to cast the blame for 
their own shortcomings on anything or anyone who is vulnerable to 
their accusations. We hope that your committee will be able to find 
some means of correcting this alarming condition of the spread of 
juvenile delinquency because this is a problem that affects every 
person living in this great country of ours. The breakdown of law 
and order that is threatened by this condition cannot be permitted. 
Some answer must be found and soon, so that our children can be 
raised in an atmosphere of law abidance and respect for the rights 
and property of all people. 

We have always offered cooperation and still continue to do so to 
all law" enforcement bodies and to all recognized community groups 
wliose major goal is the betterment of our community as a whole. 

The Chairman. Thank you for that very fine statement. It is en- 
couraging to the subcommittee to have that sort of support that you 
are giving to this cause to which we are devoting so much of our time. 
I was interested in your observation about the lack of enforcement 
of the laws as to minors. The lack of prosecution was the term yoa 
used. 

Mr. Aman. That is right. 

The Chairman. Why do you suppose this law is not enforced? 
Mr. Aman. Senator, the answer I have been able to elicit from the 
enforcement officials and prosecuting authorities is that in prosecuting 
the minor they would defeat their own purpose by making the minor 
not testify against the owner or bartender who would be subsequently 
prosecuted in court. 

Tlie Chairman. This committee is deeply conscious of the fact that 
you have a tremendous problem with res})ect to these young people. 
We ran into the same thing in the District of Columbia. It is very 
hard to determine the age sometimes of a boy or girl. You would be 
policing your taverns and places of business all the time if you had to 
check their age, but we did find, of course, yesterday that there has 
been in certain places, certain establishments, a flagrant disregard for 
the minor law. 

Now, we have to find someway to rid ourselves of these bad spots. 
Mr. Aman. I agree with you. Senator, but I do think that that is 
a problem for the law enforcement authorities already constituted. 

The (vH airman. I agree with you. That is their job, the job of the 
law enforcement authorities. I do not think we need any new law. 
I think we need better administration of the law. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 187 

Mr. Aman. I agree with you, Senator. 

Tlie Chairman. Perhaps in some cases, in some areas — I am not 
applying this statement to Philadelphia alone — in some areas addi- 
tional personnel to enforce the law might help. 

Mr. O'Keefe. Mr. Chairman, just in line with that, Mr. Cahill, who 
is the president of the Tavern Owners Association here in Philadel- 
phia is ver}^ much interested in that particular phase of it. I would 
like you to hear his comments on that point. 

The Chairman. We would be glad to hear his comments. 

Will you give your full name and address, for the purpose of the 
record ? 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN J. CAHILL, PEESIDENT, UNITED TAVERN 
OWNERS ASSOCIATIION OF PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Mr. Cahill. My name is John J. Cahill. The address is 4819 
Chester Avenue, Philadelphia. 

You, Senator, practically took the words out of my mouth when 
you said we don't need any new laws, but we definitely need better 
enforcement of the present laws. 

I sincerely hope in my own little case where I am trying to do jobs 
with minors in my own establishment that this does not backfire on me. 
These things have a way of coming right home when you leave the 
place. 

The police I am sure in Pliiladelphia are well aware of the chronic 
violators. We are as anxious as this committee and the citizens of 
Philadelphia to see those violators followed up to the last degree 
of the law. 

The minors, too, should be followed through. There has been no 
example that we know of of prosecution of minors for illegally iden- 
tifying themselves. 

We would like to see some action on that score. 

The only example that we cited today is one of the exactly obverse 
of that where they practically coddled the minors in this case. 

It makes it a bit of sport for the minors, these minors in that partic- 
ular class, who feel it is good sport to fool an honest tavern keeper, 
and although it is a misdemeanor it has not been followed up to this 
point, the violations by the minors themselves. 

That is all I have to say at the moment, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Cahill. 

Mr. Bono. In addition to heavier prosecution of the minors in- 
volved, would it not be your opinion that any tavern owner found 
flagrantly violating — not the fact that the minor goes in and falsely 
identifies himself, but he knows he has an establishment in which a 
number of minors congregate, caters to that particular type of busi- 
ness, should not his license be permanently revoked in an effort to- 
help the honest tavern keeper ? 

Mr. Cahill. I positively agree with that. There is no question 
about that. I feel they should go all the waj^ with a positive violator,, 
a deliberate violator such as that. 

The Chairman. Mr. O'Keefe, do you want the other gentlemen ta 
present their statements ? 



188 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY P. KADELOFF, FIRST VICE PRESIDENT, 
UNITED TAVERN OWNERS ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA, 
PA. 

Mr, Kadeloff. My name is Sidney Racleloff. Whatever I would 
say would be multiplicity because you, Senator, and Mr. Caliill, and 
Mr. Aman, covered the subject very well. 

I should like to add that while I don't want to take the responsibility 
away from the tavern owner in any way, shape or form, I would like 
to see more parental guidance as far as these minors are concerned; 
that if the parents themselves are notified as to the misdemeanor in- 
volved if their children do go into a tavern, that would not happen 
so frequently. 

I think there should be more of an educational program along those 
lines. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. 

Now, I want to hear from the gentleman at the end. 

TESTIMONY OF PATRICK CAVANAIJCtH, VICE PRESIDENT, EAST- 
ERN REGION, NATIONAL LICENSED BEVERAGE ASSOCIATION, 
AND DIRECTOR, PHILADELPHIA RETAIL LIQUOR DEALERS 
ASSOCIATION, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Mr. Cavanaugh. Patrick Cavanaugh, vice president of the eastern 
region of the National Licensed Beverage Association, former presi- 
dent of the Philadelphia Retail Liquor Dealers Association, and di- 
rector now. 

The only objection I have. Senator, is what was put in the news- 
papers 3'esterday. I think it is not right to classify all of us in the 
same category. 

The Chairman. The Chair understands how you feel about that. 
I happen to be a member of the bar. We have a lot of lawyers who 
do things that are not right. I say a lot — we have too many. 

Of course, the reflection comes on the others who carry on on a highly 
ethical basis. I know in your business you want law and order to 
prevail. You want to follow the law. 

Mr. Cavanaugh. That is right. Senator. 

The Chairman. You want to be good citizens in every way. It 
is unfortunate that sometimes we who try to be good have to suffer 
with the bad. 

Mr. Cavanaugh. I would like to make a recommendation to the 
committee. Not 5 blocks from here I can take you to a few places 
where they advertise in front of their building — it is appetizing to 
any young boy — it is not any environment to have placed out in the 
middle or the street or anywhere else where the public can see it. 
Those placards should be taken off the building and I think it would 
cure a lot of our center city problems and other places like it. 

The Chairman, This subcommittee is here and going throughout 
the country to help you all clean up these bad spots. 

]\Ir. Cavanaugh. Anything else I would like to say has already 
been said. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Do you have something more you wanted to add ? 



.JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 189 

Mr. Aman. May we thank you for allowing; us to appear. We 
hope that pointing up the problem as you have done with thes.' hear- 
ings, it may help correct some of the conditions that exist here. We 
want them cleaned up as much as you do. 

The Chairman. Dr. E. Preston Sharp. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give to this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, Avill be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God. 

Dr. Sharp. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. E. PRESTON SHARP, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, 
YOUTH STUDY CENTER, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Dr. Sharp, will you state your full name, address, 
and association for the benefit of the record ? 

Dr. Sharp. Dr. E. Preston Sharp, 8239 Cedarbrook Street, Phila- 
delphia, currently the executive director. Youth Study Center, and 
cliairman of the committee on juvenile delinquency of the National 
Congress of Correction. 

Senator, I am one of these peculiar individuals that stai-ted out as a 
supervisor of rehabilitation of the Eastern State Penitentiary and 
have worked through the different areas, superintendent of training 
schools, and now in the detention field. 

I have a prepared statement here. 

The Chairman. You may proceed in your own manner. 

Dr. Sharp. The honor of being invited to appear before the 
United States Senate Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delin- 
quency is sincerely appreciated. Since you have undoubtedly received 
reams of testimony on the causes of delinquency, I will direct my 
remarks to the preventioji and treatment phases of the problem. Cur- 
rently in many communities the main preventive measures center 
around recreational programs. These are healthy and should be en- 
couraged, but, for the benefit of this discussion, I should like to 
emphasize the importance of early detection of potential delinquency. 
As preventive medicine is helpful to cures of physical illnesses, I 
believe the early recognition of behavior deviations is important to 
curbing juvenile delinquency. 

Since the single agency having most contact with children is the 
school— public, parochial, and private — it should be geared to early 
recognition of behavior deviations, utilizing as a guide the simple 
principle that for every form of behavior there is a reason. The 
teacher aM^are of the normal behavior of the child w^ould initiate the 
referral as soon as a deviation were noted. If the observations were 
sound, the child should be referred immediately by the school au- 
thority to a guidance clinic provided by the school district, or public 
or private agencies within the community. In addition to working 
with the child, the staff of the clinic would counsel the school repre- 
sentatives as well as the parents. Families needing intensive help 
would be aided by private agencies. In many communities this 
would not mean the organization of new agencies but merely the en- 
largement or readjustment of functions where there are duplications 
of services. 



190 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Philadelphia is making substantial progress in the prevention and 
treatment programs. Few cities equal the interest and unusual spirit 
of cooperation which exist between the different departments dealing 
with children. Frequent formal and informal meetings are held by 
representatives of the court, police, school, welfare. Youth Study 
Center, and other departments for the purpose of improving the inter- 
relationships and aiding the different departments with specific 
problems. 

A tangible example of progress is the $2,400,000 Youth Study Cen- 
ter which was opened on May 12, 1952. This represents one of the 
finest detention and study facilities in the country. It has a capacity 
of 175 beds with most of the boys or girls housed in separate rooms. 
Also included are rooms for court interviews, offices, and school, as 
well as clinical facilities. The center operates as a service to the 
juvenile division of the municipal court. 

The center is managed by a board appointed by the judges of the 
municipal court, and it is financed by the city. All employees of the 
center are under the merit system of the city. There are probation 
officers, stenographers, psychiatrist, part-time psychologist, and part- 
time dentist assigned to the center by the court. The school program 
operates on a regular school day, 12 months a year, and the teachers 
are furnished by the Board of Public Education of the School District 
of Philadelphia. The total program of the center also includes inte- 
grated, organized recreation, and a crafts program for the after-school 
hours; and there are regular religious instruction periods and services 
in the three major faiths. 

All children up to 18 years of age are brought to the center at the 
time of arrest. No child in Philadelphia under 16 years of age is 
held in the county jail. In addition, all children under 16 years of 
age who are victims of assault are brought to the center for physical 
examinations. Where there is a desire to avert arrest, complaint is 
made to the petition clerk at the center and a petition is filed. These 
petitions are heard by the probation officers assigned to the center and 
in many cases the procedure prevents more serious delinquencies. 

The initial emphasis in the organization of the Youth Study Center 
has been to create a positive resident program which includes whole- 
some factors that are found in good American homes. Progress is 
being made in improving and enlarging the clinical services. The 
philosophy simply stated is : "We like you but we don't like the way 
you behave and it is our job to help prevent your becoming a criminal." 

It is my observation that many of the children received in detention 
facilities today have more serious patterns of delinquent behavior and 
there is an increase in the degree of mental illnesses. The center has 
been handicapped because of delays in transfers, after court action, 
caused by the lack of suitable facilities. It is impossible for the judges 
of the juvenile court, or the Youth Study Center, to operate efficiently 
without these necessary services. Recommendations relative to the 
unmet needs on the different levels are, as follows : 

I might say that the very function of the center causes the unmet 
needs to be highlighted because we get the impact both coming and 
going so far as the needs of the children are concerned. 

On the local level : 



JUVENILE DELENQUENCY 191 

1. More funds for the niiiiiicipal court for additional probation 
officers and professional stall' in order to reduce the caseloads of exist- 
in o:eni])]oyees. 

2. A review of functions and facilities of private and public a<^encies 
to evaluate potentialities, reduce duplications of services, and plan to 
fulfill nnmet needs. 

State level : 

1. A system of training schools with acceptable standards for train- 
ing delinquent children of all ages and both sexes. 

2. An industrial school for girls over 15 years of age which would 
provide more custody than an open training school. 

3. Enlargement of the capacities of institutions for the care of 
mentally ill and mentally deficient children. 

Federal level : 

1. Establishment in the United States Department of Health, Edu- 
cation, and "Welfare of a national institute for social research which 
would utilize social and behavior scientists in the analysis of un- 
explored and underexplored facets of the delinquency problem, in- 
cluding such matters as the prevention of vandalism and other 
expressions of antisocial conduct; research and evaluation of experi- 
mental techniques; methods of testing and discovery of behavior 
problems; and any other form of research which might appropriately 
come within the purview of such a facility. 

I would like to add here that actually in this whole field, training- 
school field, detention field, and in many of the other areas of treat- 
ment, we go more or less on a trial and error basis. 

We have not reached the point that the medical profession has and 
some of the others in which we have an interchange and focal organi- 
zation which can assist us, and I think in the long run such a facility 
as mentioned in this paragraph would save money for the taxpayers 
across the country where we would not be making the same mistakes 
as somebody else which we just did not happen to know about. 

2. Coordinate the programs under the Hospital Construction Act 
and the National Mental Health Act to make funds available for the 
training of psychiatrists and other personnel for child-guidance 
clinics and child-study homes; to provide grant-in-aid for the con- 
struction and operation of such facilities ; and especially to encourage 
the provision of beds for emotionalh^ disturbed children in general 
and State hospitals. 

By the year 1960 the total impact of tlie inci'eased birthrate reflect- 
ing the number of children within the juvenile court age will be felt 
by our city. If action is not started immediately to fulfill the unmet 
needs, we may be confronted with the serious ])roblem of having de- 
linquent, mentally ill, and mentally deficient children in the city with 
inadequate provisions for their care. Unfortunately, no wonder drug 
will ever be found for the prevention or treatment of juvenile de- 
linquency and, therefore, we must rely on "citizen sulfide" which is 
citizen support. 

The Chairman. That is a very fine statement, Doctor. 

One witness testified this morning, I think it was, that this youth 
study center should be three times its present size. 



192 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Dr. Sharp. That I would disagree with, Senator, for two reasons. 

Any time you open up a new facility in any area dealing with 
children it is looked upon as the solution of all problems. We are 
what I liken to a shakedown cruise 23 months out from port. 

Our function has been rather confused in terms of service and the 
number of children that have backlogged there, what I call my dead 
bed cases, reflect the absence of the facilities indicated in my recom- 
mendations. 

You could have one of 500 beds without the supporting facilities 
and you would still be crowded. 

Now, the real function of a detention facility is one of study and 
detention prior to the final disposition of the court. When children 
are held in a detention facility subsequent to the disposition of the 
court, frequently they are harmed more tlian aided. You just might 
as well put that child in the middle of 30th Street, Penn Station, and 
say you are going to get on a train but we do not know when and you 
just stay here until that train comes in. It is that indefiniteness,, 
which is so traumatic in the experience of the child. 

So the matter is one of function in the use rather than extreme num- 
ber of beds. 

The Chairman. Your plant facilities are not adequate, are they ? 

Dr. Sharp. Tliey are not adequate in total number, but I would not 
accept 300 as the need of Philadelphia, because it is not an institution 
for commitment. That is something that is frequently misunderstood 
in the detention field. 

The Chairman. Generally speaking, what type of individual, what 
type of child do you get there ? 

Dr. Sharp. Senator, we get everything from runaways to homicides. 
We have everything from the 7-year-old to the 17-year, 11-month, 29- 
day boy and girl. 

The Chairman. You have a lot of children, of course, who are just 
truants? 

Dr. Sharp. If the child has a home to go to and he does not have a 
record of previous contacts with the court of a serious nature, the child 
is returned home because the philosophy of use of any detention facil- 
ity is that if the home can take the child and the delinquency is not 
serious or he is not in need of intensive study, then he should not be at 
the detention facility. 

The Chairman. Do you have adequate medical care? 

Dr. Sharp. We liave adequate medical service. We have two part- 
time doctors, and trained nurses. 

By the way, you cannot overlook the service of medicine in this 
treatment of delinqiieiicy, because you liave certain types of delinquent 
cases that have entirely a medical basis. 

The Chairman. Wliat is the percentage of population awaiting 
placement after disposition by the court? 

Dr. Sharp. Out of a population of 175, I would say, and this is 
more of an estimate rather than an accurate statement, but roughly 
out of a population of 175, there would be 25 awaiting placement. 
That is a rough figure. 

The Chairman. Do you segregate the boys from the girls? 

Dr. Sharp. They are segregated entirely and entirely separate facili- 
ties are provided for both sexes. For a short-term facility like a 
detention operation, it is not advisable to carry on coeducational types 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 193 

of programs because they are not there long enough for you to know 
them to plan such a program appropriately. 

The Chairman. From your testimony you are doing a whale of a 
job compared with what we are doing in the great Capital of this 
Nation. The situation down there is terrible. 

Dr. Sharp. I would like to say this, that we are rather proud of 
our center in Philadelphia. As I say, we make no claims for the fine- 
ness of the progi'am. 

Across the street from us is Franklin Institute which has some of 
the finest exact science in the country. 

If your committee has an opportunity I would like to extend to you 
an invitation to visit the center across the river. 

The Chairman. Living across the river from you some day I hope 
I may be able to do that. 

We did inspect the receiving center in Washington. It was not 
only inadequate as to plant, it was inadequate as to staff. While the 
staff was doing the best it could with what it had, it was a shocking 
thing to think that the Congress of the United States, which is running 
the city of Washington, had not appropriated enough funds to take 
care of those children down there. 

Dr. Sharp. We have had their officials up to visit us at the center. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bobo, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. BoBO. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Doctor, we may call on you for advice and counsel 
as we proceed with our hearings in other parts of the country. I hope 
you will take the first opportunity you have to study our interim report 
and give us the benefit of any criticism that you may feel we ought to 
liave in connection with that report, or any suggestions. 

Dr. Sharp. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Mr. Norman Lourie. 

We have been swearing all witnesses today. Will you raise your 
right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Lourie. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF NOEMAN LOURIE, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, ASSOCIA- 
TION FOR JEWISH CHILDREN OF PHILADELPHIA 

The Chairman. Mr, Lourie, will you state your full name and your 
address and association, for the benefit of the record ? 

Mr. Lourie. My name is Norman Lourie, I live at 7838 Montgomery 
A. venue, in Elkins Park, jVlontgomery County, I am the executive 
director of the Association for Jewish Children, 

My impression is that I was not particularly called because of my 
present association. My organization does what I would think of 
primarily as a preventive job. We are not engaged essentially in 
dealing with delinquents, but I imagine there might have been some 
interest in some of my previous experiences. 

The Chairman, You were director of Hawthorne? 

Mr, Lourie, Yes, I operate a fairly successful training school and 
I was responsible during the war for the training of social workers 



194 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

in the school for military neuropsychiatry which trained social 
workers in psychiatry to deal with disturbed soldiers, and at the White 
House conference I was chairman of the section on delinquent 
children. 

So I suppose it was from that standpoint that I was asked to come. 

I do not have a prepared statement. However, I would like to make 
some comments. 

The Chairmax. You may proceed in your own manner. The com- 
mittee is anxious to have your testimony for the record. We have no 
rules on the subject of presentation of a case like this. 

Mr. LouRiE. I noticed that during the course of the hearings you 
referred on a number of occasions to the interim report of the sub- 
committee. One of your staff members was kind enough to make it 
available to me several days ago and I spent a considerable amount of 
time studying it. With your permission I would like to use it freely. 

The Chairman. You have my permission. You have the permis- 
sion of the entire subcommittee. 

Mr. LouRiE. I would like to make the comment that were we in this 
or any other community to finance the means to put into effect the 
things that are stated or implied in this report, we would be a long 
way toward solving the problem. I feel that particularly the sections 
that deal with the causes and with prevention are very, veiy excellent 
statements, and cover, as I have listened to the testimony, most of the 
things that people have experienced, that people have believed and are 
recommending. 

There is one general comment I would like to make on the subject of 
juvenile delinquency itself. 

I am often troubled by what I think is a rather loose use of the term, 
I thinlc that we forget sometimes that juvenile delinquency does not 
describe a child, it really describes an act, and that it is basically an 
illegal term. 

The Ciiatrmax. It is an unfortunate term, as I said previously in 
the hearing today. 

Mr. LoiRiE. Yes. I am convinced that there are as many children 
who are not labeled, who are not found as juvenile delinquents, who 
are as seriously disturbed and represent as potential a group of non- 
productive citizens as the so-called juvenile delinquents who are found 
nnd I tliink there are many implications. 

For instance, the question of the juvenile court and the manner in 
which we deal with children who are found to be delinquent and who 
commit something against society, it seems to me that we ought to be 
looking at all children who are in trouble in some way, no matter what 
wo label them. 

We have been labeling children dependent, neglected, and delinquent 
and we separate them out. 

1 think we ought to be looking at children for what they are and 
what they need and we ought to do something about our facilities so 
that we can use tliem differently. 

Very often, and I know it is true in this city, there are institutions 
and agencies that have in their care children who are labeled as depend- 
ent and neglected, but they are just as seriously disturbed, just as 
potentially unproductive, as those children who have been marked as 
delinquent. 

The Chairman'. Children in ti-ouble would be a better title. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 195 

Mr. LouRiE. I think so. I think it is very significant that in 
phmning the White House conference the term delinquency was not 
used. The section on this type of child was entitled "Children Who 
Kebel." We did that quite deliberately. 

It is also of interest to nie that there is a group of children, the de- 
pendent children, particularly, who, as you heard in the testimony, 
are adjudicated in this city by the court which means that if a mother 
were to drop in a diabetic coma, for her child to be placed in an insti- 
tution, a foster home, a petition must be made in the juvenile court 
and the child comes before the court in much the same way as the 
so-called juvenile delinquent child, and then committed to an agency 
or institution. 

Now, a considerable number of the hours of the juvenile court, 
the time of the staff, is taken up with this type of child. 

I think, as Mr. Reinemann, whom I worked with very closely, indi- 
cated, our knowledge of the need of dependent children and methods 
dealing with this type of child is not new or different than in the 
literature of the 1900's. I think it would be a tremendous relief 
to the court staff, already overworked and overburdened, if this 
problem could be handled within the knowledge that we have and 
within the same sort of system that exists elsewhere. 

The Chairman. How would you suggest that that be done ? 

Mr. LouRiE. I would suggest that a problem that is purely a social 
problem ought to be handled by a department of welfare. ' I do not 
laiow, sir, whether you are aware of the legal, existing legal, basis 
for my statement. The laws for children include the juvenile court 
law, the county institution district law, and then we have our recent 
city charter. Now these laws overlap each other. 

If you examine the county institution district law, and the city 
charter, the city department of welfare, which is like a county institu- 
tion district, has the ability to do this kind of job, to take the dependent 
children in the first instance and place them. 

As a matter of fact, one witness today, I guess it was Peter Williams, 
mentioned the job being done in Delaware County. There are several 
other counties in the State which are operating under the county 
institution district law and relieving the juvenile court of this de- 
pendency problem so that they can give more attention to questions of 
juvenile delinquency and neglect. 

I do think there are instances where dependency of the child will 
require judicial determination, the question of custody, and so forth, 
but I think those ought to be handled on an individual basis. 

The Chairman. Do you need new State law in this field? 

Mr. LouRiE. No, sir ; I do not think we need any new State law in 
this field nor do I think that in dealing with these problems we need 
new facilities. 

I was very glad to hear someone say earlier we don't need any bricks 
and mortar and we don't need any beds. 

I would not in sworn testimony say that I have the facts, but I 
think we have enough indication and 'it is my impression that if we 
were to have in our existing facilities the proper tools, the proper 
machinery, the proper personnel and the proper coordination of these 
facilities, we would have what we need to work with. 

I think we in this city and in this State, just as in many other cities 
and States, approach this question of child care in a rather Topsylike 



196 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

fashion. We do not have a group of facilities for children which are 
closely related to each other and where the children are parceled out on 
a very orderly, sensible basis. 

You almost get the feeling sometimes as if you would like to take 
a lot of the facilities we have and kind of throw them up and get them 
down in proper order. 

The courts, Youth Study Center, other authorities, are backed up 
with children that private institutions do not have the facilities to 
care for. 

Questions of money and so on were mentioned here earlier, I 
think this is a matter of more proper reordering of public and private 
facilities. It is more attention given to what we need. 

I was very happy to hear you mention several times today the kind 
of interest that the Federal Government ought to have. I think 
here is a major social problem, a future generation growing up with 
the possibility of compounding the felonies in their own families, as 
it were, since they come, many of them, from pathological families 
and governmentalwise we have given less attention to this problem 
than we have to many others. 

The Chairman. If we treated our businesses in this fashion we 
would all be bankrupt, would we not ? 

Mr. LouRiE. I think that is very much so. We have more controls 
in that area, but I also sometimes phantasied that if we had as little 
interest and control in certain other fields where the public has 
stepped in, sanitation, public health, highways, and so on, we would 
be in a pretty sorry kind of pass. 

I think one of the things that ought to be done, whether it should 
be done by Federal Government or State, I would not at the moment 
be comj)etent to say, but personnel in this field has been sadly neg- 
lected. I think there needs to be the kind of approach to the develop- 
ment and training, and so on, of personnel in this field as there has 
been in medicine and in nursing, and so on. 

Particularly in the institutions that require personnel to live with 
this type of child, there just is no way of getting personnel. 

The Chairman. It certainly is a highly specialized field, is it not ? 

Mr. LouRiE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. In order to treat with it, you ought to have the very 
best in personnel that we can acquire. 

Mr. LouRiE. I agree. 

Tlie Chairman. Mr. Bobo, have you any questions to ask Mr. 
Lourie? 

Mr. BoBO, Yes, sir, I have. 

I have been interested in your testimony, Mr. Lourie. It is your 
feeling that there are enough beds, there are enough institutions, it 
is just that tliey are not properly coordinated and the children are 
not placed properly ; is that your feeling on it ? 

Mr. Lourik. Yes, sir. We have in this State at least 24 — I believe 
there are more; I know there are more. But we have 24 insti- 
tutions which are supposed to be primarily available for so-called 
training of juvenile delinquents. Only one of those schools is owned 
by the State of Pennsylvania. The rest of them are privately op- 
erated and they are either State subsidized or State aided in some 
way. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 197 

There is no relationship between all of these facilities. 

It is possible, and again I am not stating a fact, I am stating an 
impression, it is possible in a county at one end of the State to have 
an institution with vacant space and the judge in that county might 
be committing children to an institution way over here which might 
be loaded to the gills. 

We have no central force operative which brings together, super- 
vises, helps with programs, does anything with respect to the prob- 
lems and the facilities of these institutions. 

We know that these institutions are sadly lacking in facilities and 
we know from many other kinds of experiences that these institutions 
can be truly treatment centers and that they can do a job. 

There are, I think, evidences and there has been research and there 
has been material indicating that this type of child that your com- 
mittee is interested in can be helped to great measure and that a great 
many of these children can be returned as productive citizens. 

I think we have a good deal of ineffective work done in many of 
our institutions and I do not think that kind of research has been 
done. I do not know whether the courts have done it, but I think 
you would find a lot of repeating, coming back to public authority 
from individuals who have been through some of the training-school 
experiences. • 

Mr. BoBo. We had some testimony this morning — not in the case of 
the normal delinquent, but for those that are mentally deficient, that 
there was no institution that would take them on a training-school 
basis because of their selective requirement and that these children 
would have to be kept either back at home or by the city here before 
tliey could be committed to a mental institution. 

Would that hold true in your mental field also, that there are ade- 
quate facilities for them? 

Mr. LouRiE. No, sir; I do not think so. I think for the mentally 
retarded and mentally deficient children, we at the moment, do not 
have adequate physical plants. I think, however, aside from the need 
for physical plants and programs for those children, that we need to 
do a great deal more in our educational system and for children in their 
own homes. 

The Chairman". Are you speaking nationally, or in the Pennsyl- 
vania area. 

Mr. LouRiE. I would say nationally, sir. I think we know a great 
deal more about the possibility of rehabilitating many of these re- 
tarded children. I think in your own State of New Jersey, going 
back again, the work of Dr. Dahl and Dr. Yepsem and Vinal in 
particular ; they have discovered, over many years, that many of these 
mentally retarded children who we used to put away almost for the 
rest of their lives, could be rehabilitated. 

I think there is a good deal of work to be done there. 

I think very significant is the organization of parent groups, parents 
of mentally retarded children that have so much faith in their children 
that they are pushing the public to do something. In many communi- 
ties, including this one, there are special schools set up by parents 
because nobody else is doing anything with these groups of children. 

Mr. BoBO. We had testimony from that organization in Washington. 
Would it be your recommendation that rather than private institutions 



198 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

subsidized by the State, that the State take over these institutions as 
one central controlled unit? 

Mr. LomuE. I would not want to say that unequivocally, because 
I believe that the existence of private and public agencies side by side 
is one of the essentials in the fabric of American democracy, and in 
the social field. 

I do think that a more proper alinement of responsibility between 
the public and the private ouoht to be worked out so that the public 
is bearing its own sliare of the responsibility and the private citizen,, 
who has the responsibility for experimentation and leading the way, 
as Mr. Spieser said earlier, ought to be able to use the private money 
that he raises to do some of the pioneering kinds of things instead of 
just kind of holding a dike back. 

Mr. BoBo. I was speaking primarily of an institution such as 
Sleighton Farms, which I understand is a privately owned institution 
where half of the financing comes from the State and the other half 
I believe is from the county of origin of the child. 

Mr. LouPviE. I would not be prepared to say how many of these 
institutions and in what way there ought to be some more public 
res])onsibility. 

There is a study being conducted now by the Institute of State and 
Local Government. They have a Governmelit consulting service. 
They are at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children's Bureau, 
incidentally, has provided the money through one of its State grants 
to do this study. 

It is the Govermnent's committee on children and youth, together 
with the State department of welfare and together with the training- 
fecliool administrators. 

They have gotten together and the Children's Bureau has provided 
the money. 

The Chairman. You are on that study committee; are you not? 

Mr. LouRiE. Yes, sir ; I am on the study committee. The study is in 
its midst. There are no final reports to give. 

But we feel certain that we will get a lot of good material and hope- 
fully be able to make some pretty firm recommendations. 

I do not think that anybody will entertain the idea that we are 
going to eliminate private as against public agencies. But my own 
point of view would be that if public responsibility belongs in a certain 
area and the public is not taking enough of its responsibility, I think 
that I would want to make recommendations about the degree of 
responsibility the public ought to take. 

For instance, we k?iow that the subsidy system in the State of 
Pennsylvania, the maimer bv which the State gives subsidies in this 

Tlie Ch.mrmax. You are talking about subsidy from the State gov- 
ernment to the local level? 

Mr. LouRiE. To local institutions, not to municipalities. State sub- 
sidy directly to institutions. 

There have been a number of studies in this State, one in 1915, one 
in 1923, and so on down the line, which have examined the State sub- 
sidy system and State institutions have been critical of it and have 
recommended it be changed. 

No substantial change has taken place. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 199 

We have a situation in this field where a considerable amount of 
public money is being spent without the usual proper supervision of 
the expenditure of the money by the public. 

I think that not as an employee or as a social worker in a private 
agency, but as a citizen I have a question as to whether or not the 
public funds ought to be spent without proper supervision over the 
way it is spent. 

Mr. BoBO. We have had two different views on the Youth Study 
Center. I presume you are familiar with the Youth Study Center 
as with all the other institutions. It seems to be felt that the institu- 
tion is not large enough and should be increased, and then another 
view is that as of right now, in its present size, it is adequate to handle 
the need. 

What would be your feeling on that ? 

Mr. LouRiE. I am not an expert on the Youth Study Center. I will 
say this, from a rather primitive kind of detention facility that existed 
in Philadelphia to the Youth Study Center, and it has only been 
going on 2 years, it is a tremendous kind of change toward moderniza- 
tion. 

I think that the Youth Study Center is supposed to be, as Dr. Sharp 
pointed out, the place in which the best kind of clinical tools can be 
available to study a child so that the public authority can know how 
to properly dispose of him. 

I would suspect that when folks say it needs to be enlarged it is 
probably on the basis of people wanting to use the study center as a 
way of holding children that they cannot take care of. 

Now, I think this is kind of like a bunch of elephants with their 
tails tied together. Private institutions and some public institutions 
haven't got the proper facilities to deal with that kind of children 
and in their frustrations they look to the first source. The first source 
is the public detention home, so everybody wants to use it that way. 
I think a remarkable job has been done in the development up to 
now. 

Two things have to go side by side. The Youth Study Center or 
any detention-facility needs to have the best facilities for study, but 
at the same time it can do the best study, as people have discovered 
in some cities, with child-guidance clinics, a tremendous amount of 
diagnosis done with children, and when they are done nobody is found 
to treat them. 

I think the Youth Study Center has to have the facilities to do a 
good study job and the court must have the facilities where children 
can be disposed of properly. 

I have heard people be critical of the court and I have heard people 
be critical of the Youth Study Center and other public agencies, but 
you can have the best court in the world and you can have the best 
study center in the world, but if they cannot have the properly organ- 
ized facilities with tools to which they can send the children for proper 
treatment without the fear they are going to have the children thrown 
back to them, their service is just going to be just like goin^ to the 
door of a hospital and being told you have cancer and also being told 
there is no bed or medicine. 

It is the same kind of effect. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Lourie. 



200 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. LouRiE. You are very welcome, sir. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee is deeply appreciative of your 
presence this afternoon. 

Mr. LouRiE. We are glad you are working on this problem. 

The Chairman. Now our next witness is Commissioner Kandolph 
Wise. Is the commissioner in the room ? 

Will Mr. Crawford come forward, please? 

Mr. Crawford, do you solemnly swear the evidence you are about 
to give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
of tlie United States Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Crawford. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT W. CRAWFORD, DEPUTY COMMISSIONER 
OF RECREATION, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Mr. Crawford, will you state your full name and 
address and association, for the benefit of the record? 

Mr. Crawford. Robert W. Crawford, deputy commissioner of rec- 
reation, Philadelphia. I reside at 1^10 Yerkes Street, Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. Counsel, do you want to proceed to examine Mr. 
Crawford ? 

Do you have a prepared statement, Mr. Crawford? 

Mr. Cra"\\t^ord. It is not realh^ a prepared statement. 

The Chairman. You may present your story in your own manner. 

Mr. Crawford. I realize that the alarm that everyone has over the 
rapidly mounting problem of delinquency is well founded. I think 
what some of them have said here today in the short time I have been 
here indicate that they recognize that recreation is one of the factors, 
but certainly it should not be considered as a cureall for this so-called 
delinquency. 

Yet I til ink it can also be said that among those young people that 
do have wholesome and meaningful and purposeful recreational op- 
portunities that statistics show in those ar&as sometimes the court 
records are lower than they are in other areas. 

Yet no program to check delinquency has ever failed to place it as 
one of the factors. 

At the same time, we like to think that there are community recrea- 
tional programs that are not geared to the so-called delinquent. We 
feel, rather, that recreation should constitute a necessary element in 
iiormal community life and should be justified first on this basis rather 
than as a means of curing some abnormal behavior patterns. 

As an example, the first position I ever held in recreation in this 
country was as a result of one child murdering another up in New York 
State. As a result the community became very conscious, they felt 
they had a social problem. 

Tlie first thing they said was, "We will organize a community recrea- 
tional program." I was the first director. 

There was a stigma placed on the program because the vast majority 
of the parents did not want their children to participate in the recrea- 
tional program. It took 5 or 6 years to break it down because of the 
stigma placed upon it as a result of being organized for that particular 
purpose. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 201 

Yet wherever there are children and youth, certainly there must be 
places other than the street that can be permanently set aside for 
recreational opportunities. 

The facilities themselves mean nothing unless there are competent, 
well-trained and qualified individuals to supervise, to direct some kind 
of thoughtful or meaningful program. 

Therefore, I would like to say to you, Senator, that I hope we can 
emphasize the positive approach as far as recreation is concerned, and 
that it is one of the necessary elements of fundamental living in our 
modern society to help overcome the pressures and the tensions that 
have become evident. 

Therefore, it is going to be necessary first to have some counteracting 
measures. 

Yet, as I see the problem, we are talking about a very small per- 
centage of our youth. I realize that is important. I do not know the 
exact percentage, but you know more than I ; it is probably 2 to 3 per- 
cent. Yet the 97 percent approach maturity with only the usual aches 
and pains of gi^owing up. 

This very large percentage of normal healthy individuals, it would 
appear to me, should greatly hearten those who are working with 
young people in a positive way, all the agencies and groups, and so on. 

Yet we realize the problem before your committee, and you are try- 
ing to find an answer, or else curb or stem the tide. But adults must 
look at the world today and consider the different strains and adjust- 
ments of the present, the uncertainties facing the youth in the future, 
the negative pressures on youth from many sides. 

Then I think we have to begin to marvel at the fact that there are so 
few in this so-called classification. 

Now, we should strengthen these groups, and support those in their 
quest for normal living, all those agencies that really are in a position 
to make a positive effect, such as the family and the church. 

I suppose you have had agencies representing the church here today 
and also the schools and the private agencies and also public. 

Now, we are failing our children and youth unless we battle vigor- 
ously and courageously for public support for our efforts, especially 
at this time of increasing need. Any program to eliminate or reduce 
delinquency must measure this field that I am representing here today, 
the recreational field, in a positive way. 

Now, I do not feel that we have enough adequate recreational centers 
and playgrounds to handle the entire child population. Yet I feel 
that every child has an inherent right to grow up in our society and 
in an environment where he or she has the recreational opportunities 
for the development of the basic urges that every child has for play 
and recreational opportunities. 

We are trying to move forward here in a positive way and have a 
tremendous expansion program underway at the present time, approxi- 
mately $7 million to $7i/2 million now, that is either under construction 
or out for bid or the plans are on the drawing board which will be out 
for bids in the next 3 months. 

The Chairman. That is within the city of Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Crawford. Within the city of Philadelphia. 

You read a lot about the statistics and national standards of what 
you should have in the way of recreational facilities, and yet we have 

4696&— 54 14 



202 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

not taken into consideration the intensity of the development and how 
they shonld be developed and for wide functional use and for the 
various age groups and catering to the different skills and interests 
of the different groups. 

Now, in order to coordinate and focus attention on the problems of 
juveniles, the mayor is contemplating a city wide conference on the 
services for juveniles in the very near future, a sort of workshop, to 
determine the services that are now in existence and how they can be 
better coordinated and what are the problems and recommendations 
necessary in the following fields, such as the home and the church and 
education and recreation, employment, health, courts, and community 
organizations. 

One of our problems, I think in Philadelphia, as well as throughout 
the country, as my experience shows, is that we do not utilize to the 
full extent the facilities that we have at present for providing a wide 
base or coverage in this field. 

The Chairman. You certainly have in Philadelphia adequate park 
facilities, do you not ? 

Mr. Crawford. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. One of the finest park systems in the country ? 

Mr. Craavford. That is right, when you talk about tlie acreage of 
that, we do. We have some wonderful facilities, but many times we 
emphasize the planning for the material, the facility standpoint, and 
yet we do not plan sufficiently as to the program aspect as we do for 
putting up the buildings. 

Therefore, we must take into consideration that we have to work 
more closely with our children and also give them the feeling that 
adequate protection and supervision is there without "'snoopervising" 
them. 

We need to know where they are and what they are doing, I realize 
that, without making it appear to them that we are just nosey and 
old meanies. 

In other words, we must build up a mutual good will and confidence 
and start wlien they are very young, say 3 to 4 years of age. They 
must be helped in growing up and nuist be helped to become more 
self -directing. 

Yet we must be realistic enough to know tliat some cliildren can be 
given more responsibility than others, no two are alike, and every 
child has a basic urge to belong. 

If a child does not have this sense of belonging or if they feel un- 
wanted or unloved, then I think they are headed for trouble, they 
become problems. If we want to develop moral integrity and etliical 
character among our young ])eople, then we have to set the example 
ourselves as adults. We must trust these youths. Certainly we must 
set stimulating examples for them. 

The Chairman. The Chair agrees with you. Commissioner Craw- 
ford, there is no doubt about the examj^le part of it. 

Now, Commissioner Crawford, you came from California, did you 
not^ 

Mr. Crawford. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How do the recreational facilities in this great city 
here compare with the recreational facilities in the great State of 
California ? 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 203 

Mr. Crawford. Well, I went to California from the east, so I do 
not have the feeling that the sun rises and sets only in California. In 
fact, I worked for a number of years in your state, in Montclair, N. ,T. 
I think as a State as a whole they are further advanced than we are 
in the State of Pennsylvania. I attribute part of that to the develop- 
ment of the State recreation commission a number of years ago in 
the State of California, whose primary objective is to foster and 
promote and assist communities in setting up their own public recre- 
ation departments, and not in any way taking away any of the status 
and authority and powers of the municipalities. 

There are only 2 or 3 in the country that have State recreation com- 
missions set up. I feel in this field of recreation, if it is important 
and it is a governmental responsibility, the States then should take 
cognizance on a State level and some agency should be set up that will 
concern itself with this problem. 

In many of the States, and also on the Federal level, there are a 
lot of different agencies dealing with the problem, but no one agency is 
tacked with the responsibility of it. The States that have made real 
progress in this are North Carolina and California. 

I do want to say this, I feel when we get our xerogram that is under- 
way now and our facilities, that we are going to have facilities that 
will compare with any facilities in the State of California. 

The Chairmaist. I am sure you will. 

Mr. BoBO. Do you all have a coordinated program between the 
schools, the parks, and the private system and public systems of 
recreation in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Crawford. Yes, we do, Mr. Bobo. We have a committee which 
we call the recreation coordinating committee, which is composed of 
9 members, chaired by Judge Saylor, set up according to the charter, 
in which 3 members are representative of the Fairmount Park Com- 
mission, 3 members are representative of the board of education, and 
3 members at large, 1 of those representing private agencies, and so on. 

They sit down monthly and consider the problem of coordinating 
the recreational resources of this city with all the public and private 
agencies and work out an effective program. 

For example, with the schools we have a program now set up with 
the board of education, a 9-point program, where there will be joint 
use of facilities. 

For the first time here we are operating in the school buildings. 
We started in a small way this year, started with 6 and increased it to 
16. We hope to use more of them next year, especially those schools 
that are in areas that are not served by any public or private agency 
because they have wonderful plants, especially the new schools, de- 
veloped for community use, and it does not niake sense to duplicate 
the facilities of the school system. 

I think real progress is being made in all those fields. 

j\fr. Bubo. I know we have found in other areas we visited that the 
whole recreation system was spread out, with no central coordinating 
agency. 

The Chairman. Commissioner Crawford, I think the city of Phila- 
delphia is to be complimented for obtaining your services. You have 
made a fine record in this special field. I think under your able direc- 
tion tlHi city of Philadelphia's recreational facilities will receive great 
improvement. 



204 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Mr. Crawford. Thank you, Senator. 

The Chairman. As I said before, it is an important facet in this 
whole field of youth development. 

Mr. Crawford. We are ]:)Ositive of that. I have always in my mind 
the experiences I had in New York, that under the auspices I came 
in the program you could see where it was really the wrong attitude, 
yet we do feel if we can make the circle large enough and we make it 
meaningful enough, we are going to pull in — and we have some con- 
crete examples; we have asked all our centers and all our people 3 or 4 
basic questions, how tliey feel it is helping on some of tlie problems. 

Some of them even quoted cases. Yet we are working closely with 
Mr. Finnegan who appeared here. 

This is not generally known, but we have people on our staff who 
are working with them and report to them and meet with their staff 
on the hard-to-reach groups. 

Now, I think that is one of the places or areas that we fall down on 
as public recreation people in America, that we take the people as they 
come in, but we make no effort to go out and get those hard-to-reach 
groups that are causing a lot of the difficulty and who are a small 
percentage of that we talked about. 

We have four, we should have more, that go out. They have no 
center, they have no place they report to, but they work in the areas 
where the Crime Prevention Association says there is greatest delin- 
quency. 

The youngsters they contact do not know they work for us. A lot 
of our people do not know because we do not want it to be known 
that we are just interested in that aspect, because the parents of some 
of the youngsters will say they are just trying to get in those delin- 
quent children. 

We think we can work quietly and effectively with them. We are 
not worried about the credit. We just want to see that the job is done. 

The CiiAiR^iAN. Thank you very much for your appearance here. 

Mr. Crawford, thank you for your patience. I have been watching 
out here as other witnesses have testified and I know what it is to be 
a witness and have to await your turn. 

Mr. Cra^vtord. I enjoyed it very much. Senator. 

The ChairjNIan. Now, is Commissioner Wise in the room yet? I 
understand he will be here in a few moments. 

We have a witness here who has asked to be heard, Mr. Keller of the 
Keller Foundation for Youth Protection. 

Do you want to take the witness stand? Will you be sworn, sir? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. ICeller. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES KELLER, KELLER FOUNDATION FOR YOUTH 
PROTECTION, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Have a seat and state your full name and address 
for the record. 
Mr. Keller. James S. Keller, 3929 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 205 

I am going to have to ask you gentlemen not to expect too much in 
the way of letters from a man whose education is limited to the sixth 
gi'ade and from there on penitentiary self-taught. 

1 was raised in a cradle of delinquency, passed over that very fine 
borderline into the field of crime. Going down that vicious path I 
picked up drug addiction, alcoholism. So I sit here before you not only 
an ex-olt'ender, but an ex-criminal, convict, drug user, and drunkard, 
ex-mobster, ex-gangster. 

I have served 21 years and 4 months in prison. I know every step a 
child takes from his first offense to the very shadow of the electric 
chair. 

1 can tell a child more about the life of crime in 30 minutes' time than 
any so-called book authority can in the rest of his life. That is a direct 
challenge. 

I have listened to much of the testimony. I got quite a bit out of it, 
liked some of it, disliked a lot of it. 

The Chairman. What did you dislike about it? 

Mr. Keller. Mostly it is that we are trying to combat crime, we are 
trying to control it more than we are to prevent it. 

I am the creator of what is called the nine-tentacle octopus, America's 
must to prevent juvenile offenders. 

The Chairman. You have to do both, do you not ? 

Mr. Keller, No ; not necessarily. Where the seeds of wrongdoing 
are sown, the best you can hope to do is control it. Seeds sown today 
might not germinate for 5 years. 

I learned that in my own life. There was one gentleman here this 
afternoon who spoke very glowingly of the Catholic Church setup. 
I, too, am a Protestant. But I thank God that I met a Catholic 
priest in Sing Sing Prison who told me, with very well-chosen words 
bluntly spoken, how I was on the wrong foot and why I was on the 
wrong foot. 

He taught me how to take a personal inventory with a ledger sheet 
and a mirror. I thought that it was a lot of apple sauce at the time, 
but I finally did it, and it changed the whole course of my life. 

Now, I have 10 years behind me that I am very, very proud of. 

I have spoken 387 times on my program. I carry 60 or 70 endorse- 
ments, as fine as men can possibly pen. But still better, I have the 
endorsements of 5,000 teen-age kids — the kids go for me in a big way. 

We have made surveys, issued a questionnaire, 23 questions relative 
to the subject of what we so erroneously call juvenile delinquency. 

I detest that nauseating phrase. There is no such thing as a 
juvenile delinquent. Lord, I wish that would be corrected. 

The Chairman. Well, the Chair agrees with you, sir. I think 
it is an unfortunate term. 

Mr. Keller. Thank you, sir. 

When I started this work 7i/^ years ago, the onset age of the juvenile 
offender was 91/2 years. Today statistics and educators tell us it has 
dropped to 5l^ years. 

Now, how can you or any other adult look at a child 51/^ years old, 
in the face, or, for that matter, 91/2 years old, in the face, and say 
"You are delinquent in your duty to society"? 

It does not make sense. As an offender, yes, and mostly because 
you aufl I have been negligent, indifferent, and delinquent in our 



206 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

duties to him. We will not recognize the Ccausative factors that are 
inciting to the extent of motivating our children into wrongdoing. 

Now, I am not getting paid for this work. I put in 7 rugged years 
fighting, fighting. Every organization that has been at this board 
today knows of the Keller Foundation. They would like to run me 
out of Philadelphia because they do not like the way I talk. I am 
a little too blunt. 

I definitely do not put the finger of accusation on our children or 
working mothers or slum areas, or the war. I put the finger of accu- 
sation on the Crime Prevention Commission in Philadelphia. I call 
them the 2 percenters. 

The Greater Philadelphia Movement, the Youth Study Center, 
the clergy and the ministerial association, those five powerful 
organizations, if they would, and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
they could change this picture overnight. 

I do not see why the Senators and the Congressmen in Washington 
do not see the harm that is being done through high-pressure adver- 
tising on habit-forming products. Now there are many people in 
this audience who remember back when a lady who smoked a cigarette 
was definitely indecent. Now through high-pressure advertising we 
have almost every lady smoking, every child smoking. 

The ironical part of it is that none of them claim that their cigarette 
is harmless, but they break their backs in bending over to prove that 
theirs is less harmful than their competitors. 

Now, we are doing the same identical thing with liquor, with beer. 

Can't we understand that this is definitely undermining the morals 
of the youth of this country ? 

I have people coming through my mobile unit. They ask me "Mr. 
Keller, what can I do? If I correct my child, he stands up and tells 
me, 'Mom, that went out with button shoes, that is corny'." 

Where do they get those expressions? Pornographic literature. 
I did not call it pornographic literature in my Octopus. I called it 
cheap literature. I did not know there was such a word as porno- 
graphic. 

Can we look at this book and feel proud of the work that we are 
doing? Have you ever read From Here to Eternity? That is a 
disgrace to human intelligence. 

Then we wonder why our children are going wrong. 

We M'ill not accept the fact that our children are impressionable, 
that their young minds are receptive and retentive. That is the 
filthiest thing I have ever read. 

We liave to clean up our newspapers and I do not exclude the 
Philadelphia Inquirer and the Telegraph. I have a scrap book of 
clippings taken f I'om it over a period of 30 days. I would defy any 
self-respecting parent to say that they would permit their child to 
read that filthy book. 

Our colored newspapers in this town are a disgrace. 

Now, the two cleanest papers in this country do not resort to filth 
to get circulation. I refer to the Christian Science Monitor, which 
many people confuse as a religious paper, which is not, as you know. 
But if you want a commercial paper, I will give you the New York 
Times. Philadelphia could well afford to follow their example because 
that is nice, clean journalism. 

What we have is filth. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 207 

The toy pistol — what constructive part does a pistol have in the 
lives of children? I know, I lived by a pistol. I was 35 years in the 
underworld. How many people know that it has a hypnotic power 
in the hands of the teen-ager today? It is ridiculous. The whole 
setup is ridiculous. 

Nothing is brought out about this. Wliy? I cannot understand it. 
Maybe I am going crazy ; maybe I don't know what I am talking about. 

Crime comic books — what constructive part has crime in a child's 
life? They are all elaborated vicious lies. 

This Is Your FBI — what right has our Government to permit its 
name to be used or its agent's names to be used to augment this selling 
of their jn-oduct, by permitting them to use This Is Your FBI ? 

That also applies to those filthy crime comics. 

I have been a criminal all my life. I know what they are talking 
about. I know what the kids are thinking in the reformatories to- 
night, what the men are thinking in the penitentiaries. Every one of 
them is antisocial. Every one of them is figuring how they are going 
to get even with you when they get out. Those are their thoughts. 

I have had them come to my office ; they tell me that. It is an awfully 
hard job to break down that resistance. Now, we could stop all this, 
but do we want to ? 

The Chairman. Of course we want to. 

Mr. Keller. I will be honest. I am not currying favor because I 
don't shoot that way. If you want an endorsement of my program 
1 will give you your own State, Riverside, N. J., where I was invited 
to be the principal speaker at the second annual banquet of the Pal 
Club. Call them up and find out how Jim Keller was received by 
those boys. 

Our kids are good kids. America is the greatest country in the 
world. I am not waving the flag when I say that. Neither am I for- 
getting that the kid of today is tomorrow's America. What kind of 
foundation are we giving him to build on? That is what I am con- 
cerned about. 

The Chairman. That is what this committee is concerned about. 

Mr. Keller. I will be honest and say I truly appreciate the sin- 
cerity and the amount of work that you gentlemen have put in since 
I have been here. It is the first time I have ever seen this type of 
sincerity expressed, and I go to every meeting in Philadelphia. 

Now, if you would like to ask me any questions, I shall be only too 
glad to answer them. 

There is my mobile unit, if you care to see it, sir. Here is my Nine 
Tentacle Octopus. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Keller, for your ap- 
pearance this afternoon. You have given the subcommittee a real 
message and a real challenge. 

Mr. Keller. I hope so, because I have taken those before 5,000 
children. If they have a champ in their corner, up or down, they will 
go like a champ. 

The Chairman. We have a great challenge. 

Mr. Keller. I respectfully request that you gentlemen use your 
influence when you get back to Washington on the Federal Trade 
Commission and Federal Communications Commission to the high- 
pressure advertising. 



208 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

The Chairman. Your reference to this literature is very significant 
because we are conducting public hearings in New York next week on 
this one subject, 

INIr. Keller. That seems to be such a difficult subject — it is not 
difficult. 

The Chairman. We are going to try to see that it is not. 

]\Ir. Keller. You know, all this likens itself to the fireworks of 40 
years ago. It was a national problem that we could not do anything 
with, an American tradition, until one little community took hold 
and passed an ordinance banning them. Other communities saw the 
value of it. Then municipalities saw it. 

The death rate, loss of life, eyes, arms, legs, fires and second and 
third degree burns, destruction of property, as you know, was terrific. 
Today there is no comparison. It is a contrast. 

This problem has to be handled the same w^ay. It cannot be 
handled nationally, I don't think. If our communities take it up 
and do their end, then we will get somewhere. 

Thank you veiy kindly, gentlemen. I crashed the party. I am 
very gi-ateful to you for making it possible. 

The Chairman. Thank you for crashing the party, Mr. Keller. 

Now, we have Commissioner Wise here. Will the Commissioner 
come forward? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you will give to this sub- 
committee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States 
Senate, will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Commissioner Wise. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RANDOLPH ENGLISH WISE, COMMISSIONER OF 
PUBLIC WELFARE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The Chairman. Will you state your full name, your address, and 
your association, for the benefit of the record ? 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, sir. My name is Eandolph English Wise. 
I reside at 6606 North Seventh Street, Philadelphia, Pa., and I am 
commissioner of the public welfare department of this city. 

The Chairman. A very important post, indeed, in a great city. 

Commissioner Wise. Well, it is a \ery challenging post, Senator. 
It is a great city. 

The Chairman. Have you a prepared statement ? 

Commissioner Wise, No, I do not. 

The Chairman. The subject of our meeting today is juvenile de- 
linquency. Do you want to proceed to discuss this problem, as you 
see it, as commissioner of public welfare? 

Commisioner Wise. Yes, I shall be happy to. 

The Chairman. In your own manner, of course. 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, sir. 

I inquired as to whether such a statement would be necessary and 
was led to believe that it w^as not obligatory. 

The Chairman. Not at all. 

Commissioner Wise. The department of public welfare here, Mr. 
Chairman, is responsible, among other things, for the care and place- 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 209 

ment of dependent, neglected, feebleminded, incorrigible, and delin- 
quent children. 

The department has a caseload of some 10,000 children, of which 
number about 7,500 are dependent and neglected children and the 
balance are feebleminded or mentally retarded children. 

The extent to which we participate actively and directly in the field 
of deliquency is not great. We meet the expenses that are incurred 
by Philadelphia children sent to the various training schools and we 
ourselves run what is known as the Pennypacker House. 

It is a division of our adult penal institution, a house of correction, 
for the care of the youthful offender between 16 and 18. We have 
both boys and girls there. 

I would like to say, Mr. Chairman, that I think Philadelphia has a 
very rich tradition in social services. I think it has a rich tradition 
in correctional services and services geared for the juvenile. 

The Chairman. It stems from the davs of Benjamin Franklin, does 
it not? 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, sir ; it does. 

One of our institutions has as the keystone a stone taken from the 
old Walnut Street Jail way back in 1934. So it is characteristic, one 
might say, of this community to have that consciousness of the needs 
of the citizens, those who live by the law and those who for some reason 
find occasion to violate that law. 

I think you have had before you representatives of a variety of those 
agencies and I am sure must be impressed with the sincerity and with 
the intelligence and rich experience that this community can call upon. 

I feel that there is an awareness as to the need of coordination of 
those resources and I cannot help but feel that this community is 
headed in that direction. 

One of the distressiiig problems our department is faced with is in 
the area of this feeble minded child and the adult mental health 
problem. 

We have heard say that the most perplexing problem to this com- 
munity, and to the others, is this tragedy of blight, delinquency and 
crime. But from where I sit one of the most disturbing problems is 
this problem of mental deficiency and the lack of adequate care. 

We come face to face with our delinquency experiences in this way. 
These children over the years have been determined mentally deficient 
by a clinical staff of the municipal court. They are committed to the 
department of public welfare for placement in one of the State train- 
ing schools for the mentally deficient. Those training: schools are 
filled. 

So we are advised that we must keep these children on the waiting 
list. These children are either kept on that waiting list in their own 
homes, or in foster homes. 

We had no idea as to how long this waiting period was, but we were 
very much concerned about it and had a study conducted. That study 
disclosed that the average waiting period was 5 years 4 months, before 
this mentally deficient child could get into the appropriate institution. 

Consequently, while he is in the foster home he would get no guid- 
ance and eventually would be picked up by the police and brought to 
the youth study center. It is harassing to the department, to the 
foster parents, to the youth study center. 



210 Jin'ENILE DELINQUENCY 

It was not created to accommodate that kind of child. 

Here we are within those very definite limitations. We do the best 
we can for this type of child. No locality in Pennsylvania can build 
a facility to accommodate that kind of child. 

The State Mental Health Act imposes the responsibility entirely 
within the State framework. We are hopeful that this distressing 
condition will be relieved soon, but certainly that relief will not come 
tomorrow by any means. 

The Chairman. Is there any way in which the Federal Government, 
Commissioner, can help in this field of which you speak ? 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, Senator. I think the Federal Govern- 
ment can make a very real contribution through its support or active 
direction in an area I think has long been neglected. I think we have 
too long considered the solution to these problems, to the problem of 
the mentally deficient and the problem of the delinquent, as institu- 
tional training only. 

I think science has to be credited with certain advances whereby a 
segment of this grouping of mentally deficient can be treated at the 
community level. 

We may have inadequately trained children, but we have trainable 
children in that group, I am sure. 

Some sort of assistance through grants-in-aid or some Federal sup- 
port to local boards of education or local boards of health to assist 
them in setting up this program of training for that grouping of these 
mentally deficient children, who would respond to training, I think 
would be a very substantial contribution on the part of the Common- 
wealth. 

Senator, if I may go to another item, I am sure your committee 
has considered, that is, the question of the runaway child. 

The Chairman. I was going to ask about that, because I knew you 
participated in a forum in Atlantic City on that subject. 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, sir. 

Senator, we, I suppose being the industrial community we are, and 
being located where we are, that is not a little problem with us. Re- 
cently we have had to return a seventeen year old to Puerto Rico, 
to the community of her residence. 

Not so long ago within the past year we had to return an Eskimo 
girl to Nome, Alaska. 

If we get many of those our department is going to go broke. 

The Chairman. California suffers from this same problem in a very 
materia] way. 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, sir; I can well appreciate it does. But if 
some help could be provided to localities for those cases involving run- 
away children who cross State lines, I know the localities would be 
eternally grateful. 

Some effort, I understand, has been made in that direction within the 
past few years, but I suppose it depends upon the State setting up one 
agency to coordinate this program. 

I do not think we have reached that point yet in Pennsylvania. 

The Chairman. I might say, Commissioner, our staff is studying 
this whole problem very intensely. I hope we will have some Federal 
legislation for consideration at least in the next session of Congress. 

Commissioner Wise. I am delighted to hear that and I am sure 
their consideration is much more decisive than my own. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 211 

The Chairman. We hope some Federal legislation will come out 
of this hearing. 

Commissioner Wise. I hope the committee will be successful. 

Related to that very question, I think it would be well for your 
committee to have some knowledge and perhaps you have had this 
information already, as to what Pennsylvania has done about the 
runaway father. There is no question that that problem has been 
brought to your attention previously and I would most strongly urge 
that your committee use its influence in having the Commissioners of 
the District of Columbia become a signatory to that compact which 
now embraces 47 States. 

I understand only the State of Nevada at this time and the District, 
are the absent members from the compact. 

The Chairman. That is my understanding, too. 

Commissioner Wise. To enhance that very purpose, Pennsylvania 
has enacted legislation known as the Pennsylvania civil procedural 
support law and it, in effect, would attain the same objectives as would 
the uniform reciprocal endorsement of support law. 

I believe that is the name of the Federal law. It brings together 
the counties in a cooperative move to control this problem. 

The law will provide, among other things, for the creation of 
domestic-relations courts and probation staffs in those counties that 
do not have them. It provides for employers to respond to the court, 
to deduct portions of salary from the employee's wages, to have all 
interested parties respond to the court, and although its life is ex- 
tremely brief as of this moment, I cannot help but feel that it will 
be a very beneficial and very effective device in the control of this 
problem that has been so distressing. 

I think the district attorney's office in this city has made a formidable 
step forward within very limited means, within a very limited struc- 
ture, in implementing the provisions of this act. 

I do not know if other States have anything comparable, but I 
would like to feel that the experence here in Pennsylvania will serve 
as a stimulus rather for other States to adopt similar legislation. 

The Chairman. That is one of the things that this subcommittee is 
trying to do, trying to promote and stimulate the desire on the part 
of the States for more uniform laws in this field, in this area, because 
we feel that if the laws were more uniform they would be more easily 
enforced and better administered. 

I do not know what your thoughts on this subject are. 

Commissioner Wise. Again I wish the committee every success in 
attaining that very worthwhile goal. 

I would like to depart just a moment, if I may, sir, to sort of revert 
to a national experience I have had regarding this problem. Pre- 
viously I was on the staff of the National Probation and Parole Asso- 
ciation. I believe you have had testimony from that organization. 
It is a splendid organization. They have been very helpful to us in 
our work. They have made a very great contribution in this field 
and it is current history, one might say. 

Only in the past year did the director of that organization die, and 
he is the man who saw the first juvenile court created in this country. 
It is a current and rich experience. 

As I recall my experience with that organization, of the 3,075 coun- 
ties throughout the country — am I correct in that, roughly, 3,175, or 



212 JUVENILE DELINQUENUY 

3,075 — 45 percent of those counties had probation services for chil- 
dren, 65 percent had probation services for adults, which means that 
a large percent of our children who get into trouble were doing 
without the very distinctive services and help that probation officers 
can give. 

I have no accurate figures, but I know that the detention facilities 
were infinitely less than that percentage for the children involved with 
the law. 

I cannot help but feel that if this committee could be responsible in 
some way in bringing grants-in-aid to probation and detention per- 
sonnel throughout the country, that it would be a tremendous con- 
tribution to assure that nationwide, those minimum standards that 
we all like to feel that every youngster in this country would receive 
in the event he got into difficulty, would be available nationwide. 

The Chairman. I appreciate that observation. We are thinking 
very strongly along those lines. 

Commissioner Wise. I am delighted to hear that, Senator. 

I do not know if there are any questions you may have, sir. I hate 
to burden you. 

The Chairman. I have one question. Of course, you know Judge 
Bolitha Laws very well, do you not? 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Judge Laws said before this subcommittee last Fri- 
day, with his committee present, that we had about 7,000 probation 
officers in the country and we needed about 40,000. 

Would you agree with that statement? 

Commissioner Wise. Yes, sir ; I would. I think that is on the basis 
of a rat'ier conservative estimate. I think if one were to base that es- 
timate on standards prescribed by the agencies qualified to prescribe, 
one officer per 75 case units, a case unit being 1 person under super- 
vision or an investigation, counting as 5 ; in other words, a caseload 
would be 50 probationers or parolees per month plus 5 investigations 
per month — if one were to adhere to that standard, I think that esti- 
mate would be nearer 25,000. 

The .Chairman. Thank you, Commissioner. 

Mr. Bobo, do you have any questions? 

Mr. BoBO. No, Mr. Chairman. 

I'he Chairman. We are grateful to you for coming here today. 
You have made a contribution to this record. 

Commissioner Wise. I add to many otliers my admiration for the 
great work you are doing, and I wish you every success in its success- 
ful completion. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir, from the bottom of a full and 
grateful heart. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, we bring to a close the Philadelphia 
testimony. In my opinion as chairman of this subcommittee, this 
has been one of the most successful community hearings held to date. 

We have heard from your leading citizens, your key representatives 
of the police, the courts, the institutions, the social agencies, and 
individual parents. 

I was particularly very much impressed by the testimony of Mrs. 
Giodono and Mrs. Johnson, the two mothers who are concerned in 
doing something positive about the children in their neighborhood. 



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 213 

There is only so much that Federal, State, and local officials can do. 
Legislation is only part of the answer. 

Until the mothers and fathers begin at home, there is little hope. 

The importance of appropriate Federal action has been forcibly 
presented to this subcommittee by several witnesses here in Phila- 
delphia. We shall have before the next session of the Congress legis- 
lation regarding deserting fathers. Other legislation may be con- 
sidered as we continue our hearings across the country. 

I am in agreement with Mr. Finnegan of the Crime Prevention 
Association and others who pointed up the need for a national setting 
of standards and the development of adequate reporting and statistical 
services. 

Several witnesses pointed up the need for Federal funds. We must 
certainly should spend at least as much money on our children as we 
do on our highways. Our children are the most precious resources we 
have. We must as a people be willing to invest not only thought and 
concern, but money in making it possible for the next generation to 
carr}^ its burden which may be even heavier than the one we carry, 
and I suppose it will be heavier. 

I sincerely hope that these hearings have helped point up some of 
the serious problems facing the great city of Philadelphia and the 
Nation today. 

Yesterday, there was a dramatic presentation of one facet of the 
complex problems to be faced in helping to prevent delinquency. 
The curbing of taprooms, the easy transfer of tavern licenses are 
problems which have been called to the attention of the people of the 
city of Philadelphia. 

I feel certain that the citizens of Philadelphia will take quick and 
appropriate action on these and other acute problems which have been 
highlighted by this subcommittee investigation here. 

This morning we heard excellent testimony from people intimately 
acquainted with your juvenile court. The fact that the juveniles wait 
for weeks, sometimes months, to be tried and then are given only 2 or 3 
or 5 minutes before a juvenile court to me is deplorable. 

The courts cannot function unless there are adequate probation 
facilities and resources in the community and State to make proper 
disposition of the cases which are before them. 

Tlie courts need the kind of interest displayed by representatives of 
the Greater Philadelphia movement. 

Judge Hazel Brown, President Judge of your municipal court, has 
welcomed this public interest in support of better services to you. 

The picture presented to this subcommittee in Philadelphia is not 
in all ways discouraging. Positive preventative measures are being 
taken here. That is seli-evident from the testimony. 

Mr. Rosenbaum and Mr. Bernstein told us yesterday of the kind of 
technique in working with boy groups that warrant serious study 
by all of the people of Philadelphia concerned with helping youngsters. 

Philadelphia may want to expand Operation Street Corner in terms 
of the city rather than in terms of just one or more blocks of the city. 

Mr. Lourie told us that institutional care need not be punitive. The 
training school need not be training for the next step to the reformatory 
or to the prison. 

Children can be helped if we have the skilled personnel and the 
money to help youngsters in trouble. 



214 JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

As the Commissioner has testified here this afternoon, we need more 
skilled help and help in the probation field. 

We have learned that Philadelphia recognized the importance of 
snch tangibles as housing and recreation facilities. The self-help 
housing program of the Friends Neighborhood Guild is of particular 
interest to me and to this subcommittee in its entirety. 

1 wish to take this opportunity to state that the city of Philadelphia 
has demonstrated real leadership in seeking the best possible talent, 
legardless of residence. Mr. Crawford, a deputy commissioner of 
recreation, Mr. Schermer, executive director of the human relations 
commission, are two of your imports who have come here with a wealth 
of experience in their respective fields. 

You have been most helpful here in Philadelphia to this subcom- 
mittee. We hope that we have helped not only to stimulate interest, but 
also to serve as a catalytic agent. 

We hope that the local and State action will be the result of our being 
here. 

I promise you that as chairman of the subcommittee, I shall push for 
action in the Congress in Washington. We shall study the transcript 
of these hearings with great care in the immediate future. 

In these past 2 days we have gained a lot. In compliance with the 
express wish of Mayor Clark, a copy of the transcript will be sent to 
him for study. A senior member of my staff will be available to meet 
with the mayor at his convenience if our heavy schedules of hearings 
across the country permit. 

We hope to return to Philadelphia, as I fully realize that in these 
2 brief days we have only touched a few high spots. 

I wish to express my deep and sincere appreciation for the forthright 
and meaningful testimony we have had the privilege to hear during the 
past 2 days. 

I want to thank the press and the radio and the television stations 
for their complete and helpful cooperation. 

I now declare the hearing adjourned. 

(Thereupon, at 5 : 25 p. m., the subcommittee was adjourned.) 



BOSTON PUBLIC L ird 

3 jmmiiii 

»»yy 06350 383 1 






1"^ - }W-y